Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Cannabidiol: Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Cannabinol: A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators: Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Paranoid Disorders: Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Coca: Any of several South American shrubs of the Erythroxylon genus (and family) that yield COCAINE; the leaves are chewed with alum for CNS stimulation.Precipitating Factors: Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.Phencyclidine Abuse: The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase: Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (, THCA synthase, Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase) is an enzyme with system name cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionRobert Randall (advocate): Robert Randall}}Ajulemic acidCannabidiolJWH-196: JWH-196 is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor ligand from the naphthoylindole family. It is the indole 2-methyl derivative of related compound JWH-175, and the carbonyl reduced analog of JWH-007.Substance-induced psychosisCannabinolList of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeDrug test: A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).Substance-related disorderInternational Cannabinoid Research Society: The International Cannabinoid Research Society (ICRS) is a professional society for scientific research in all fields of the cannabinoids.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__HallucinogenSchizophreniaNarcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.PSN-375,963: PSN-375,963 is a selective ligand for the suggested novel cannabinoid receptor GPR119.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.General Educational Development: Ged}}The Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Paranoia Network: The Paranoia Network, founded in November 2003, is a self-help user-run organisation in Sheffield, England, for people who have paranoid or delusional beliefs.Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: right|300 px|Example of a GC-MS instrument|thumbResearch Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Lawn sweeper: A lawn sweeper, also known as a leaf sweeper, is a garden tool for the mechanical removal of debris, such as fallen leaves, pine needles, twigs, grass clippings or litter, from a lawn or paved area. Lawn sweepers operate via a rotating brush mechanism that sweeps up the debris and deposits it in a collection hopper for disposal.Cannabinoid receptor antagonist: The discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid system led to the development of CB1 receptor antagonists. The first cannabinoid receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was described in 1994.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Heritability: Heritability is a statistic used in breeding and genetics works that estimates how much variation in a phenotypic trait in a population is due to genetic variation among individuals in that population. It is calculated with the following equation (for broad-sense heritability): H^2 = VG/VP.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Coca flour: Coca flour is made from whole ground dried coca leaves harvested from the coca plant,Plowman T. "Botanical Perspectives on Coca.Windsor Railway BridgeExercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.
(1/374) Recent progress in the neurotoxicology of natural drugs associated with dependence or addiction, their endogenous agonists and receptors.
Nicotine in tobacco, tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) in marijuana and morphine in opium are well known as drugs associated with dependence or addiction. Endogenous active substances that mimic the effects of the natural drugs and their respective receptors have been found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Such active substances and receptors include acetylcholine (ACh) and the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) for nicotine, anandamide and CB1 for delta 9-THC, and endomorphins (1 and 2) and the mu (OP3) opioid receptor for morphine, respectively. Considerable progress has been made in studies on neurotoxicity, in terms of the habituation, dependence and withdrawal phenomena associated with these drugs and with respect to correlations with endogenous active substances and their receptors. In this article we shall review recent findings related to the neurotoxicity of tobacco, marijuana and opium, and their toxic ingredients, nicotine, delta 9-THC and morphine in relation to their respective endogenous agents and receptors in the CNS. (+info)
(2/374) Cannabis use and cognitive decline in persons under 65 years of age.
The purpose of this study was to investigate possible adverse effects of cannabis use on cognitive decline after 12 years in persons under age 65 years. This was a follow-up study of a probability sample of the adult household residents of East Baltimore. The analyses included 1,318 participants in the Baltimore, Maryland, portion of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during three study waves in 1981, 1982, and 1993-1996. Individual MMSE score differences between waves 2 and 3 were calculated for each study participant. After 12 years, study participants' scores declined a mean of 1.20 points on the MMSE (standard deviation 1.90), with 66% having scores that declined by at least one point. Significant numbers of scores declined by three points or more (15% of participants in the 18-29 age group). There were no significant differences in cognitive decline between heavy users, light users, and nonusers of cannabis. There were also no male-female differences in cognitive decline in relation to cannabis use. The authors conclude that over long time periods, in persons under age 65 years, cognitive decline occurs in all age groups. This decline is closely associated with aging and educational level but does not appear to be associated with cannabis use. (+info)
(3/374) Nail analysis for drugs of abuse: extraction and determination of cannabis in fingernails by RIA and GC-MS.
Fingernail clippings were evaluated as analytical specimens for the detection and quantitation of cannabinoids. Specimens were obtained from consenting adults attending a drug clinic, along with information concerning the drugs which they had used over the previous six months. Methods for the surface decontamination and extraction of the specimens were evaluated. Detergent, water, and methanol washes followed by alkaline hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction were selected for use in the study. Extracts were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantitate cannabinoids present in fingernail clippings. Positive RIA results were obtained from specimens from six known cannabis users. The mean cannabinoid concentration in fingernail clippings determined by RIA was 1.03 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the mean delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration in fingernail clippings from a further 14 known cannabis users was 1.44 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the average 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid concentration in fingernail clippings from three known cannabis users extracted in acidic pH was 19.85 ng/mg. Based on these results, fingernails are potentially useful biological specimens for the detection of past cannabis use in cases of medicolegal interest. (+info)
(4/374) Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a delta9-THCCOOH to creatinine ratio study.
Monitoring the major cannabinoid metabolite (delta9-THCCOOH) to creatinine ratio (M/C) has been used to predict new drug use. According to Huestis and Cone, the best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was a ratio > or = 0.5 from two urine specimens collected at least 24 h apart. Manno et al. recommended an M/C ratio of > or = 1.5. Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoid use by immunoassay (50-ng/mL cutoff), and presumptive positives were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for delta9-THCCOOH (15-ng/mL cutoff). Creatinine was analyzed with a cutoff concentration of 25 mg/dL. The study objective was to apply the criteria from both groups of workers to determine if consecutive urine specimens (collected at least 24 h apart) positive for cannabinoids could be used to differentiate new marijuana use from the excretion of residual cannabinoid metabolite (delta9-THCCOOH) in an uncontrolled setting. Serial urine specimens (826) were collected from 26 individuals. Huestis and Cone and Manno et al. ratios indicated new drug use in 83% and 33% of serial urine specimens collected at least 24 h apart, respectively. Clinically, the Huestis and Cone ratio is recommended because of a lower false-negative rate (7.4%) than the Manno et al. false-negative rate (24%). In legal situations, we recommend using the Manno et al. ratio because of its lower false-positive rate (0.1%) as stated by Huestis and Cone. (+info)
(5/374) Marijuana: medical implications.
Over 50 percent of people will use marijuana sometime in their life. While intoxication lasts two to three hours, the active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol, can accumulate in fatty tissues, including the brain and testes. Adverse effects from marijuana use include decreased coordination, epithelial damage to the lungs, increased risk of infection, cardiovascular effects and cognitive deficits. Unexplained behavior changes, altered social relationships and poor performance at school or work can signify a drug problem. Treatment requires a combination of education, social support, drug monitoring and attention to comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions. (+info)
(6/374) Detection of drug misuse--an addictive challenge.
It is now accepted that drug misuse is a large and growing problem in the United Kingdom, some estimates of the number of regular illicit drug users being as high as three million. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the methods used to detect drug misuse. The strategy adopted by one laboratory is described and methods of screening for, and identification of, a wide range of compounds are provided. No claim is made that this is the best approach or that the list of drugs detected is comprehensive; the range of drugs encountered is always increasing and the lists are constantly updated. It is hoped that users of toxicology laboratory services will gain an appreciation of the capabilities and limitations of the techniques available; and that those who may wish to provide such a service will find the necessary information in a readily accessible format. (+info)
(7/374) Purification and some properties of an aminopeptidase from the seeds of Cannabis sativa.
An aminopeptidase (HSA) with a molecular mass of 78 kDa was purified from hemp (Cannabis sativa) seeds. The activity was inhibited by monoiodeacetic acid, p-chloromercuri-phenylsulfonic acid, and Zn2+ ion. The specificity of HSA was similar to that of a leucyl aminopeptidase [EC 220.127.116.11] from mammalian cytosol. However, other enzyme properties were different from these of leucyl aminopeptidase. (+info)
(8/374) Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
Normal pressure within the human eye was reduced after smoking a socially relevant dose of marijuana (12 mg. delta9-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), but only for light to moderate users who experienced a substantial "high" and a state of peaceful relaxation from the experimental dose. Analysis suggests an indirect effect of the drug associated with relaxation-a psychophysiologic state that can be produced by drug and nondrug means. (+info)