Carthamus tinctorius: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.Carthamus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.ChalconeSeeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
(1/40) Developmental transition of the flavonoid contents in safflower leaves during stress-loaded cultivation.
We have previously reported that strong visible light with limited water caused a significant increase in the polyphenol contents of safflower seedlings (Carthamus tinctrius L.), suggesting that the appropriate stress loading could be applied to effectively cultivate flavonoid-rich plants. In this present study, we investigated in detail the time-dependent transition in the flavonoid contents of safflower leaves during the stress-loaded cultivation. In the cotyledons, the light/water stress continuously increased the content of luteolin 7-O-glucoside, which is a strong antioxidant, whereas the content of acacetin 7-O-glucuronide, a weak antioxidant, generally remained unchanged. In the foliage leaves under the stress condition, the contents of the flavonoid glucosides (luteolin 7-O-glucoside and quercetin 7-O-glucoside) markedly increased on the 2nd day and then decreased to the level before stress loading on the 5th day. These results indicate that appropriate selection of the time for stress loading could provide more flavonoid-rich plants during the practical cultivation of vegetables. (+info)
(2/40) Inheritance of flower color and spininess in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers. The most important characteristics which contribute to the ornamental value of safflower are flower color and spinelessness. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance mode and the number of genes controlling spininess and flower color in some Iranian genotypes of safflower. The results indicated that the existence of spines on the leaves and bracts of safflower is controlled by a single dominant gene in which the spiny phenotype was completely dominant to spineless. In some crosses, flower color was controlled by two epistatic loci each with two alleles, resulting in a ratio of 13:3 in the segregating F2 population for plants with orange and yellow flowers. Also, other mechanisms of genetic control, such as duplicate dominance and duplicate recessive types of epistasis, were observed for flower color in other crosses that led to ratios of 7:9 and 15:1 for plants with orange and yellow flowers, respectively. The results suggest that for ornamental use or in the food dying industry, genotypes with orange or yellow flowers and without spines on the leaves and bracts can be produced. (+info)
(3/40) Influence of supplemental cracked high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds on site and extent of digestion in beef cattle.
Our objectives were to evaluate ruminal fermentation patterns, apparent ruminal biohydrogenation, and site and extent of nutrient disappearance in cattle fed supplemental cracked safflower seeds differing in 18 C fatty acid profile. Nine Angus x Gelbvieh heifers (641 +/- 9.6 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square. Cattle were fed (OM basis) 9.1 kg of bromegrass hay and either 1) 1.8 kg of corn and 0.20 kg of soybean meal (Control); 2) 0.13 kg of soybean meal and 1.5 kg of cracked high-linoleate (67.2% 18:2) safflower seeds (Linoleate); or 3) 1.5 kg of cracked high-oleate (72.7% 18:1) safflower seeds (Oleate). Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide similar quantities of N and TDN and 5% dietary fat. Single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts (Control vs. Linoleate and Oleate; Linoleate vs. Oleate) were used to evaluate treatment effects. True ruminal OM and ruminal NDF disappearances (percentage of intake) were greater (P < or =0.02) for Control than Linoleate and Oleate. True ruminal N degradability (% of intake) was not different (P = 0.38) among treatments. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary 18:2 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P < 0.001) for Linoleate, whereas biohydrogenation of dietary 18:1 was greatest (Linoleate vs. Oleate, P = 0.02) for Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:0 was least (P < 0.001) for Control but did not differ (P = 0.92) between Oleate and Linoleate. Total flow of unsaturated fatty acid to the duodenum was greatest (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds, and was greater with Linoleate (P < 0.001) than with Oleate. Duodenal flow of 18:1 and 18:2 increased (P < 0.001) in Oleate and Linoleate, respectively. Duodenal flow of 18:1trans-11 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed safflower seeds and in Linoleate than in Oleate. Postruminal disappearance of saturated fatty acids was greatest (P < 0.001) for Control; however, postruminal disappearance of total unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P = 0.002) for Linoleate vs. Oleate. Supplemental high-linoleate or high-oleate safflower seeds to cattle fed forage-based diets may negatively affect ruminal OM and fiber disappearance but not N disappearance. Provision of supplemental fat in the form of safflower seeds that are high in linoleic acid increased intestinal supply and postruminal disappearance of unsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the fatty acids apparently available for metabolism are affected by dietary fat source. (+info)
(4/40) High linoleic acid safflower seed supplementation for gestating ewes: effects on ewe performance, lamb survival, and brown fat stores.
Objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding high-linoleic safflower seed to gestating ewes increases cold tolerance and survival in lambs, and whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) stores in lambs are affected by prepartum safflower seed supplementation. In Trial 1, 234 gestating ewes (122 in yr 1 and 112 in yr 2; 75.5 and 81.2 +/- 0.6 kg initial BW for yr 1 and 2, respectively) were allotted randomly to one of two dietary treatments (four pens*treatment(-1)*yr(-1)). Ewes were fed alfalfa-based diets containing (DM basis) either 2.8 (LF) or 5.7% (HF) dietary fat beginning 55 (yr 1) and 42 (yr 2) +/- 1 d prepartum. In Trial 2, 40 Rambouillet cross ewes gestating twins (82.9 +/- 1.7 kg BW) were used in 2 yr (20/yr) and were fed diets containing (DM basis) either 1.9 (LF) or 4.9% (HF) dietary fat beginning 53.4 +/- 1.4 d prepartum. The basal diet was 37.5% each of grass and alfalfa hays and 25% corn silage (DM basis). Cracked safflower seeds (18% CP, 32% fat, 25.6% linoleic acid; DM basis) were used as the supplement in HF, whereas safflower meal and corn were used as the supplement in LF for both trials. At parturition, one lamb from each ewe was selected randomly for slaughter. Perirenal (PR) and pericardial (PC) BAT was excised and weighed, and the carcass was frozen for compositional analysis. In Trial 1, more lambs from HF 0.03; 15.4 vs. 5.8 +/- 2.8%), and dams survived (P = 0.03; 88.4 vs. 78.3 +/- 2.9%), fewer died due to starvation (P = there was a tendency for fewer to die due to pneumonia (P = 0.07; 0.0 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.6%). Ewes fed HF tended to wean more lambs per ewe (P = 0.09; 1.4 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.06) but had similar lamb weight weaned per ewe (P = 0.51; 23.1 +/- 1.22 kg). In Trial 2, prepartum ewe plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations increased with advancing gestation (P < 0.001). Lamb rectal temperature tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in LF lambs and tended (P = 0.06) to increase following parturition. Perirenal BAT weight did not differ among treatments (33.01 +/- 1.66 g; P = 0.28; 0.62 +/- 0.30% BW; P = 0.60). Lambs from LF dams tended (P = 0.08) to have greater PC BAT weight; however, the effect was not significant when expressed as a percentage of BW (0.13 +/- 0.007; P = 0.98). High-linoleic safflower seeds fed during the last 45 d of gestation may be beneficial in improving lamb survivability. Our data do not indicate this response was a result of increased BAT stores. More research is necessary to determine mechanisms that enhance lamb survival when high-linoleic saf-flower seed is fed during gestation. (+info)
(5/40) Inhibitory effects of active compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds for melanogenesis.
In order to develop a new skin whitening agent, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds were evaluated for melanogenesis inhibitory activity and its active principles were identified following activity-guided isolation. The 80% aqueous methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction from safflower seeds showed a significant inhibition for mushroom tyrosinase. Three active compounds, N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active principles. Compared with arbutin (IC50=0.223 mM), the IC50 values of these compounds were 0.023, 0.074, and 0.779 mM for N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, respectively. It was also found that N-feruloylserotonin and N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin strongly inhibited the melanin production of Streptomyces bikiniensis and B16 melanoma cells in comparison with a known melanogenesis inhibitor, arbutin. (+info)
(6/40) Novel repeated DNA sequences in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (Asteraceae): cloning, sequencing, and physical mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Two novel repetitive DNA sequences, pCtKpnI-1 and pCtKpnI-2, were isolated from Carthamus tinctorius (2n = 2x = 24) and cloned. Both represent tandemly repeated sequences. The pCtKpnI-1 and pCtKpnI-2 clones constitute repeat units of 343-345 bp and 367 bp, respectively, with 63% sequence heterogeneity between the two. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed on metaphase chromosomes of C. tinctorius using, simultaneously, pCtKpnI-1 and pCtKpnI-2 repeated sequences. The pCtKpnI-1 sequence was found to be exclusively localized at subtelomeric regions on most of the chromosomes. On the other hand, sequence of the pCtKpnI-2 clone was distributed on two nucleolar and one nonnucleolar chromosome pairs. The satellite, and the intervening chromosome segment between the primary and secondary constrictions, in the two nucleolar chromosome pairs were wholly constituted by pCtKpnI-2 repeated sequence. The pCtKpnI-2 repeated sequence, showing partial homology to intergenic spacer (IGS) of 18S-25S ribosomal RNA genes of an Asteraceae taxon (Centaurea stoebe), and the 18S-25S rRNA gene clusters were located at independent, but juxtaposed sites in the nucleolar chromosomes. Variability in the number, size, and location of the two repeated sequences provided identification of most of the chromosomes in the otherwise not too distinctive homologues within the complement. This article reports the start of a molecular cytogenetics program targeting the genome of safflower, a major world oil crop about whose genetics very little is known. (+info)
(7/40) Kinobeon A, purified from cultured safflower cells, is a novel and potent singlet oxygen quencher.
We recently reported that kinobeon A, produced from safflower cells, suppressed the free radical-induced damage of cell and microsomal membranes. In the present study, we investigated whether kinobeon A quenches singlet oxygen, another important active oxygen species. Kinobeon A inhibited the singlet oxygen-induced oxidation of squalene. The second-order rate constant between singlet oxygen and kinobeon A was 1.15 x 10(10) M(-1)s(-1) in methanol containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide at 37 degrees C. Those of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, which are known potent singlet oxygen quenchers, were 4.45 x 10(8) M(-1)s(-1) and 1.26 x 10(10) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. When kinobeon A was incubated with a thermolytic singlet oxygen generator, its concentration decreased. However, this change was extremely small compared to the amount of singlet oxygen formed and the inhibitory effect of kinobeon A on squalene oxidation by singlet oxygen. In conclusion, kinobeon A was a strong singlet oxygen quencher. It reacted chemically with singlet oxygen, but it was physical quenching that was mainly responsible for the elimination of singlet oxygen by kinobeon A. Kinobeon A is expected to have a preventive effect on singlet oxygen-related diseases of the skin or eyes. (+info)
(8/40) Dietary supplementation with safflower seeds differing in fatty acid composition differentially influences serum concentrations of prostaglandin F metabolite in postpartum beef cows.
Synthesis and secretion of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) is elevated following parturition and exerts divergent effects on the re-establishment of fertile estrous cycles in cows. The objective of these experiments was to determine if oil seed supplements differing in fatty acid composition differentially influence serum concentrations of the specific PGF2alpha metabolite, PGFM. Safflower seed supplements were formulated to provide 5% of dry-matter intake as fat. In Trial 1, 24 multiparous beef cows were individually fed control (beet pulp-soybean meal) or cracked high-linoleate safflower seed (78% 18:2n-6) supplements for 80 d postpartum. Linoleate supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.001) serum concentrations of PGFM than control cows. In Trial 2, primiparous beef cows (n = 36) were individually fed control (cracked corn-soybean meal), cracked high-linoleate (76% 18:2n-6) or -oleate (72% 18:1n-9) safflower seed supplements for 92 d postpartum. As in Trial 1, serum concentrations of PGFM were greater (P < or = 0.04) in linoleate than control or oleate supplemented cows. Serum concentrations of PGFM, however, did not differ (P = 0.40) among oleate and control supplemented cows. Although potential impacts on reproductive performance remain to be proven, dietary oil supplements high in linoleate, but not oleate, increased serum concentrations of PGFM compared to control supplements. (+info)