Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Acanthosis Nigricans: A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.Ovarian Function Tests: Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Paramethasone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)
Hirsuties coronae glandis: Hirsuties coronae glandis (also known as "hirsutoid papillomas" and "pearly penile papules") are small protuberances that may form on the ridge of the glans of the human penis. They are a harmless anatomical variation.Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.OligomenorrheaHair removal: Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.Cyproterone acetateSkin flora: The skin flora, more properly referred to as the skin microbiota, are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. Most research has been upon those that reside upon the 2 square metres of human skin, cf.Mercian Way: The Mercian Way is a long cycle path that runs from Salisbury in Wiltshire to Chester in Cheshire. Operated by Sustrans, it is part of National Cycle Route 45, but is also well used by walkers.CortodoxoneExcess ovarian androgen release syndrome: Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome (also known as "Ovarian SAHA syndrome")is a cutaneous condition usually seen in young women between the ages of 16 and 20.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyGeorge J. ZimmermannMoxestrolAcanthosis nigricansAndrogen deprivation therapy: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also called androgen suppression therapy, is an antihormone therapy whose main use is in treating prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells usually require androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to grow.AndrostenedionePrenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.Hair analysisHormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Paramethasone
(1/185) Clinical outcome after unilateral oophorectomy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
The objective of this study is to report retrospectively on the clinical outcome of unilateral oophorectomy in 14 women with polycystic ovary syndrome who had undergone this treatment 14-18 years ago in our hospital for clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation and long standing infertility or for severe hirsutism. The main outcome measures were menstrual cycle, pregnancy, hirsutism, testosterone concentrations, and premature ovarian failure. Unilateral oophorectomy restored regular menstrual cycles in 12 of the 14 patients. Thirteen years later, nine out of 12 patients still had regular menstrual cycles. Ten patients wished to become pregnant. Seven of them conceived spontaneously. Eleven patients complained of severe hirsutism. After unilateral oophorectomy, hirsutism regressed subjectively in six. Testosterone blood concentrations decreased significantly within the first year after unilateral oophorectomy in 11 patients. None of the women entered menopause within 14-18 years after surgery. Our results indicate that unilateral oophorectomy restores ovulatory function for many years in the majority of patients and does not result in premature ovarian failure. However, unilateral oophorectomy should not be recommended as a standard treatment for clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. (+info)
(2/185) Comparison of finasteride versus flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of finasteride and flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and with idiopathic hirsutism. DESIGN: Randomized study. PATIENTS: One hundred and ten hirsute patients were selected: 64 women with PCOS and 46 with idiopathic hirsutism. METHODS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive 5mg finasteride once daily or 250mg of flutamide twice daily, for 12 consecutive months. Hirsutism was evaluated at 12 months of therapy, with the Ferriman-Gallwey score and with measurement of the terminal hair diameters (microm) taken from four different body areas. Blood samples were taken for assessment of endocrine and hematochemical parameters. Side effects were monitored during the treatment. RESULTS: Both finasteride and flutamide induced a significant decrease in the hirsutism scores and hair diameters at the end of 12 months. Finasteride reduced the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 31.4% in the PCOS cases and by 34.2% in the idiopathic hirsutism cases, and hair diameter by 27.0-34.1% in PCOS and by 29.6-37.9% in idiopathic hirsutism. Flutamide reduced the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 56.7% in PCOS and by 50.9% in idiopathic hirsutism, and hair diameter by 50. 3-60.0% in PCOS and by 47.7-56.5% in idiopathic hirsutism. Flutamide did not induce hormone variations, while finasteride increased testosterone levels by 40% in PCOS and by 60% in idiopathic hirsutism and decreased 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3alpha-diolG) by 66.7% in PCOS and by 69.5% in idiopathic hirsutism. No important side effects or changes in the hematochemical parameters were observed with finasteride, while two patients (3.6%) in the flutamide group expressed abnormal transaminase levels after 6 months of treatment. Dry skin also appeared significantly more with flutamide (67.3%) than with finasteride (23.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Both drugs are effective in the treatment of hirsutism but flutamide is more effective than finasteride. (+info)
(3/185) Three cases of macroprolactinaemia.
A woman with hirsutism but otherwise symptom-free was found to have a raised serum prolactin and a pituitary microadenoma. The hyperprolactinaemia persisted despite bromocriptine therapy and subsequent pituitary surgery, which yielded a non-functioning adenoma. After a further 15 years with persistent hyperprolactinaemia but no symptoms, macroprolactinaemia was diagnosed. Such cases might account for part of the failure rate of pituitary microsurgery for prolactinoma. Testing for macroprolactinaemia is advisable in a woman with hyperprolactinaemia, especially if her ovulatory cycle is normal. Two other cases are reported in which macroprolactinaemia was associated with menstrual disturbances and other hormonal effects: in these, treatment with dopamine agonists suppressed the hyperprolactinaemia and restored normal menstrual cycles. (+info)
(4/185) Use of a long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in a postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism due to a hilus cell tumour.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prove the utility of GnRH analogues for the suppression of androgen secretion in a postmenopausal woman with a suspected virilizing ovarian tumour. DESIGN AND METHODS: We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with virilization of recent onset. Hormonal studies revealed a fourfold increase in serum testosterone levels, normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations and high levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. Computed axial tomography scan of the ovaries was normal and the adrenal glands showed a discrete enlargement. The long-acting GnRH analogue, triptorelin, was injected initially (3.75mg i.m.) and serum hormone levels were measured weekly throughout one month. RESULTS: GnRH produced a decrease in serum testosterone levels to normal values, in parallel with the suppression of serum LH and FSH concentrations. The patient was treated for three months with triptorelin and she experienced an amelioration of the hyperandrogenic symptoms. In order to achieve a diagnosis, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a small hilus cell tumour in the left ovary. CONCLUSION: GnRH analogues may offer a good therapeutic option in some states of gonadotrophin-dependent hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin. (+info)
(5/185) The best correlation of the new index of hyperandrogenism with the grade of increased body hair.
OBJECTIVE: Hyperandrogenemia is the most frequent endocrine disorder in fertile women causing a variety of negative metabolic disturbances. Establishing the diagnosis of androgen overproduction has important implications for the follow-up and treatment of patients. The aim of our study was to identify the optimal laboratory marker of androgen production by correlating the markers to the presence or grade of increased body hair as a clinical sign of hyperandrogenism. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: A total of 62 women with acne were included into the study. The serum concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated. The index of free testosterone (IFT) and a new index of hyperandrogenism (IHA) were calculated. The monitored laboratory markers were correlated to the presence or grade of increased body hair using several statistical methods. RESULTS: The statistical significance of differences between the average levels of laboratory markers between hirsute and non-hirsute women decreased in the following order: IHA, androstenedione and DHEA. Of all the above laboratory markers, only increased IHA was present significantly more often in hirsute women. The significance of correlation between the grade of increased body hair and the tested variables decreased in the following order: IHA, IFT, DHEA, androstenedione, DHEAS and testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical marker of hyperandrogenism correlates most closely to IHA, reflecting the levels of all commonly determined androgens or androgen precursors and SHBG. Its simple calculation makes IHA a suitable tool for determining total production of androgens in clinical practice, especially in cases with borderline elevations of values. (+info)
(6/185) Routine radioimmunoassay of plasma testosterone, and results for various endocrine disorders.
We describe a modification of published methods for radioimmunoassay of plasma testosterone. This simpler method involves no chromatographic steps, and the necessary reagents, including tritiated testosterone and testosterone anti-serum, are commercially available. A digital computer is used for the calculation. Without difficulty, a technician can complete 100 assays in three working days. Mean testosterone concentrations (plus or minus 2 SD) in the plasmas of 21 normal men and 26 women with a normal menstrual cycle were 684 plus or minus 300 and 45 plus or minus 20 ng/dl, respectively. Within- and between-assay precision (coefficient of variation) were 5.2% (n = 29) and 6.7% (n = 26), respectively. We have assayed more than 1000 samples during the past year. We give data on the concentrations of testosterone in plasma of patients with various endocrine disorders. (+info)
(7/185) Efficacy of the combination ethinyl oestradiol and cyproterone acetate on endocrine, clinical and ultrasonographic profile in polycystic ovarian syndrome.
This study shows the effect of a long-term treatment (60 cycles) with the ethinyl oestradiol/cyproterone acetate pill, and the follow-up after 6 months from cessation, in polycystic ovarian syndrome. The 140 studied women had polycystic ovaries and moderate or severe acne, 108 also presented hirsutism. The endocrine profile significantly modified after six cycles (P < 0.001), with a further significant decrease of gonadotrophins, oestrogens and androgens after 12 cycles, and a greater increase of sex hormone-binding globulins and insulin-like growth factor-binding globulins. Between the 12th and 60th cycle there was only a significant reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (P < 0.05). Acne disappeared in all patients within 12-24 cycles, but hirsutism was still present in 30.6% after 60 cycles. Mild-moderate hirsutism disappeared in 36-60 cycles, whereas severe hirsutism substantially decreased, but persisted. Ovarian volume, microcyst numbers and stroma percentage significantly decreased (P < 0.01). After 6 months from the end of the therapy, endocrine parameters were identical to the starting ones, acne and hirsutism reappeared, whereas ovarian morphology was between the initial and final condition. Ovaries were polycystic in 42 (30%) patients and multifolliculars in 98 (70%). Our results show the effectiveness of this combination on androgenic symptoms, especially on acne, and suggest that acne and hirsutism are induced by different peripheral mechanisms. (+info)
(8/185) Does obesity diminish the positive effect of oral contraceptive treatment on hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome?
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an obvious indication for long-term treatment. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) remain the first choice for the treatment of hyperandrogenism in most patients. However, differences in endocrine and metabolic parameters between obese and lean patients have been postulated. This is the first study evaluating the effect of COC treatment in obese versus non-obese PCOS patients. In total, 28 lean [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2))] and 15 obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) women patients were enrolled in the study. The concentrations of androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and lipids were measured before and after 6 months of treatment with COC containing low-androgenic progestins. Clinical androgenic symptoms were monitored. There was a lower concentration of SHBG in obese patients, but there were no differences in androgen concentrations between both groups before the study. Highly significant changes in concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.001), androstenedione (P < 0.0001), SHBG (P < 0.001) and LH (P = 0.01) were demonstrated in lean patients, with only less significant changes in SHBG (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) in obese patients during the study. Clinical androgenic symptoms improved significantly (P = 0.05) only in the group of lean women. No reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio was observed in either group. In conclusion, the positive effect of COC treatment on androgen production, serum androgen binding capacity, and clinical androgenic symptoms was negatively influenced by an increased BMI. (+info)