Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Cinnamomum: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The bark of the trees is used in FOLK MEDICINE and FLAVORING AGENTS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Cinnamomum aromaticum: A plant species of the genus CINNAMOMUM that contains CINNAMATES and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Cinnamomum camphora: A tree, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, known as the source of CAMPHOR.Heliotropium: A plant genus in the family Boraginaceae, order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae. This is the True Heliotrope that should not be confused with an unrelated plant sometimes called Garden Heliotrope (VALERIAN).Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Archips seditiosa: Archips seditiosa is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found in western Malaysia and Java.Cinnamomum tamalaCarl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.Cinnamomum camphora: Cinnamomum camphora (commonly known as camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel) is a large evergreen tree that grows up to tall. The leaves have a glossy, waxy appearance and smell of camphor when crushed.Floppy trunk syndrome: Floppy trunk syndrome (abbreviated FTS, also known as flaccid trunk paralysis) is a condition that causes trunk paralysis in African bush elephants. Initially observed in 1989, the syndrome primarily affected bull elephants in several select regions in Zimbabwe.Black vinegar: Black vinegar is an inky-black vinegar aged for a rich, mellow, malty, woody, and smoky flavor. It was first popularized in East Asia, particularly southern China, where in the city of Zhenjiang, it became known as Chinkiang vinegar.Phytomedicine
(1/55) Inhibition of listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific production in Listeria monocytogenes by subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils.
Successful infection by Listeria monocytogenes is dependent upon a range of bacterial extracellular proteins including a cytolysin termed listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. Five plant essential oils--bay, clove, cinnamon, nutmeg and thyme--significantly reduced the production of listeriolysin O by L. monocytogenes. The greatest change was observed after culture with oil of thyme, which reduced haemolysis to 52.1 haemolytic units (HU)/ml compared with 99.8 HU/ml observed with the control. Oil of clove was the only oil that also significantly reduced phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activity. These changes were observed despite the oils causing no change to the final bacterial concentration or total extracellular protein concentration. (+info)
(2/55) Effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo.
Plant essential oils (EOs) have been reported to have health benefit properties and their preventive and therapeutic use in animals is expected to increase in the future. We evaluated the influence of five essential oils obtained from plant species which are known to have positive antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects--sage EO from Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), oregano EO from Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), thyme EO from Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), clove EO from Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) and cinnamon EO from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) on the growth and development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo. Essential oils were added to commercial diet at concentrations of 0.25% for sage EO, thyme EO, clove EO, cinnamon EO and 0.1% for oregano EO, and fed to ICR female mice for 2 weeks ad libitum. Females were then mated with males of the same strain. Embryos obtained on Day 4 of pregnancy at the blastocyst stage were stained by morphological triple staining (Hoechst, PI, Calcein-AM) and evaluated using fluorescent microscopy. The effects of essential oils were estimated by the viability of embryos, number of nuclei and distribution of embryos according to nucleus number. Cinnamon EO significantly decreased the number of nuclei and the distribution of embryos according to nucleus number was significantly altered. Sage EO negatively influenced the distribution of embryos according to nucleus number. Clove and oregano EOs induced a significantly increased rate of cell death. Only thyme EO had no detectable effects on embryo development. In conclusion, none of the essential oils had any positive effect on embryo development, but some of them reduced the number of cells and increased the incidence of cell death. (+info)
(3/55) Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients.
In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time x treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made. (+info)
(4/55) Cinnamaldehyde inhibits phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and enzymatic browning of cut lettuce.
Stored cut lettuce gradually turns brown on the cut section after several days of storage, because cutting induces phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, the biosynthesis of polyphenol is promoted, and the polyphenols are oxidized by polyphenol oxidase. In this study, we screened for inhibitors of PAL derived from fermented broths of microbes and from foods and found that a cinnamon extract definitely inhibited PLA of cut lettuce. An active component was isolated by chromatographic procedures and was identified as trans-cinnamaldehyde. Browning of cut lettuce immersed in a solution containing trans-cinnamaldehyde was definitely repressed. (+info)
(5/55) Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.
The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one. (+info)
(6/55) Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon lowers fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol, and LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the effect of cinnamon on the rate of gastric emptying, the postprandial blood glucose response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by using standardized real-time ultrasonography. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed by using a crossover trial. The subjects were examined after an 8-h fast if they had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding (GER1) or 300 g rice pudding and 6 g cinnamon (GER2). RESULTS: The median value of GER1 was 37%, and that of GER2 was 34.5%. The addition of cinnamon to the rice pudding significantly delayed gastric emptying and lowered the postprandial glucose response (P < 0.05 for both). The reduction in the postprandial blood glucose concentration was much more noticeable and pronounced than was the lowering of the GER. The effect of cinnamon on satiety was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduces postprandial blood glucose and delays gastric emptying without affecting satiety. Inclusion of cinnamon in the diet lowers the postprandial glucose response, a change that is at least partially explained by a delayed GER. (+info)
(7/55) Sodium benzoate, a food additive and a metabolite of cinnamon, modifies T cells at multiple steps and inhibits adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model for multiple sclerosis. This study explores a novel use of sodium benzoate (NaB), a commonly used food additive and a Food and Drug Administration-approved nontoxic drug for urea cycle disorders, in treating the disease process of relapsing-remitting EAE in female SJL/J mice. NaB, administered through drinking water at physiologically tolerable doses, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. Histological studies reveal that NaB effectively inhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Consequently, NaB also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory molecules and normalized myelin gene expression in the CNS of EAE mice. Furthermore, we observed that NaB switched the differentiation of myelin basic protein-primed T cells from Th1 to Th2 mode, enriched regulatory T cell population, and down-regulated the expression of various contact molecules in T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NaB modifies encephalitogenic T cells at multiple steps and that NaB may have therapeutic importance in multiple sclerosis. (+info)
(8/55) Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen strain, which causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. The control of bacterial cells in foods is an important factor to reduce foodborne diseases due to E. coli O157:H7. Assays to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 were carried out by using the cinnamon oil obtained by steam distillation for 6 hours. When E. coli O157:H7 cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 hours in the presence of 0.025% of the essential oil from cinnamon, a dramatic decrease was observed in the viable counts (from 10(7) to 3.10(4) CFU/mL-1). In the presence of 0.05% of the oil, most of cells were killed after 30 min, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of essential oil is bactericidal against E. coli. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the essential oil from cinnamon was around 625 ppm against E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli ATCC 25921, around 1250 ppm against E. coli ATCC25922 and around 2500 ppm against E. coli ATCC11105. (+info)