GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13: A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2: A PERTUSSIS TOXIN-sensitive GTP-binding protein alpha subunit. It couples with a variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, has been implicated in INTERLEUKIN-12 production, and may play a role in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.rap GTP-Binding Proteins: A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Guanine NucleotidesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.rab2 GTP-Binding Protein: A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.ral GTP-Binding Proteins: A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.rab3A GTP-Binding Protein: The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.rab4 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMagnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.

*  gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits

Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins*gi go gtp binding protein ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins , gtp binding protein alpha subunits , gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... gtp binding protein alpha subunits*cyclic amp*knockout mice*g12 g13 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*patch clamp techniques* ... gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits. Summary. Summary: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that ...

*  EDG1 is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor that is linked via a Gi/o to multiple signaling pathways, including...

Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Type C Phospholipases. *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go ... These results indicate that EDG1, a member of the EDG family G protein-coupled receptors, is a specific, high-affinity SP ... EDG1 is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor that is linked via a Gi/o to multiple signaling pathways, including ... SP also activated mitogen-activated protein kinase in CHO-EDG1 cells in pertussis toxin-sensitive and Ras-dependent manners. To ...

*  Faculty Collaboration Database - SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Structural basis for nucleotide exchange in heterotrimeric G proteins. ...

GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors. Humans ... We find that the G protein α subunit Ras and helical domains-previously observed to separate widely upon receptor binding to ... Protein Structure, Secondary. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Signal Transduction. View this ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay diverse extracellular signals into cells by catalyzing nucleotide release from ...

*  Manning D. G proteins : techniques of analysis :: ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ??

... alpha] subunits in mammalian cells / Catherine H. Berlot Identification of regulators and targets of G protein [alpha] subunits ... Agonist-promoted (??S)GTP[gamma]S-binding as a probe of receptor-G protein communication in reconstituted Sf9 cells / Alastair ... Analysis of receptor-G protein coupling with pertussis toxin-resistant mutants of Gi and Go / Albrecht Moritz and Ronald ... Fatty acid acylation of G protein [alpha] subunits / Philip B. Wedegaertner ADP-ribosylation of G proteins with cholera toxin ...

*  Active Bordetella pertussis Pertussis Toxin (ARTC) Protein, Native | ABIN2452202

Protein. Species: Bordetella pertussis. Source: Bordetella pertussis. Order product ABIN2452202. ... PT catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins Gi, Go, ... 1. Studies on the signal transduction of the trimeric GTP binding proteins. 2. Therapeutic role in treating a number of ... Protein Name Pertussis Toxin (ARTC) Origin Bordetella pertussis. Source Bordetella pertussis. Protein Type Native Biological ...

*  Initiation of Plasmodium sporozoite motility by albumin is associated with induction of intracellular signaling

Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venom, mimics receptors by activating GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) J Biol ... CT acts directly on the alpha subunit of stimulatory G proteins (Gαs), a physiological substrate for CT, while CT has little ... Regulation of Gi and Go by mastoparan, related amphiphilic peptides, and hydrophobic amines. Mechanism and structural ... Mastoparan may activate GTP hydrolysis by Gi-proteins in HL-60 membranes indirectly through interaction with nucleoside ...

*  Ggamma1 - Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit gamma-1 precursor - Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) - Ggamma1 gene &...

The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector ... G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. ... G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.. Protein-protein interaction databases. The Biological General ... GO - Biological processi. *apical protein localization Source: FlyBase ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for ...

*  Coupling of ATP-sensitive K+ channels to A1 receptors by G proteins in rat ventricular myocytes | Heart and Circulatory...

... and found that alpha i1, alpha i2, and alpha i3 mimicked the effect of GTP gamma S, but not alpha o or Gs, suggesting that Gi ... current is thought to be regulated by GTP-binding proteins (G proteins), but the pathways that couple receptor, G protein, and ... To determine which G protein, we applied G alpha subunits, preactivated with GTP gamma S to the cytoplasmic side of membrane ... You are going to email the following Coupling of ATP-sensitive K+ channels to A1 receptors by G proteins in rat ventricular ...

*  Biology-Online • View topic - The Fiber Disease

... identical to elongation factor 1B alpha-subunit (Arabidopsis thaliana) GI:6686821 (AT5G19500.1) tryptophan/tyrosine permease ... gene in Aspergillus nidulans and Neuropora crassa indicates that this gene codes for a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding protein ... similar to Translation initiation factor eIF-2B gamma subunit (eIF-2B GDP-GTP exchange factor) [Gallus gallus] (GB:XP_422427.1 ... Where should we go to get tested and analyzed for this modified bio crap? Solid proof. Yes you have a video, and yes you could ...

*  Rps27a - Ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Rps27a gene & protein

When covalently bound, it is conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a monomer (monoubiquitin), a ... Ubiquitin is usually conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues ... When polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, ... when attached to a target protein, have different functions depending on the Lys residue of the ubiquitin that is linked: Lys-6 ...

*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Xuehua Xu

Imaging G Protein-coupled Receptor-mediated Chemotaxis and its Signaling Events in Neutrophil-like HL60 Cells' ... Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum', ' ... Binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4 triggers activation of heterotrimeric Gi proteins that regulate actin polymerization and migration. ... leads to the dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins into Gα and Gβγ subunits, which go on to regulate various effectors ...

*  TUBA4B Gene - GeneCards | TUBA4B Pseudogene

... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of ... Each microtubule is polarized; at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other, beta-subunits are exposed (+). ... Increased G1 DNA content. *Increased number of mitotic cells. *Decreased Salmonella enterica Typhimurium invasion ...

*  RCSB PDB - 1CIP: GI-ALPHA-1 SUBUNIT OF GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEIN COMPLEXED WITH A GTP ANALOGUE Structure...

GI-ALPHA-1 SUBUNIT OF GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEIN COMPLEXED WITH A GTP ANALOGUE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1cip/pdb ... PROTEIN (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA-1 SUBUNIT) A 353 Rattus norvegicus Gene Name(s): Gnai1 Gnai-1 ... Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand ... Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand ...

*  eIF2gamma - Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 3 - Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) - eIF2gamma gene &...

Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 ... This complex binds to a 40S ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S pre-initiation complex. ... In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of ... eIF-2 functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. ...

*  TUBA4A Gene - GeneCards | TBA4A Protein | TBA4A Antibody

Protein Coding), Tubulin Alpha 4a, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of ... Each microtubule is polarized; at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other, beta-subunits are exposed (+). ... Increased G1 DNA content. *Decreased viability of wild-type and TP53 knockout cells ...

*  TUBA1C Gene - GeneCards | TBA1C Protein | TBA1C Antibody

Protein Coding), Tubulin Alpha 1c, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural molecule activity. An important paralog of this gene is ... Each microtubule is polarized; at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other, beta-subunits are exposed (+). ... Increased G1 DNA content. *G0/1 arrest. *Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score , -2) ...

*  UT-COM Block1 Unit1 Flashcards - Cram.com

... the integral protein cadherin fills intercellular space and bind a bundle of actin filaments inside cell by alpha actinin and ... G1/S cyclins - bind Cdks at the end of G1 and commit the cell to DNA replication. S cyclins - bind cdks during s phase and are ... 1. Influences arrangement of of proteins and lipids. 2. Foster assembly/disassembly of protein subunits and signaling complexes ... 3. Cytoplasmic flow forward, cytoskelitin shifts, cytoplasm goes from gel to sol. 4. retraction with footprint, trailing edge ...

*  GPA1 | SGD

Subunit of the G protein involved in pheromone response; GTP-binding alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein; negatively ... GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled ... cell cycle progression in G1 phase: abnormal. reduction of function. *competitive fitness: decreased ... Protein Details Protein Basic information about the protein. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein ...

*  RPS27A Gene - GeneCards | RS27A Protein | RS27A Antibody

Protein Coding), Ribosomal Protein S27a, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome. An important paralog of ... GTP hydrolysis and joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit .94 L13a-mediated translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin expression ... APC/C-Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C-Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1 ...

*  COPG1 Gene - GeneCards | COPG1 Protein | COPG1 Antibody

Protein Coding), Coatomer Protein Complex Subunit Gamma 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, ... GO:0006888. ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. TAS. --. GO:0006890. retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER. ... Oligomeric complex that consists of at least the alpha, beta, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta subunits. Interacts with ...

*  RPL11 Gene - GeneCards | RL11 Protein | RL11 Antibody

Protein Coding), Ribosomal Protein L11, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... GO:0000027. ribosomal large subunit assembly. IBA. --. GO:0000184. nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense- ... 60S ribosomal protein L11 *RPL11. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Binds to 5S ribosomal RNA (By similarity). Required for rRNA ... Alpha-Hydroxy-Beta-Phenyl-Propionic Acid. Experimental. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. Target. 0. ...

*  Guanine Nucleotide Exchange-Independent Activation of Gs Protein by β2-Adrenoceptor | Molecular Pharmacology

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of Gi alpha 1 and mutants of Gi alpha 1 in the GTP and GDP-bound ... 1) Gα subunits bind GDP or GTP (or their analogs) and hydrolyze the bound GTP to GDP in the presence of magnesium (Cassel and ... You are going to email the following Guanine Nucleotide Exchange-Independent Activation of Gs Protein by β2-Adrenoceptor ... According to the accepted model of G protein activation, the GTP-bound form of G protein is active, whereas the GDP-bound form ...

*  GNGT1 Gene - GeneCards | GBG1 Protein | GBG1 Antibody

Protein Coding), G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a ... Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs. 143675-79-0. Pertussis Toxin. Catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of Gi, Go and Gt. 70323-44-3. ... The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector ...

*  Plus it

1992) Localization of smg p25A/rab3A p25, a small GTP-binding protein, at the active zone of the rat neuromuscular junction. ... You are going to email the following Impaired Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Quantal Amplitude at the Neuromuscular Junction ... In hippocampal cultures, TTX treatment causes a decrease in mipsc amplitude, but no change in expression of the β2/3 subunits ... 2008) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates one component of competitive, experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual ...

*  Synteny conservation between the Prunus genome and both the present and ancestral Arabidopsis genomes | BMC Genomics | Full Text

TxE-G1. AT5G59840. Ras-related GTP-binding family protein epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain-containing ... These TxE map regions may represent triplicated Prunus regions that subsequently went through selective gene loss.. ... 20S proteasome alpha subunit D2. PP_LEa0027M15f. AT5G66510. bacterial transferase. PP_LEa0009C17f ... For example, all four Arabidopsis genes in groups pp77 and pp110 were FAD-binding domain-containing protein, similar to ...

Guanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.Kill Alex Cross: Kill Alex Cross is the 18th book in the Alex Cross series, following Det. Alex Cross trying to solve two crimes - the president's kidnapped children and a case of someone poisoning the water supply.GTPase: GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved G domain common to all GTPases.Leopoldo NobiliColes PhillipsSodium aluminatePertussis toxinProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.DEP domain: In molecular biology, the DEP domain (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin domain) is a globular protein domain of about 80 amino acids that is found in over 50 proteins involved in G-protein signalling pathways. It was named after the three proteins it was initially found in:Fluoride toxicitySymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Cell membraneLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.MyristoylationProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Myoblast city: Myoblast city (Mbc) is the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of the mammalian protein Dock180. Mutant mbc embryos exhibit defects in dorsal closure, cytoskeletal organization, myogenesis, and neural development.Cyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.Rho family of GTPases: The Rho family of GTPases is a family of small (~21 kDa) signaling G proteins, and is a subfamily of the Ras superfamily. The members of the Rho GTPase family have been shown to regulate many aspects of intracellular actin dynamics, and are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, including yeasts and some plants.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Rab (G-protein): The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins. Approximately 70 types of Rabs have now been identified in humans.Nucleotide exchange factor: Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Vesicular-tubular cluster: The vesicular-tubular cluster (VTC), also referred to as the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (or ERGIC), is an organelle in eukaryotic cells. This compartment mediates trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, facilitating the sorting of cargo.TransducinSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Clostridium botulinum C3 toxinMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.AB5 toxin: The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit.Exoenzyme: An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside of that cell. Exoenzymes are produced by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and have been shown to be a crucial component of many biological processes.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.GTPase-activating protein: GTPase-Activating Proteins, or GAPs, or GTPase-Accelerating Proteins are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event. GAPs are also known as RGS protein, or RGS proteins,Kimple, A.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Septin: Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins found primarily in eukaryotic cells of fungi and animals, but also in some green algae. Different septins form protein complexes with each other.Rab GDP dissociation inhibitors: In molecular biology, the Rab GDP dissociation inhibitors (Rab GDIs) constitute a family of small GTPases that serve a regulatory role in vesicular membrane traffic. C-terminal geranylgeranylation is crucial for their membrane association and function.Alpha-adrenergic agonist: An adrenergic alpha-agonist (or alpha-adrenergic agonists) are a class sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors. The alpha-adrenergic receptor has two subclasses α1 and α2.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.CS-BLASTList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.

(1/1262) Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells.

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

(2/1262) Identification and localization of G protein subunits in human spermatozoa.

Antibodies to alpha and beta subunits of guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to identify which G proteins are present in mature human spermatozoa and to determine their subcellular localization. Immunoblots of membranes from spermatozoa demonstrate the presence of Galphai2, Galphai3, Galphaq/11 and Gbeta35 and the absence of Galphai1, Galpha0, Galphas, Galpha12, Galpha13, Galpha16, Galpha and Gbeta36. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrates the presence of Galphaq/11 in the acrosome, with the highest proportion in the equatorial segment. Galphai2 is present in the acrosome, midpiece and tailpiece and Galphai3 in the postnuclear cap, midpiece and tailpiece. The Gbeta35 subunit is found mostly in the midpiece, with marginal labelling of the head, tailpiece and the equatorial segment of the acrosome. The distinct pattern of distribution of G proteins suggests that they may couple to receptors or effectors which also have discrete regions of localization in spermatozoa. These highly localized signal transduction pathways may regulate discrete functions, such as activation of the acrosome reaction, fusion with the oocyte and motility.  (+info)

(3/1262) Gi-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2)-bound dynamin-II by lysophosphatidic acid.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the prototypic G-protein-coupled receptor agonist that activates the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. We recently detected a 100 kDa protein (p100) that binds to the C-terminal SH3 domain of growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in a PTX-sensitive manner in LPA-treated Rat-1 cells [Kranenburg, Verlaan, Hordijk and Moolenaar (1997) EMBO J. 16, 3097-3105]. Through glutathione S-transferase-Grb2 affinity purification and microsequencing, we have now identified p100 as dynamin-II, a GTPase that regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that in Rat-1 cells, Grb2-bound dynamin-II is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPA in a PTX-sensitive manner. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2-bound dynamin-II may be a critical event in Gi-mediated activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade in fibroblasts.  (+info)

(4/1262) Both Gs and Gi proteins are critically involved in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

Activation of beta-adrenoreceptors induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In the present study, we examined isoproterenol-evoked intracellular signal transduction pathways leading to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Inhibitors for cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) abolished isoproterenol-evoked ERK activation, suggesting that Gs protein is involved in the activation. Inhibition of Gi protein by pertussis toxin, however, also suppressed isoproterenol-induced ERK activation. Overexpression of the Gbetagamma subunit binding domain of the beta-adrenoreceptor kinase 1 and of COOH-terminal Src kinase, which inhibit functions of Gbetagamma and the Src family tyrosine kinases, respectively, also inhibited isoproterenol-induced ERK activation. Overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of Ras and Raf-1 kinase and of the beta-adrenoreceptor mutant that lacks phosphorylation sites by PKA abolished isoproterenol-stimulated ERK activation. The isoproterenol-induced increase in protein synthesis was also suppressed by inhibitors for PKA, Gi, tyrosine kinases, or Ras. These results suggest that isoproterenol induces ERK activation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through two different G proteins, Gs and Gi. cAMP-dependent PKA activation through Gs may phosphorylate the beta-adrenoreceptor, leading to coupling of the receptor from Gs to Gi. Activation of Gi activates ERKs through Gbetagamma, Src family tyrosine kinases, Ras, and Raf-1 kinase.  (+info)

(5/1262) A decrease in the amount and function of inhibitory GTP-binding protein in the resistance small artery from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

The inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi protein) plays an important role in regulation of vascular tone. Many studies have implicated the role of Gi protein in conduit vessels. However, the physiological role of Gi protein in the control of peripheral microvascular tone in hypertension has not been established yet. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Gi protein in the peripheral resistance arteries and aorta in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR), using immunohistochemical methods semiquantitatively. Changes in the function of Gi protein in relation to alpha2-adrenoceptor were also investigated by microcannulation techniques. We have shown that the amount of alpha2 subunits of Gi protein in the cremaster small artery was significantly lower in SHR aged 4 weeks and older than in age-matched WKY and that there were no significant differences between RHR and WKY. We also demonstrated that the function of Gi protein in relation to alpha2-adrenoceptor was already lower in SHR before the onset of hypertension. The quantitative and functional decline in Gi protein in the smooth muscle cells of peripheral small arteries were observed in SHR even before the onset of hypertension, whereas rats with secondary hypertension did not exhibit this finding.  (+info)

(6/1262) The beta3-adrenergic receptor activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in adipocytes through a Gi-dependent mechanism.

Promiscuous coupling between G protein-coupled receptors and multiple species of heterotrimeric G proteins provides a potential mechanism for expanding the diversity of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. We have examined the mechanism and functional consequences of dual Gs/Gi protein coupling of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. The beta3AR selective agonist disodium (R, R)-5-[2[[2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-amino]propyl]-1, 3-benzodioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate (CL316,243) stimulated a dose-dependent increase in cAMP production in adipocyte plasma membrane preparations, and pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin resulted in a further 2-fold increase in cAMP production by CL316,243. CL316,243 (5 microM) stimulated the incorporation of 8-azido-[32P]GTP into Galphas (1.57 +/- 0.12; n = 3) and Galphai (1. 68 +/- 0.13; n = 4) in adipocyte plasma membranes, directly demonstrating that beta3AR stimulation results in Gi-GTP exchange. The beta3AR-stimulated increase in 8-azido-[32P]GTP labeling of Galphai was equivalent to that obtained with the A1-adenosine receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (1.56 +/- 0.07; n = 4), whereas inclusion of unlabeled GTP (100 microM) eliminated all binding. Stimulation of the beta3AR in 3T3-F442A adipocytes led to a 2-3-fold activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, as measured by extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) eliminated MAP kinase activation by beta3AR, demonstrating that this response required receptor coupling to Gi. Expression of the human beta3AR in HEK-293 cells reconstituted the PTX-sensitive stimulation of MAP kinase, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not exclusive to adipocytes or to the rodent beta3AR. ERK1/2 activation by the beta3AR was insensitive to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 but was abolished by genistein and AG1478. These data indicate that constitutive beta3AR coupling to Gi proteins serves both to restrain Gs-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase and to initiate additional signal transduction pathways, including the ERK1/2 MAP kinase cascade.  (+info)

(7/1262) Fyn kinase-directed activation of SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 by Gi protein-coupled receptors in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

SHP-2, an SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase, plays an important role in receptor tyrosine kinase-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation. Little is known about the activation mechanisms and the participation of SHP-2 in the activity of G protein-coupled receptors lacking intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. We show that the activity of SHP-2 (but not SHP-1) is specifically stimulated by the selective alpha2A-adrenergic receptor agonist UK14304 and by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. UK14304 and LPA promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2 and its association with Grb2. The agonist-induced direct interaction of Grb2 with SHP-2 is mediated by the SH2 domain of Grb2 and the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2. Rapid activation of Src family kinase by UK14304 preceded the SHP-2 activation. Among the Src family members (Src, Fyn, Lck, Yes, and Lyn) present in MDCK cells, Fyn was the only one specifically associated with SHP-2, and the physical interaction between them, which requires the Src family kinase activity, was increased in response to the agonists. Pertussis toxin, PP1 (a selective Src family kinase inhibitor), or overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant of Fyn blocked the UK14304- or LPA-stimulated activity of SHP-2, SHP-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and SHP-2 association with Grb2. Therefore, we have demonstrated for the first time that the activation of SHP-2 by these Gi protein-coupled receptors requires Fyn kinase and that there is a specific physical interaction of Fyn kinase with SHP-2 in MDCK cells.  (+info)

(8/1262) Interaction of amiodarone and triiodothyronine on the expression of beta-adrenoceptors in brown adipose tissue of rat.

1. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vivo the influence of amiodarone on the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) which are independent of thyroid hormone synthesis and of the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3. Thyroidectomized rats were given a replacement dose of T3 (0.5 mg kg(-1) p.o. daily for 3 days) with or without amiodarone (50 mg kg(-1) p.o. daily for 1 week). 2. As assessed by RT-PCR, treatment of thyroidectomized rats with T3 caused a 2 fold decrease in beta3-adrenoceptor (beta3-AR) mRNA levels and a 2 fold increase in beta1-AR mRNA levels. 3. Binding studies using [3H]-CGP 12177 as a ligand showed that treatment of thyoidectomized rats with T3 resulted in a 70% decrease in beta3-AR number and in an 80% increase in beta1-AR in BAT membranes. 4. T3-treatment abolished the increase in BAT adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity induced by CGP12177 in thyroidectomized rats. It also decreased the amount of Gi protein (ADP-ribosylation) by 30%. 5. At variance with the literature on the heart, amiodarone administration did not inhibit the positive effect of T3 on beta1-AR expression in BAT in thyroidectomized rats. However, it antagonized the effect of T3 on beta3-AR number, but not on AC activity or on Gi expression. 6. These results indicate that the effects of thyroid hormones on the responsiveness of BAT to catecholamines involves both receptor and post-receptor mechanisms, they also suggest that interaction between amiodarone and thyroid hormones is highly tissue-specific and depends on the beta-AR subtype.  (+info)



family of ribosomal proteins

  • Ribosomal protein S27a is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome and belongs to the S27AE family of ribosomal proteins. (genecards.org)
  • The protein belongs to the L5P family of ribosomal proteins. (genecards.org)
  • The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. (genecards.org)

intracellular

  • PT catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins Gi, Go, and Gt and prevents intracellular signal transduction involving the G proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Using pharmacological activators and inhibitors, we have concluded that gliding motility is initiated when albumin interacts with the surface of the sporozoite and that this leads to a signal transduction cascade within the sporozoite, including the elevation of intracellular cAMP, the modulation of sporozoite motility by Ca 2+ and the release of microneme proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Application of 0.1 mM ATP to the intracellular side of membrane patches reduced K+ [ATP] channel activity, and addition of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) at 0.1 mM restored activity. (physiology.org)
  • These subunits induce intracellular responses that can be highly polarized when a cell experiences a gradient of chemoattractant. (jove.com)
  • When overexpressed in neurons and fibroblasts, Pum2 induces the formation of SGs that also contain T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1)-related protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, poly(A)-binding protein, TIA-1, and other RNA-binding proteins including Staufen1 and Barentsz. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin or actin-binding/scaffolding proteins play a role in the regulation of channel activity and in their intracellular trafficking. (physiology.org)
  • 8 PYK2 was stimulated by a broad range of physiological stimuli such as stimuli for G-protein-coupled receptors that elevate intracellular Ca 2+ , 6,7 phorbol ester, inflammatory cytokines, and stress signals, including ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • NAD + , FAD, FMN), precursors of more complex molecules (e.g. the conversion of GTP to pterins and folates), intracellular second messengers (e.g. cAMP) and switch signals (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

receptors

  • These results indicate that EDG1, a member of the EDG family G protein-coupled receptors, is a specific, high-affinity SP receptor. (nih.gov)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay diverse extracellular signals into cells by catalyzing nucleotide release from heterotrimeric G proteins, but the mechanism underlying this quintessential molecular signaling event has remained unclear. (mcw.edu)
  • and mapping pathways established among receptors, G proteins, and effectors. (mexmat.ru)
  • hence K+[ATP] channels may be coupled to adenosine receptors via G proteins. (physiology.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 15563608 Activation of G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors triggers dissociation of Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits. (jove.com)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins and their cognate heptahelical membrane receptors constitute the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. (genecards.org)
  • Ub functions in a plethora of diverse signaling pathways including proteasomal degradation, endocytosis and trafficking of membrane receptors and DNA repair when conjugated to substrate proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • 9 PYK2 acts in concert with Src, which links Gi- or Gq-coupled receptors, leading to the MAP kinase pathway. (ahajournals.org)

guanine

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. (uniprot.org)
  • This gene encodes the gamma subunit of transducin, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) that is found in rod outer segments. (genecards.org)

gene

  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton . (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. (genecards.org)
  • TUBA4A (Tubulin Alpha 4a) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies ( Molecular Function , Biological Process , and Cellular Component ), a reference, and an evidence code. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes. (yeastgenome.org)
  • This gene encodes a fusion protein consisting of ubiquitin at the N terminus and ribosomal protein S27a at the C terminus. (genecards.org)
  • RPS27A (Ribosomal Protein S27a) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • COPG1 (Coatomer Protein Complex Subunit Gamma 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. (genecards.org)
  • As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. (genecards.org)
  • RPL11 (Ribosomal Protein L11) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GNGT1 (G Protein Subunit Gamma Transducin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include GTPase activity and signal transducer activity . (genecards.org)
  • Although this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L44 (RPL44), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A). (genecards.org)
  • RPL36A (Ribosomal Protein L36a) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • EIF3C (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Subunit C) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and translation initiation factor activity . (genecards.org)
  • GDP/GTP) involved in metabolic and gene regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RPL7 (Ribosomal Protein L7) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)

mRNA

  • This complex binds to a 40S ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S pre-initiation complex. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we found that Pum2 mRNA is expressed during neuronal development and that the protein is found in discrete particles in both the cell body and the dendritic compartment of fully polarized neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I) mRNA expression was assessed by RT-PCR, eNOS protein by Western blotting, NO formation by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and platelet aggregation by an aggregometer. (ahajournals.org)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), progesterone, levonorgestrel, and nomegestrol acetate prevented the 17β-estradiol (17β-E)-induced expression of eNOS mRNA and protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Activation of the mRNA upon binding of the cap-binding complex and eIFs, and subsequent binding to 43S . (genecards.org)
  • In vitro the BZIP-like domain mediates homodimerization and stable binding to DNA and RNA, with a preference for 28S rRNA and mRNA. (genecards.org)

kinase

  • EDG1 is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor that is linked via a Gi/o to multiple signaling pathways, including phospholipase C activation, Ca2+ mobilization, Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and adenylate cyclase inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • SP also activated mitogen-activated protein kinase in CHO-EDG1 cells in pertussis toxin-sensitive and Ras-dependent manners. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS We show that PIKE-A regulates obesity development by modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated cytoplasmic Ca 2+ mobilization and Ca 2+ -independent Akt activation were markedly decreased in the PYK2-deficient aortic endothelial cells, whereas the Ca 2+ -independent AMP-activated protein kinase/protein kinase-A pathway that phosphorylates endothelial NO synthase was not impaired. (ahajournals.org)
  • Binding of insulin to its receptor activates the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor (IRK), which phosphorylates Tyr residues of target proteins such as the insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 to -6), Shc proteins, Cbl, p60dok, APS, and Gab-1 ( 92 , 112 ). (physiology.org)
  • The MAP kinase cascade leads to enhanced cell growth, while the Cbl/CAP cascade mediates glucose transport through activation of the GTP-binding protein TC10 and the recruitment of the CIP4/Gappex-5 complex to the plasma membrane ( 73 ). (physiology.org)
  • Extensive study demonstrates that insulin binding to the insulin receptor (IR) causes tyrosine autophosphorylation of the IR-β subunit, increasing the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A key target of the activated IR is the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein, which provides docking sites for phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased PIP 3 activates a kinase cascade involving PIP 3 -dependent kinases (PDK1/2), which activate Akt isoforms 1, 2, and 3, as well as the atypical protein kinase isoforms λ and ζ (PKC-λ/ζ) ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)

beta-tubulin

  • They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. (genecards.org)
  • Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. (genecards.org)
  • There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. (genecards.org)
  • Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. (genecards.org)

pathways

  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate PHOSPHOLIPASE C dependent signaling pathways. (labome.org)
  • EDG1 is a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor that is linked via a Gi/o to multiple signaling pathways, including phospholipase C activatio. (nih.gov)
  • ATP-sensitive K+ (K+[ATP]) current is thought to be regulated by GTP-binding proteins (G proteins), but the pathways that couple receptor, G protein, and channel have not been defined. (physiology.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Chaperonin-mediated protein folding and Development Slit-Robo signaling . (genecards.org)

molecular

  • Microarray studies revealed upregulation of several molecular chaperone proteins, including GRP78 (also known as BiP) and GRP94, in response to mLEEK expression. (stanford.edu)
  • Molecular chaperone transcription is induced as a downstream effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR). (stanford.edu)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that expression of mLEEK and the subsequent upregulation molecular chaperones primes cells to accommodate the increased need for protein folding upon ER stress and prevents induction of the UPR. (stanford.edu)
  • Through the recent application of molecular and proteomic approaches, we now know that the interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin can either be direct or indirect, the latter being mediated through scaffolding or actin-binding proteins that serve as links between the channels and the actin-based cytoskeleton. (physiology.org)
  • In this review, we focus on the key molecular links between Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS proteins and the impairment in insulin signal transduction. (physiology.org)

receptor

  • We find that the G protein α subunit Ras and helical domains-previously observed to separate widely upon receptor binding to expose the nucleotide-binding site-separate spontaneously and frequently even in the absence of a receptor. (mcw.edu)
  • Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum Xuehua Xu 1 , Tian Jin 1 1 Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Here, we describe detailed live cell imaging methods for investigating chemotaxis. (jove.com)
  • Imaging G Protein-coupled Receptor-mediated Chemotaxis and its Signaling Events in Neutrophil-like HL60 Cells Xi Wen 1 , Tian Jin 1 , Xuehua Xu 1 1 Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Visual chemotaxis assays are essential for a better understanding of how eukaryotic cells control chemoattractant-mediated directional cell migration. (jove.com)
  • Here, we quantitatively measure temporal and spatial changes of receptor occupancy, G-protein activation by FRET imaging, and PIP3 levels by monitoring the dynamics of PH(Crac)-GFP translocation in single living cells in response to different chemoattractant fields. (jove.com)
  • β 2 -Adrenoceptor-mediated activation of G s and adenylyl cyclase or other receptor-mediated G protein activations is believed to occur by receptor-catalyzed replacement of GDP with GTP on the α-subunit of the G protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • GDP-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase, similar to that mediated by GTP, was concentration-dependent, required high magnesium concentrations, was inhibited by inverse agonists, and was correlated with the efficacy of receptor ligands used to stimulate the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We discuss the results in the context of the current paradigm of receptor-mediated G protein activation and propose an additional mode of activation for β 2 -adrenoceptor-G s adenylyl cyclase system where nucleotide exchange is not necessary and GDP and GTP play identical roles in receptor-induced G s protein activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • According to the accepted model of G protein activation, the GTP-bound form of G protein is active, whereas the GDP-bound form is inactive and the receptor-mediated exchange of GDP with GTP on the nucleotide-binding site is necessary and sufficient to initiate the activation process. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the presence of excess GDP is expected to inhibit receptor-induced G protein activation, at least partly, by competing with GTP and the potency of this inhibitory effect should be correlated with the ability of the receptor's ligand to displace GDP from Gα. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Viewed from a more rigorous standpoint, the sensitivity of receptor-mediated G protein activation to the presence of GDP should be inversely correlated with the ability of the ligand to reduce the affinity of GDP for Gα. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins on serine residues has emerged as a key step in these control processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. (physiology.org)
  • Some of these kinases phosphorylate the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. (physiology.org)
  • The latter promotes interaction of IRS proteins with the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of the insulin receptor (IR), which phosphorylates the IRS proteins at their COOH-terminal region. (physiology.org)
  • Ser phosphorylation of residues located at the PH domain interferes with binding of IRS-1 to the plasma membrane and to the receptor. (physiology.org)
  • Tyr-phosphorylated IRS proteins, the major insulin receptor substrates, function as signaling scaffolds that propagate insulin action through binding of Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins. (physiology.org)

signal transduction

  • 1. Studies on the signal transduction of the trimeric GTP binding proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This scenario implies that GTP is the natural activator of the G proteins, whereas GDP is their universal inhibitor, and that GTPase reaction is the off-switch for the G protein-mediated signal transduction. (aspetjournals.org)

heterotrimeric G protei

  • Structural basis for nucleotide exchange in heterotrimeric G proteins. (mcw.edu)

Ribosomal protein S27a

  • 40S Ribosomal protein S27a: Component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. (uniprot.org)
  • When expressed in yeast, the protein is post-translationally processed, generating free ubiquitin monomer and ribosomal protein S27a. (genecards.org)

residues

  • When covalently bound, it is conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear polyubiquitin chains). (uniprot.org)
  • Ubiquitin is usually conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues has been observed. (uniprot.org)
  • Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. (genecards.org)
  • It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
  • Prolonged insulin stimulation and other stimuli triggered by inducers of insulin resistance activate IRS kinases that phosphorylate the IRS proteins, such as IRS-1, on Ser/Thr residues. (physiology.org)
  • phosphorylation of Ser residues at the COOH-terminal region interrupts with binding of IRS-1 to its downstream effectors. (physiology.org)

precursor

  • Ubiquitin, a highly conserved protein that has a major role in targeting cellular proteins for degradation by the 26S proteosome, is synthesized as a precursor protein consisting of either polyubiquitin chains or a single ubiquitin fused to an unrelated protein. (genecards.org)

gamma

  • The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction. (uniprot.org)
  • To determine which G protein, we applied G alpha subunits, preactivated with GTP gamma S to the cytoplasmic side of membrane patches, and found that alpha i1, alpha i2, and alpha i3 mimicked the effect of GTP gamma S, but not alpha o or Gs, suggesting that Gi alpha acts via a membrane-delimited pathway. (physiology.org)
  • Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. (genecards.org)
  • The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. (genecards.org)
  • Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. (genecards.org)
  • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. (genecards.org)

hydrolysis

  • Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 and release of an eIF-2-GDP binary complex. (uniprot.org)
  • In turn, deactivation is achieved by the hydrolysis of bound GTP to GDP. (aspetjournals.org)

adenylyl cyclase

  • The potency and maximal ability of GDP to activate G s and adenylyl cyclase were identical to those of GTP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we concluded that GDP itself could mediate β-adrenoceptor-induced activation of G s -adenylyl cyclase system as much as GTP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on this obvious inference, we designed experiments to compare GDP-displacing abilities of different β 2 -adrenoceptor (β-AR) ligands in native or artificially fused β-AR-G s system by evaluating the sensitivity of ligand-induced adenylyl cyclase activity (which is well known to be mediated by G s protein) to the presence of GDP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To our surprise, however, neither in native nor in fused system expressed in S49 cyc - lymphoma cells (will be referred to as cyc - throughout the text), GDP inhibited ligand-induced adenylyl cyclase activity, despite the fact that even full agonists were not able to reduce the binding affinity of GDP to zero, as assessed by competition-binding assays (Ö Uğur and H. O. Onaran, unpublished observation). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the islet β-cells, catecholamines are reported to inhibit insulin release via multiple mechanisms: activation of α2-adrenoceptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/Go proteins resulting in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase ( 1 ), activation of hyperpolarizing K + currents ( 2 , 3 ), inhibition of Ca 2+ currents ( 4 , 5 ), and direct inhibition of exocytosis at a distal step ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This suggested that the stimulatory α-subunit of the G-protein, Gs, was at least an indirect target of antidepressant action and that antidepressant treatment facilitated the activation of adenylyl cyclase by Gs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these studies suggest that the lipid environment of the G-protein may play an important role in its localization and function, and that chronic antidepressant treatment alters the membrane localization of Gsα, resulting in augmented coupling to adenylyl cyclase. (jneurosci.org)

microtubule

  • Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is located inside the microtubule lumen. (genecards.org)

cytoskeleton

  • However, it was unclear from these studies whether the effects of actin on ion channel activity were related to actin directly binding to the channel or a channel-associated actin-binding protein or whether the observed effects were mediated through the activation or inactivation of cytoskeleton-associated second messengers. (physiology.org)
  • Na + /H + exchanger regulatory factors (NHERFs)] or actin-binding proteins (e.g., α-actinin, spectrin) that serve as a link between the channel and the actin-based cytoskeleton ( Table 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • 10 Furthermore, PYK2 binds to proteins that interact with the cytoskeleton, suggesting a role in the regulation of cellular morphology. (ahajournals.org)

guanosine

  • Transducin, also known as GMPase, mediates the activation of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase by rhodopsin. (genecards.org)

initiation factor

  • Component of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF-3) complex, which is required for several steps in the initiation of protein synthesis (PubMed:17581632, PubMed:25849773, PubMed:27462815). (genecards.org)

GTPase

  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 9 GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) Antibodies from 6 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping GTPase Activating Protein Kits (10) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 20 GTPase Activating Protein products are currently listed. (antibodies-online.com)

Drosophila

  • Pumilio (Pum) protein acts as a translational inhibitor in several organisms including yeast, Drosophila , Xenopus , and mammals. (jneurosci.org)

homology

  • Such conserved motifs include the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain that binds to proline-rich amino acid sequences (Pro-X-X-Pro) ( 62 , 82 ) and the PDZ domain, a 80- to 90-amino acid modular protein interaction domain, named after the three proteins in which this domain was first identified (PSD-95/Discs large protein/ZO-1) ( 45 , 96 ). (physiology.org)
  • IRS proteins contain a conserved pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at their NH 2 terminus followed by a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. (physiology.org)

antibodies

  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • central spindle assembly and 2 Plk1 (show PLK1 Antibodies )-dependent phosphorylations are required to establish efficient binding of the Ect2 (show ECT2 Antibodies ) BRCT in early cytokinesis. (antibodies-online.com)

molecules

  • This glutamine-rich region behaves in a similar manner as TIA-1 and prion protein, two molecules with known roles in protein aggregation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The protective effect includes an improvement of the lipid profile 1 and an inhibition of the expression of proatherosclerotic molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, 2 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, 3 endothelin-1, 4 and NADPH oxidase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tyr-phosphorylated IRS proteins then serve as docking molecules for downstream effectors such as PI3K and phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2). (physiology.org)

encode

  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same proteins have been identified. (genecards.org)

actin

  • The clustering and retention of ion channels within a particular plasma membrane domain are, in part, mediated through interactions with actin, actin-binding proteins, or scaffolding proteins. (physiology.org)
  • The interactions between epithelial ion channels and actin that have been elucidated to date are predominantly indirect, being mediated through scaffolding proteins [e.g. (physiology.org)
  • Scaffolding proteins and actin-binding proteins typically interact with ion channels through conserved, modular protein domains. (physiology.org)

ubiquitin

  • Ubiquitin: Exists either covalently attached to another protein, or free (unanchored). (uniprot.org)
  • Uba52 and Rps27a genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • similarly, ribosomal protein S30 is synthesized as a fusion protein with the ubiquitin-like protein fubi. (genecards.org)
  • The covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub), a 76-amino-acid protein, to another protein is a highly occurring and conserved post-translational modification. (stanford.edu)

synthesis

  • eIF-2 functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. (uniprot.org)
  • Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. (genecards.org)

similarity

  • In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by eIF-2B (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Binds to 5S ribosomal RNA (By similarity). (genecards.org)

motifs

  • The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. (genecards.org)

annotation

  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Complete GO annotation. (uniprot.org)

phosphorylation

  • The list of IRS kinases implicated in the development of insulin resistance is growing rapidly, concomitant with the list of potential Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in IRS proteins. (physiology.org)
  • Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS proteins inhibits their function and interferes with insulin signaling in a number of ways ( Fig. 1 ), thus leading to the development of an insulin resistance state. (physiology.org)
  • Potential consequences of Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS proteins. (physiology.org)

inhibit

  • The protein can inhibit cell-free translation of mRNAs, suggesting that it plays a regulatory role in the translation apparatus. (genecards.org)

regulator

  • Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus. (yeastgenome.org)

metabolic

  • The PI3K cascade is activated by the IRS proteins to trigger the metabolic functions of insulin. (physiology.org)

rRNA

  • The protein probably associates with the 5S rRNA. (genecards.org)
  • Required for rRNA maturation and formation of the 60S ribosomal subunits. (genecards.org)
  • Binds to G-rich structures in 28S rRNA and in mRNAs. (genecards.org)

distinct

  • When polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, and in signaling. (uniprot.org)
  • Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. (genecards.org)

kinases

  • Here, we review a range of conditions that activate IRS kinases to phosphorylate IRS proteins on "hot spot" domains. (physiology.org)
  • A variety of agents and conditions that induce insulin resistance, such as TNFα and free fatty acids, activate a number of protein kinases that target elements along the insulin-signaling pathway. (physiology.org)