Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.NepalPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Onchocerca volvulus: A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Retinal DiseasesOphthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.IndiaOnchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Eye ProteinsKeratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Leber Congenital Amaurosis: A rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. Not to be confused with LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the RETINA, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Trichiasis: A disease of the eye in which the eyelashes abnormally turn inwards toward the eyeball producing constant irritation caused by motion of the lids.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Education of Visually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with visual disability.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Oman: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Tonga: An archipelago in Polynesia in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 150 islands. It is a kingdom whose capital is Nukualofa. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616, visited by Tasman in 1643, and by Captain Cook in 1773 and 1777. The modern kingdom was established during the reign of King George Tupou I, 1845-93. It became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970. The name Tonga may be of local origin, meaning either island or holy. Its other name, Friendly Islands, was given by Captain Cook from the welcome given him by the natives. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1219 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p549)Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Field Dependence-Independence: The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.

*  Foundation Fighting Blindness Restore Vision 20/20 Grant | University of Lethbridge
Foundation Fighting Blindness Restore Vision 20/20 Grant. The Foundation Fighting Blindness is a non-profit charitable ... The Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB) is thrilled to announce the Restore Vision 20/20 Initiative, which is a new $2.5 ... macular degeneration and related diseases of the retina that lead to blindness and to communicate that information to our ...
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*  U.S. Blindness and Visual Impairment Will Double by 2050 - Research to Prevent Blindness
Research to Prevent Blindness   News  RPB News U.S. Blindness and Visual Impairment Will Double by 2050. ... Research to Prevent Blindness. 360 Lexington Avenue, 22nd Floor. New York, NY 10017. (212) 752-4333 ... The findings may have significant therapeutic implications for AMD, the most common cause of elderly blindness in the developed ... Test for Amblyopia Test for Color Blindness Test for Macular Degeneration Test for Visual Acuity ...
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*  Recreation and leisure activities for people who are blind or visually impaired | Perkins eLearning
Recreation and leisure activities for people who are blind or visually impaired, including playground suggestions for children who are blind
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*  German Company's Bionic Retina Restores Some Vision in Clinical Trial | blindness.org
2017 Foundation Fighting Blindness, All Rights Reserved.. 7168 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 100, Columbia, MD 21046 , (800) ... Stephen Rose, chief research officer, Foundation Fighting Blindness. "We are excited about the progress being made with Retina ...
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*  Expanding Horizons: One Man's Experience With Choices | Alliance for Equality of Blind Canadians
Because blindness is often the result of a disease process, and because most blind people are old, blindness is viewed as a ... The accepted and most widely held view equates blindness with inability and abnormality. Blindness brings with it multiple ... The second view for blindness is in the minority, but it is the one we do our best to apply at the Colorado Center for the ... We consider blindness to be a physical characteristic and little more. Its problems, for the most part, are rooted in social ...
  http://www.blindcanadians.ca/publications/cbm/1/expanding-horizons-one-mans-experience-choices
*  Eye Surgery - Great Lakes Eye Surgery Center » Recent Glaucoma Research
San Francisco-The probability of blindness due to glaucoma has decreased by nearly half since 1980, according to a study ... The study was the first to assess long-term changes in the risk of progression to blindness and the population incidence of ... They found that the 20-year probability and population incidence of blindness due to OAG in at least one eye had decreased from ... The population incidence of blindness within 10 years of diagnosis also decreased from 8.7 per 100,000 to 5.5 per 100,000 for ...
  http://www.gleyesc.com/portfolio/recent-glaucoma-research/
*  Facts About Color Blindness | National Eye Institute
The most severe forms of these deficiencies are referred to as color blindness. People with color blindness aren't aware of ... People who don't have the more severe types of color blindness may not even be aware of their condition unless they're tested ... Blue-Yellow Color Blindness. Blue-yellow color blindness is rarer than red-green color blindness. Blue-cone (tritan) ... Are there treatments for color blindness?. There is no cure for color blindness. However, people with red-green color blindness ...
  https://nei.nih.gov/health/color_blindness/facts_about
*  Colblindor | All about Color Blindness
Free color blindness test app: Color Blind Check. The term red-green color blindness is often used but actually not quite ... Color Blindness Simulation Tool. Ever wanted to see how it looks like if you are colorblind? Try out Coblis - Color Blindness ... Color Blindness - learn all about it. "Colblindor at www.color-blindness.com presents all you ever wanted to know, learn and ... Color blindness (or colour blindness - or more specific color vision deficiency (CVD)) is well known but hard to imagine if you ...
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*  Blindness
Prevent Blindness America. http://www.preventblindness.org This website offers information, resources, vision tests, volunteer ...
  http://kidshealth.org/CookChildrens/en/kids/visual-impaired.html?view=rr
*  Face Blindness - Prosopagnosia
... living with face blindness, research you're doing, subjects you might be seeking, or news about face blindness research, news ... Things to mention might be your name, your location or university, and your involvement with face blindness (such as you have ... Appropriate topics here are questions about face blindness, ... Welcome to our public face blindness (prosopagnosia) discussion ... more than one of us had face blindness (or were in a sort of face blindness. , group together), then I would have my radar ...
  https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/faceblind/conversations/topics/12722
*  Schlep Blindness
How do you overcome schlep blindness? Frankly, the most valuable antidote to schlep blindness is probably ignorance. Most ... That's schlep blindness.. The phenomenon isn't limited to startups. Most people don't consciously decide not to be in as good ... One reason we don't see them is a phenomenon I call schlep blindness. Schlep was originally a Yiddish word but has passed into ... The most striking example I know of schlep blindness is Stripe, or rather Stripe's idea. For over a decade, every hacker who'd ...
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*  Color blindness
... everything you need for studying or teaching Color blindness. ... Immediately download the Color blindness summary, chapter-by- ... Color Blindness Color blindness is the word used to describe mild to severe difficulties with identifying various colors and ... Color blindness Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Color blindness. ... Color Blindness Definition Color blindness is a condition in which people have mild to severe difficulty identifying colors. ...
  http://www.bookrags.com/Color_blindness/
*  blindness Hashtag
analytics for: #blindness. Definitions View. Definitions View. Hashtag analytics for #blindness are presented below for the ...
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*  Blindness | SpringerLink
Blindness marks the failure or inefficacy of ophthalmological treatment. Once a patient becomes permanently blind, he or she ... Blindness marks the failure or inefficacy of ophthalmological treatment. Once a patient becomes permanently blind, he or she ... Many people who dread blindness imagine having no perception of light in each eye. Fortunately this situation is uncommon, but ... and in order to keep statistical records it is necessary to have a clear definition of blindness. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-3625-5_25
*  FIGHTING RIVER BLINDNESS - YouTube
One of the biggest community-led medical campaigns, against the scourge of River Blindness, has scored a huge success. Now the ... Ending African River Blindness Part I: The Disease - Duration: 8:29. UC Berkeley College of Natural Resources 12,692 views ... River Blindness Video Journal Part 3: Women and Biomedicine (Carter Center) - Duration: 3:08. The Carter Center 898 views ... Preventing River Blindness, Preserving Vision for Future Generations (Carter Center) - Duration: 3:17. The Carter Center 7,847 ...
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*  blindness - Neurology - MedHelp
blindness ynaveed hello. i live in pakistan. my cozin, when she was 6 years old ( 1995) when -, sudden headache -, squint in ... blindness. hello. i live in pakistan. my cozin, when she was 6 years old ( 1995) when -, sudden headache -, squint in left eye ...
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*  Focus eyes 'Blindness' - Variety
Blindness.' Company's foreign-sales team, led by international sales and distribution prexy Alison Thompson, will be selling ... "Blindness" is based on the haunting fable by Portuguese novelist and Nobel Prize winner Jose Saramago; it concerns the social ... Focus eyes 'Blindness'. Foreign-sales unit takes pic to AFM. By Steven Zeitchik ... Focus has pacted to rep all foreign rights to Fernando Meirelles-helmed drama "Blindness." Company's foreign-sales team, led by ...
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*  blindness - Birds - MedHelp
blindness. I have a 11 year old cockatiel who's eyes, 1 at a time, they looked like he had millet shell or something stuck and ...
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*  Blindness
The latest health news, scientific trends and medical information, covered in a way that helps you make sense of the complex and constantly changing field of medical knowledge.
  http://www.medicaldaily.com/conditions/blindness?page=4
*  Blindness
UK Scientists Start Stem Cell Trial Of Potential Blindness Cure. A trial will test the safety and efficacy of transplanting eye ... Age-related macular degeneration affects millions of Americans and causes blindness in many. Could a drug currently used for ... Few Differences Exist Between Bacteria Behind Chlamydia And Blindness. By acquiring genetic mutations, Chlamydia trachomatis, ... VICE on HBO will showcase the struggles and triumphs in beating back blindness. ...
  http://www.medicaldaily.com/conditions/blindness?page=1
*  BESB: WHAT IS BLINDNESS?
WHAT IS BLINDNESS? Connecticut General Statutes: Sec. 10-294a. (a) A person is blind if his or her central visual acuity does ...
  http://www.ct.gov/besb/cwp/view.asp?a=2848&q=331438
*  blindness.org
... read about the research and fundraising efforts helping to end blindness in the Foundation Fighting Blindness' 2017 Annual ... The Foundation Fighting Blindness thanks our partners. for helping to bring hope and results. to people affected by retinal ... Foundation Fighting Blindness will provide up to $7.5 million in funding to develop ProQR's candidate QR-421a for Usher ... Foundation Fighting Blindness Achieves Continuing Accreditation from BBB Wise Giving Alliance. *5th Annual Retinal Cell and ...
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*  blindness.org
... read about the research and fundraising efforts helping to end blindness in the Foundation Fighting Blindness' 2017 Annual ... The Foundation Fighting Blindness thanks our partners. for helping to bring hope and results. to people affected by retinal ... 2017 Foundation Fighting Blindness, All Rights Reserved.. 7168 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 100, Columbia, MD 21046 , (800) ... The Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB): Special Events & Programs Build a Community for People With Inherited Retinal Diseases ...
  http://www.blindness.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45&Itemid=55
*  Flash blindness - Wikipedia
At night, the dark-adapted pupil is wide open so flash blindness has a greater effect and lasts longer. Is flash blindness ... It is unclear whether pain is directly associated with flash blindness.[citation needed] Reaction to flash blindness can be ... Flash blindness is visual impairment during and following exposure to a light flash of extremely high intensity. It may last ... Flash blindness is caused by bleaching (oversaturation) of the retinal pigment. As the pigment returns to normal, so too does ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_blindness

Blind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.X-linked congenital stationary night blindnessCortical blindnessLow vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.Congenital cataractXerophthalmiaInternational Coalition for Trachoma ControlLogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Operation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Cataract surgeryAutorefractor: An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.Eye injuryAge-Related Eye Disease Study: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States.A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss.Bullous keratopathyManipal Teaching HospitalGene therapy for color blindness: Gene therapy for color blindness is an experimental gene therapy aiming to convert congenitally colorblind individuals to trichromats by introducing a photopigment gene that they lack. Though partial color blindness is considered only a mild disability and is controversial whether it is even a disorder, it is a condition that affects many people, particularly males.Onchocerca volvulus: Onchocerca volvulus is a nematode that causes onchocerciasis or "river blindness" mostly in Africa. Long-term corneal inflammation, or keratitis, leads to thickening of the corneal stroma which ultimately leads to blindness.Berk–Tabatznik syndrome: Berk–Tabatznik syndrome is a condition with an unknown cause that shows symptoms of short stature, congenital optic atrophy and brachytelephalangy. This condition is extremely rare with only two cases being found.Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.Pediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.Kramers' opacity law: Kramers' opacity law describes the opacity of a medium in terms of the ambient density and temperature, assuming that the opacity is dominated by bound-free absorption (the absorption of light during ionization of a bound electron) or free-free absorption (the absorption of light when scattering a free ion, also called bremsstrahlung).Phillips (1999), p.Diabetic retinopathy: ( )Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosaTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityOnchocerciasisAmaurosis fugaxChronic superficial keratitisAphakiaFulminateNigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Trichiasis: (ILDS H02.010) |Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.List of Warner Bros. cartoons with Blue Ribbon reissuesPedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Red reflex: The red reflex refers to the reddish-orange reflection of light from the eye's retina that is observed when using an ophthalmoscope or retinoscope from approximately 30 cm / 1 foot. This examination is usually performed in a dimly lit or dark room.Sustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Rimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Rhodopsin: Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein. It is named after ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon) for “rose”, due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis) for “sight”.Energy in Oman: Energy in Oman describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Oman. Energy policy of Oman will describe the energy policy in the politics of Oman more in detail.Vitamin WellBraille technology: Braille technology is assistive technology which allows blind or visually impaired people to do common tasks such as writing, browsing the Internet, typing in Braille and printing in text, engaging in chat, downloading files, music, using electronic mail, burning music, and reading documents. It also allows blind or visually impaired students to complete all assignments in school as the rest of sighted classmates and allows them take courses online.Thrifty gene hypothesis: The thrifty gene hypothesis is an attempt to explain why people from some populations are prone to diabetes. The geneticist James V.Landolt COnchocerca tubingensis: Onchocerca tubingensis is the name of a nematode.The Free Dictionary It was 1974 discovered and published by O.Transport in South Sudan: == Highways ==Farnsworth Lantern Test: The Farnsworth Lantern Test, or FALANT, is a test of color vision originally developed specifically to screen sailors for shipboard tasks requiring color vision, such as identifying signal lights at night. It screens for red-green deficiencies, but not the much rarer blue color deficiency.

(1/1462) Sensory perception: supernormal hearing in the blind?

A recent experimental study suggests that blind individuals may compensate for their lack of vision with better-than-normal hearing. This provides support for a view dating back to 18th century philosophers, but the data raise as many problems as they solve.  (+info)

(2/1462) Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wave-length light.

The photopathology of retinal lesions produced by extended exposure (1000 sec) to low corneal power levels (62 microW) of blue light (441 nm) was investigated by light microscopy in 20 rhesus eyes over an interval ranging from 1 hr to 90 days after exposure. Results indicate a nonthermal type of photochemical lesion originating in the retinal pigment epithelium and leading to a histological response with hypopigmentation which requires 48 hr to appear. This type of lesion helps to explain solar retinitis and eclipse blindness and has significance for aging and degenerative changes in the retina.  (+info)

(3/1462) A new X linked neurodegenerative syndrome with mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, mild hypomyelination, and early death maps to the pericentromeric region.

We report on a family with an X linked neurodegenerative disorder consisting of mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, and early death. Neuropathological examination showed mild hypomyelination. By linkage analysis, the underlying genetic defect could be assigned to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome with a maximum lod score of 3.30 at theta=0.0 for the DXS1204 locus with DXS337 and PGK1P1 as flanking markers.  (+info)

(4/1462) Changing trends in barriers to cataract surgery in India.

Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in India to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population. Earlier studies identified the major barriers to cataract surgery as poverty, lack of transportation or felt need, or sex related; and the critical barriers in rural areas as lack of awareness, difficult access, and cost. Compared with these earlier data, the results of the present study in Karnataka State indicate a shift in the character of the barriers. They now appear to be more related to case selection and service provision. These shifts are analysed and alternative strategies to increase the uptake to cataract surgery are recommended.  (+info)

(5/1462) Economic burden of blindness in India.

Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion), and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion). Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion). Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.  (+info)

(6/1462) No effect of pinealectomy on the parallel shift in circadain rhythms of adrenocortical activity and food intake in blinded rats.

Twenty-four-hr patterns of plasma corticosterone levels were determined at 4-hr intervals every 3-4 weeks in sighted and blinded pinealectomized rats of adult age. Through the whole period of the experiment, 24-hr patterns of food intake were also measured weekly. The sighted rats manifested the same 24-hr patterns of plasma corticosterone levels and food intake for 15 weeks after pinealectomy as those observed in the intact control rats. The magnitude of peak levels of plasma corticosterone and the amount of food intake did not differ between the two groups. A phase shift in circadian rhythms of plasma corticosterone levels and food intake was observed in both groups of blinded rats, with and without pinealectomy. Between the two groups, the patterns of phase shift were essentially similar for 10 weeks examined after optic enucleation. The peak elevation of plasma levels took place at 11 p.m. at the end of the 4th week after optic enucleation. Thereafter, 4- to 8-hr delay of peak appearance was observed every 3 weeks. No significant differences were found in peak values between the two groups of blinded rats. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of food intake shifted in parallel with that of plasma corticosterone levels. A phase reversal of these two activities was observed between the 8th and 10th week after the operation. These results indicate that the pineal gland does not play any important role either in the maintenance of normal circadian periodicities of adrenocortical activity and food intake or in the shift in circadian rhythms of the two activities in the blinded rats.  (+info)

(7/1462) Elementary visual hallucinations, blindness, and headache in idiopathic occipital epilepsy: differentiation from migraine.

This is a qualitative and chronological analysis of ictal and postictal symptoms, frequency of seizures, family history, response to treatment, and prognosis in nine patients with idiopathic occipital epilepsy and visual seizures. Ictal elementary visual hallucinations are stereotyped for each patient, usually lasting for seconds. They consist of mainly multiple, bright coloured, small circular spots, circles, or balls. Mostly, they appear in a temporal hemifield often moving contralaterally or in the centre where they may be flashing. They may multiply and increase in size in the course of the seizure and may progress to other non-visual occipital seizure symptoms and more rarely to extra-occipital manifestations and convulsions. Blindness occurs usually from the beginning and postictal headache, often indistinguishable from migraine, is common. It is concluded that elementary visual hallucinations in occipital seizures are entirely different from visual aura of migraine when individual elements of colour, shape, size, location, movement, speed of development, duration, and progress are synthesised together. Postictal headache does not show preference for those with a family history of migraine. Most of the patients are misdiagnosed as having migraine with aura, basilar migraine, acephalgic migraine, or migralepsy simply because physicians are not properly informed of differential diagnostic criteria. As a result, treatment may be delayed for years. Response to carbamazepine is excellent and seizures may remit.  (+info)

(8/1462) Developing a model to reduce blindness in India: The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care.

With the continuing high magnitude of blindness in India, fresh approaches are needed to effectively deal with this burden on society. The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care (ICARE) has been established at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute in Hyderabad to develop such an approach. This paper describes how ICARE functions to meet its objective. The three major functions of ICARE are design and implementation of rural eye-care centres, human resource development for eye care, and community eye-health planning. ICARE works with existing eye-care centres, as well as those being planned, in underserved areas of India and other parts of the developing world. The approach being developed by ICARE, along with its partners, to reduce blindness is that of comprehensive eye care with due emphasis on preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects. This approach involves the community in which blindness is sought to be reduced by understanding how the people perceive eye health and the barriers to eye care, thereby enabling development of strategies to prevent blindness. Emphasis is placed on providing good-quality eye care with attention to reasonable infrastructure and equipment, developing a resource of adequately trained eye-care professionals of all cadres, developing a professional environment satisfactory for patients as well as eye-care providers, and the concept of good management and financial self-sustainability. Community-based rehabilitation of those with incurable blindness is also part of this approach. ICARE plans to work intensively with its partners and develop these concepts further, thereby effectively bringing into practice the concept of comprehensive eye care for the community in underserved parts of India, and later in other parts of the developing world. In addition, ICARE is involved in assessing the current situation regarding the various aspects of blindness through well-designed epidemiologic studies, and projecting the eye-care needs for the future with the help of reliable information. With balanced attention to infrastructure, manpower, financial self-sustenance, and future planning, ICARE intends to develop a practical model to effectively reduce blindness in India on a long-term basis.  (+info)



  • Willful
  • Willful blindness (sometimes called ignorance of law, willful ignorance or contrived ignorance or Nelsonian knowledge) is a term used in law to describe a situation in which a person seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally keeping himself or herself unaware of facts that would render him or her liable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willful blindness is a term used in law to describe a situation in which a person seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally keeping oneself unaware of facts that would render liability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court held that this was willful blindness on the defendant's part and would not constitute a defense to a claim of contributory infringement. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • Lesion studies show that when lesions are imposed to the medial frontal lobe, performance on mentalization tasks is reduced, similar to typical mind-blindness cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • sudden
  • Because vision loss is sudden and takes time to recover, flash blindness can be hazardous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sudden onset and unexplained origin and nature of the blindness cause widespread panic, and the social order rapidly unravels as the government attempts to contain the apparent contagion and keep order via increasingly repressive and inept measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sudden blindness, known as the "white sickness", is now international, with hundreds of cases reported every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • It is critical to acknowledge that occurrences of inattentional blindness are attributed to the failure to consciously attend to an item in the visual field as opposed the absence of cognitive processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings such as inattentional blindness - the failure to notice a fully visible but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object - has changed views on how the brain stores and integrates visual information, and has led to further questioning and investigation of the brain and importantly of cognitive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mind-blindness is a cognitive disorder where an individual is unable to attribute mental states to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Patients with cortical blindness will not be able to identify the item being questioned about at all or will not be able to provide any details other than color or perhaps general shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with acquired cortical blindness, a permanent complete loss of vision is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, some patients regain vision completely, as is the case with transient cortical blindness associated with eclampsia and the side effects of certain anti-epilepsy drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an ability to develop a mental awareness of what is in the other minds is known as the theory of mind (ToM), and the "Mind-blindness" Theory asserts that children who delay in this development often are or will be autistic and Asperger's syndrome (AS) patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients that experienced frontal lobe injuries due to severe head trauma showed signs of mind blindness, as a result of a lost ToM. (wikipedia.org)
  • People
  • So usually people are either looking for more information to learn about color blindness and all its details , would like to better understand the vision by simulating it or want to test themselves with some form of color blindness test . (color-blindness.com)
  • Because schlep blindness prevented people from even considering the idea of fixing payments. (paulgraham.com)
  • Many people who dread blindness imagine having no perception of light in each eye. (springer.com)
  • The urgent mission of the Foundation Fighting Blindness is to drive the research that will provide preventions, treatments and cures for people affected by retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, Usher syndrome and the entire spectrum of retinal degenerative diseases. (blindness.org)
  • The Foundation Fighting Blindness thanks our partners for helping to bring hope and results to people affected by retinal degenerative diseases. (blindness.org)
  • Special lenses may help people with red-green color blindness when under bright conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The cells of the ACC develops at the age of 4 months suggesting that the manifestations of mind-blindness may occur around this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Flash blindness, in contrast, is caused by a single very brief exposure which oversaturates the retina, and is not usually accompanied by reports of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • Advocates for color blindness argue that persons should be judged not by their skin color but rather by "the content of their character", in the words of Martin Luther King Jr. Color-blind ideology is based on tenets of non-discrimination, due process of law, equal protection under the law, and equal opportunities regardless of race, ideas which have strongly influenced Western liberalism in the post-World War II period. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • There are three main kinds of color blindness, based on photopigment defects in the three different kinds of cones that respond to blue, green, and red light. (nih.gov)
  • From achromatopsia to population statistics, from red-green color blindness to different types of tests. (color-blindness.com)
  • This means that the ophthalmologist may not have personal experience of the size of the problem and may not be in a position to experience the relative incidences of different causes of blindness. (springer.com)
  • transform
  • By acquiring genetic mutations, Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the sexually transmitted infection, can transform into a strain causing blindness. (medicaldaily.com)
  • development
  • This development in change blindness research was able to show the effects of change blindness in more realistic settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanie Klein saw early development in terms of the child slowly emerging from a state of narcissistic blindness to recognise the motherer as a moral end in herself, not simply as the child's means or tool-a step she called the depressive position. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Driving Research - Saving Sight - read about the research and fundraising efforts helping to end blindness in the Foundation Fighting Blindness' 2017 Annual Report. (blindness.org)
  • Research on change blindness developed from investigation in other phenomena such as eye movements and working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was a critical contribution to change blindness research because it demonstrated that a change can remain unnoticed with the smallest disruptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to autism and AS, ToM and mind-blindness research has recently been extended to other disorders such as schizophrenia, dementia, bipolar disorders, antisocial personality disorders as well as normal aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • film
  • Love's Blindness is a 1926 silent film directed by John Francis Dillon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blindness premiered as the opening film at the Cannes Film Festival on May 14, 2008, and the film was released in the United States on October 3, 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • While it is caused by bright light as is flash blindness, the welder's arc lasts for much longer than a flash, and emits ultraviolet rays that can damage the cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • Cortical blindness is the total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suspected that the damage to the orbitofrontal cortex brings upon subtle impairments, but not a total loss of the ToM that would to mind-blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • At night, the dark-adapted pupil is wide open so flash blindness has a greater effect and lasts longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study by Rensink, O'Regan, & Clarke demonstrated that change blindness can have an effect even if the eye was fixated on a scene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous experiments have demonstrated that inattentional blindness also has an effect on people's perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Color blindness can also result from physical or chemical damage to the eye, optic nerve, or parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "banner blindness" was coined by Benway and Lane as a result of website usability tests where a majority of the test subjects either consciously or unconsciously ignored information that was presented in banners. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • Moral blindness is a state of unawareness or insensibility to moral issues pertaining both to oneself and to one's relations to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mind-blindness is a state where the ToM has not been developed, or has been lost in an individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • change
  • Change blindness has become a highly researched topic and some have argued that it may have important practical implications in areas such as eyewitness testimony and distractions while driving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of the domain of psychology, phenomena related to change blindness have been discussed since the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • failure
  • Blindness marks the failure or inefficacy of ophthalmological treatment. (springer.com)
  • Despite the fact that ToM and mind-blindness can explain executive function deficits, it is argued that autism is not identified with the failure of the executive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • city
  • it concerns the social breakdown that occurs after much of the population in a European city is inexplicably stricken with blindness and placed into quarantine. (variety.com)
  • The doctor and his wife and their new "family" eventually make a permanent home in the doctor's house and are establishing a new order to their lives when the blindness lifts from the city en masse just as suddenly and inexplicably as it struck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes
  • Sometimes color blindness can be caused by physical or chemical damage to the eye, the optic nerve, or parts of the brain that process color information. (nih.gov)