Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Spherocytosis, Hereditary: A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Reticulocytosis: An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Bone Marrow DiseasesHematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxymetholone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.

*  Folate - Red Cell (Whole Blood) During Pregnancy | BabyMed.com
... most often if your red blood cells are larger than normal called macrocytic anemia. ... If you're experiencing anemia, your doctor will order a series of blood tests. The series of tests may include the red cell ... most often if your red blood cells are larger than normal called macrocytic anemia. Anemia of all kinds can cause pale skin, ... If you're experiencing anemia, your doctor will order a series of blood tests. The series of tests may include the red cell ...
  https://www.babymed.com/laboratory-values/folate-red-cell-whole-blood-during-pregnancy
*  Home remedy and diet for Macrocytic Anaemia
Macrocytic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia. Pernicious anemia. Scurvy. Rickets. Osteomalacia. Abetalipoproteinemia. Muscular ... Macrocytic Anemia symptoms and signs are attributable to the underlying condition that caused the anemia or to the anemia ... the anemia is termed megaloblastic anemia. Cause of Macrocytic anemia. Vitamin B12 is essential for normal nervous system ... Anemia. Thalassemia. Sideroblastic anemia. Porphyria cutanea tarda. Sickle-cell anemia. Wilsons Disease. kwashiorkor. Menkes ...
  http://online-vitamins-guide.com/deficiency/macrocytic-anemia.htm
*  The Raw Foods Evolution: Vitamin B12 and the Raw Foods Diet
One of the major symptoms of B-12 or folic acid deficiency is macrocytic anemia. Folate, also called folic acid, is needed to ... They also have irregular macrocytic anemia.. The good news that one major study in the United Kingdom in 1988 showed, in ... macrocytic anemia, low platelets, increased bleeding, low white blood cell count. Some of the causes of B-12 deficiency are low ... iron and B-12 anemia, as well as zinc deficiency. In the 1982 study, three of the infants were dead on arrival, five more died ...
  http://therawdiet.blogspot.com/2006/09/vitamin-b12-and-raw-foods-diet.html
*  Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemias - Hematology and Oncology - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
... treatment of Anemias Caused by Deficient Erythropoiesis from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemias By Evan M. Braunstein, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology, ... Megaloblastic anemia is suspected in anemic patients with macrocytic indices. Diagnosis is usually based on peripheral smear. ... Most macrocytic (ie, MCV >100 fL/cell) anemias are megaloblastic. Nonmegaloblastic macrocytosis occurs in various clinical ...
  http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/anemias-caused-by-deficient-erythropoiesis/megaloblastic-macrocytic-anemias?Ref=s&ItemId=v968936&RefId=/hematology_and_oncology/anemias_caused_by_deficient_erythropoiesis/megaloblastic_macrocytic_anemias&Speed=256&Plugin=WMP&Error=
*  Medication Causes of Macrocytic Anemia
... , Medications Affecting Folate Metabolism, Medications Affecting Cobalamin, Medication ... Causes of Marrow Toxicity, Drug-Induced Macrocytic Anemia. ... Medication Causes of Macrocytic Anemia. Medication Causes of ... Anemia Clinical Clues Adverse Drug Reaction Anemia Following ICU Admission Vitamin B12 Deficiency Macrocytic Anemia Folate ... Macrocytic Anemia Aka: Medication Causes of Macrocytic Anemia, Medications Affecting Folate Metabolism, Medications Affecting ...
  http://fpnotebook.com/HemeOnc/Pharm/MdctnCsOfMcrcytcAnm.htm
*  Macrocytic Anaemia | Health and Medical Care
Tagged as : Anaemia, Anaemia Causes, Anaemia Effects, Anaemia Symptoms, Anormocytic Anaemia, Haemoglobin, Macrocytic Anaemia, ... Anaemia is a disease in which the haemoglobin or the red blood cell calculation is below the normal level. Usually the normal ... Anaemia - Disease Linked With Haemoglobin Or The Red Blood Cell * Gastritis - A Swelling, Tenderness Or Corrosion Of The ... In case of men, anaemia is by and large classified as haemoglobin level below 13.5 gram/100 ml and in case of women as Read ...
  http://healthmedpremier.com/tag/macrocytic-anaemia/
*  Macrocytic anemia - Wikipedia
The term macrocytic is from Greek words meaning "large cell". A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with ... In contrast, in microcytic anemia, the erythrocytes are smaller than normal. In a macrocytic anemia, the larger red cells are ... Especially common causes of macrocytic anemias are the so-called megaloblastic anemias,[citation needed] in which cells are ... anemia). Macrocytic anemia is not a disease in the sense of having a single pathology but, rather, is a condition. As such, it ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrocytic_anemia
*  Raynaud's phenomenon and macrocytic anaemia | The BMJ
He had a macrocytic anaemia but normal serum levels of vitamin B-12 and folate. There were no additional clinical features to ... Raynaud's phenomenon and macrocytic anaemia. BMJ 2010; 341 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c6011 (Published 08 December 2010) ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/341/bmj.c6011
*  Macrocytic Anemia - Forum on Choosing Your Meds -- TheBody.com
I just got my blood test report and it indicates that there is a mildly macrocytic but the clinic doctor asked not to worry. ... Lastly, your MCV (red cell volume) abnormal- your cells are not macrocytic. ...
  http://www.thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Meds/Q225803.html
*  Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: Anemia, Macrocytic
Browse by Outcome: Anemia, Macrocytic (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
  http://canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/2886
*  DIVERTICULOSIS OF THE JEJUNUM WITH MACROCYTIC ANEMIA AND STEATORRHEA* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...
DIVERTICULOSIS OF THE JEJUNUM WITH MACROCYTIC ANEMIA AND STEATORRHEA(DIVERTICULOSIS OF THE JEJUNUM WITH MACROCYTIC ANEMIA AND ... DIVERTICULOSIS OF THE JEJUNUM WITH MACROCYTIC ANEMIA AND STEATORRHEA(DIVERTICULOSIS OF THE JEJUNUM WITH MACROCYTIC ANEMIA AND ... In a review of the literature on jejunal diverticulosis, 15 cases with the triad,1-12 eight with macrocytic anemia,11-17 and ... Jejunal diverticulosis complicated by macrocytic anemia and steatorrhea has been rarely reported, and the syndrome has remained ...
  http://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/1032415/diverticulosis-jejunum-macrocytic-anemia-steatorrhea
*  Will you have Macrocytic anemia with Ibuprofen sodium - from FDA reports - eHealthMe
Drugs that are associated with Macrocytic anemia. Macrocytic anemia Could your condition cause Macrocytic anemia. Macrocytic ... Macrocytic Anemia. Macrocytic anemia (anaemia in which red blood cells are larger than normal, fall in haemoglobin ... Ibuprofen sodium and Macrocytic anemia - from FDA reports. Summary. There is no Macrocytic anemia reported by people who take ... Do you have Macrocytic anemia when taking Ibuprofen sodium?. *Check symptoms - is macrocytic anemia caused by a drug or a ...
  https://www.ehealthme.com/ds/ibuprofen-sodium/macrocytic-anemia/
*  Sanjad-Sakati syndrome with macrocytic anemia and failure to thrive: a case from South Jordan, Journal of Pediatric...
"Sanjad-Sakati syndrome with macrocytic anemia and failure to thrive: a case from South Jordan, Journal of Pediatric ... Sanjad-Sakati syndrome with macrocytic anemia and failure to thrive: a case from South Jordan. Ajarmeh, Salma A.; Al Tamimi, ... Sanjad-Sakati syndrome with macrocytic anemia and failure to thrive: a case from South Jordan Ajarmeh, Salma A.; Al Tamimi, ... Sanjad-Sakati syndrome with macrocytic anemia and failure to thrive: a case from South Jordan. ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/degruyter/sanjad-sakati-syndrome-with-macrocytic-anemia-and-failure-to-thrive-a-ay8sgpFYer
*  Does reticulocytosis cause a macrocytic anemia? | Pathology Student
Under non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias, it lists liver disease, alcoholism, reticulocytosis, and drugs such as 5FU and AZT ... Macrocytic anemia. First, let's just review macrocytic anemias quickly. There are two kinds of macrocytic anemias: ... Uncomplicated anemia in liver disease (e.g., plain old macrocytic anemia without superimposed iron-deficiency anemia or anemia ... 2) You do NOT get a macrocytic anemia from reticulocytosis. Let's just get that out in the open and cleared up right now. It's ...
  http://www.pathologystudent.com/does-reticulocytosis-cause-a-macrocytic-anemia/
*  Macrocytic Anemia, Refractory, Due to 5q Deletion, Somatic disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
MalaCards integrated aliases for Macrocytic Anemia, Refractory, Due to 5q Deletion, Somatic:. Name: Macrocytic Anemia, ... MalaCards organs/tissues related to Macrocytic Anemia, Refractory, Due to 5q Deletion, Somatic:. 39 Bone, Bone Marrow, ... Pathways related to Macrocytic Anemia, Refractory, Due to 5q Deletion, Somatic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:. id. ... Copy number variations for Macrocytic Anemia, Refractory, Due to 5q Deletion, Somatic from CNVD:. 7 id. CNVD ID. Chromosom. ...
  http://www.malacards.org/card/macrocytic_anemia_refractory_due_to_5q_deletion_somatic
*  I have Macrocytic Anemia, also had 2 operations last year for cyst removal on L5. Have bad cramping - Medical Stories -...
I have Macrocytic Anemia and also had 2 operations last year for cyst removal on L5 - caused bad sciatica. Could the leg/foot ... I have Macrocytic Anemia, also had 2 operations last year for cyst removal on L5. Have bad cramping. ... middle of the night have anything to do with the fact that I still have sciatica problems or are the cramps due to the Anemia? ...
  http://www.ourhealth.com/conditions/patient-stories/i-have-macrocytic-anemia-also-had-2-operations-last-year-for-cyst-removal-on-l5-have-bad-cramping
*  MCV test, red blood cells, RBC, Complete Blood Count, CBC, Mean corpuscular volume, macrocytic anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency,...
The MCV is increased if RBCs are larger than normal (macrocytic), for example in anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. When ... the MCV is low RBCs are smaller than normal (microcytic) as is found in iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia.Medical Tests ... In presence of hemolytic anaemia, presence of reticulocytes can increase MCV. In pernicious anemia (macrocytic), MCV can range ... If anemia is present, MCV measurement allows classification as microcytic anemia (MCV below normal range), normocytic anemia ( ...
  http://smrtx.com/1_2_5_mcv.htm
*  Interpreting Hematology Values | Laboratory Manager
Table: Macrocytic Anemia6. Differential Diagnosis. CBC. Peripheral blood smear. Drug-induced (hydroxyurea, zidovudine). ... For example, a macrocytic anemia (increased MCV of 100-110 fL or higher) with a microscopic review of a peripheral blood smear ... are common causes of macrocytic anemia. A bench tech should compare the cluster of clues (RDW, presence of oval macrocytes, etc ... A CBC (complete blood count) is a common laboratory panel to screen for and monitor disease such as anemia and leukemia. The ...
  http://laboratory-manager.advanceweb.com/interpreting-hematology-values/
*  Midterm 2 Flashcards by MONICA RUIZ-SOSA | Brainscape
Macrocytic anemia. • Impairment of DNA synthesis and repair. • Peripheral neuropathy. • Neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/midterm-2-5869968/packs/8768525
*  Films Media Group - Interpretation of Lab Tests
Thalassemia and lead poisoning are the other causes of microcytic anemia. Macrocytic Anemia (02:08). An MCV between 100 and 120 ... View normal hemoglobin ranges; RBC size also helps define anemias.. Microcytic Anemia (03:02). Most microcytic anemia patients ... Normocytic Anemia (01:46). RBCs less than 3,000,000 and a normal MCV indicate chronic disease anemia, including CRF, ... Chronic atrophic gastritis, malabsorption, parasites, strict vegetarianism, and certain drugs also increase macrocytic anemia ...
  https://www.films.com/ecTitleDetail.aspx?TitleID=144105&r=S
*  Browse Title Index
A Case of Macrocytic Anaemia with Paraplegia due to Tuberculosis. Abstract PDF ...
  http://ijomdas.com/index.php?journal=ij&page=search&op=titles
*  Chapter 24. Thyroid Disorders | Internal Medicine: A Guide to Clinical Therapeutics | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill Medical
Lab findings: macrocytic anemia, hyponatremia, hypercholesterolemia, ↑ creatine kinase. *Myxedema coma: hypothermia, ... Ann Intern Med 2009;151:ITC6): 1-2% ♀; 0.1% ♂ (10:1 ratio); chronic thyroiditis ↑ risk of T1DM, Addison's, pernicious anemia, ...
  http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=565§ionid=42003737
*  Kidney Problems And Anemia | Penyakit Ubat & Rawatan
Macrocytic anemia: Macrocytic anemia can be further divided into "megaloblastic anemia" or "non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemia ... • Microcytic anemia: Microcytic anemia caused due to hemoglobin synthesis failure or insufficiency. Iron deficiency anemia is ... • Normocytic anemia :Normocytic anaemia causes when the overall Hb levels are decreased, but the red blood cell size (MCV) ... Most people understand that anemia is caused by iron deficiency in the bloodstream but in reality anemia is characterized by ...
  http://www.rawatan.org/kidney-problems-and-anemia/
*  Anaemia synonyms, anaemia antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Antonyms for anaemia. 2 synonyms for anaemia: anemia, anemia. What are synonyms for anaemia? ... macrocytic anaemia. *macrocytic anemia. *microcytic anaemia. *microcytic anemia. *malignant anaemia. *malignant anemia ... anaemia. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to anaemia: pernicious anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia ... anemia','type':2},{'name':'drepanocytic anaemia','type':4},{'name':'drepanocytic anemia','type':4},{'name':'sickle-cell anaemia ...
  https://www.freethesaurus.com/anaemia
*  A Good Snack | TEG
Anemia of chronic disease Anemias clinical features diagnosis evaluation of f hemolytic macrocytic microcytic b normocytic ... being an image that is built up as a series of tiny light units line upon line.Possible Complications Anemia hemolytic anemia ... url=http://kamxl.com]come aquistare kamagra post.pay[/url] She had anemia leukocytosis adenitis and needed a blood transfusion ...
  http://twinsengineeringgreatness.com/blog/chrisluizzi/good-snack

AnemiaCongenital hypoplastic anemiaMicroangiopathic hemolytic anemiaFANC proteins: FANC proteins are a group of proteins associated with Fanconi anemia.Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemiaNon-sideropenic hypochromic anaemia: ==Basic Features==MacrocytosisElisha K. Green: Elisha K. Green (1839–1917) was an entrepreneur in Los Angeles, California, who "made a fortune out of windmills" and served for six years on the Common Council, the governing body of that city.Sickle-cell diseaseSideroblastic anemiaSLC19A2: Thiamine transporter 1, also known as thiamine carrier 1 (TC1) or solute carrier family 19 member 2 (SLC19A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC19A2 gene. SLC19A2 is a thiamine transporter.Uniform methods and rules: The Uniform methods and rules are documents by the Veterinary Services office of USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that specify the minimum standards for preventing, detecting, controlling, and/or eradicating a particular animal disease. APHIS in late 2004 had UM&Rs posted on bovine tuberculosis eradication, brucellosis, brucellosis in cervidae, equine infectious anemia, pseudorabies eradication, swine brucellosis control/eradication, and voluntary scrapie flock certification programHemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Congenital hemolytic anemiaContinuous erythropoietin receptor activator: Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is the generic term for drugs in a new class of third-generation erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). In the media, these agents are commonly referred to as 'EPO', short for erythropoietin.Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type III: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type III (CDA III) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by macrocytic anemia, bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia and giant multlnucleate erythroblasts.http://hmg.Lizzie's LootIron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Gestational thrombocytopeniaAnemia of prematurityHematinic: A hematinic is a nutrient required for the formation of blood cells in the process of hematopoiesis. The principle hematinics are iron, B12, and folate.Hematocrit: The hematocrit (Ht or HCT, British English spelling haematocrit), also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally 45% for men and 40% for women.ErythropoiesisRibose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency: Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency (RPI deficiency, OMIM #608611) is a human disorder caused by mutations in the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. With a single diagnosed patient, RPI deficiency is currently the rarest disease in the world.PallorFerritinRed blood cell distribution width: right|frame|Human red blood cellsTransfusion associated circulatory overloadErythrocrine: Erythrocrine describes red blood cell or erythrocyte for production and release of signaling molecules. The term “erythrocrine“ was coined by Song et al.Coombs test: A Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT).Potassium ferrateAnisocytosisPartial cloning: In the field of cell biology, the method of partial cloning (PCL) converts a fully differentiated old somatic cell into a partially reprogrammed young cell that retains all the specialised functions of the differentiated old cell but is simply younger. The method of PCL reverses characteristics associated with old cells.Bone marrow suppression: Bone marrow suppression or myelotoxicity (adjective myelotoxic) or myelosuppression is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine.PancytopeniaThalassemiaOsazoneList of MeSH codes (D12.776.660): This is a sub-part (nuclear proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobinRoll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Blood cell: A blood cell, also called a hemocyte, hematocyte, or hematopoietic cell, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories:Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cobalamin biosynthesis: {{Infobox protein familyCanadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.ProerythroblastErythrocyte fragility: Erythrocyte fragility refers to the propensity of erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) to hemolyse (rupture) under stress. It can be thought of as the degree or proportion of hemolysis that occurs when a sample of red blood cells are subjected to stress (typically physical stress, and most commonly osmotic and/or mechanical stress).Reticulocyte indexAnti-lymphocyte globulin: Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation. It was developed in the 1960s, during which time 74 scientific papers were published on its use.Parasitemia: Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood. It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the organism and an indication of the degree of an active parasitic infection.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.FerroceneNathan W. LevinNigro protocol: Nigro protocol is the pre-operative use of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin and medical radiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal of less than 5 cm, followed by surgical excision if necessary. Specifically, in the protocol, the patient receives 30 Gy of radiation over a three-week period, as well as continuous administration of fluorouracil for the first four days and on days 29-32, with the mitomycin administered on the first day of treatment.Gull Island (Prudhoe Bay): Gull Island is a small island located at , 8 km (5 miles) off shore from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, in the Beaufort Sea. In plan view it is shaped somewhat like the capital letter "L", with a length of approximately 300 m, and is about 30 m wide along much of its length.Hookworm vaccine: Hookworm vaccine is a vaccine against hookworm. No effective vaccine for the disease has yet been developed.Transferrin receptor: Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a carrier protein for transferrin. It is needed for the import of iron into the cell and is regulated in response to intracellular iron concentration.HemoglobinopathyHeparin-induced thrombocytopeniaSupercooling: Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.Pernicious anemiaHereditary spherocytosisNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Antimicrobial peptides: Antimicrobial peptides, also called "host defense peptides" are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life. Fundamental differences exist between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that may represent targets for antimicrobial peptides.Hemolysis (microbiology): Hemolysis (or haemolysis in British English) is the breakdown of red blood cells. The ability of bacterial colonies to induce hemolysis when grown on blood agar is used to classify certain microorganisms.Federal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.HydroxycarbamideParvovirus B19: Primate erythroparvovirus 1, generally referred to as B19 virus, parvovirus B19 or sometimes erythrovirus B19, was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human virus in the family Parvoviridae, genus Erythroparvovirus; it measures only 23–26 nm in diameter.http://www.Nutrition and cognition: Food is conventionally regarded as a means to provide energy and building material within the body. Recently, the ability of food to prevent and protect against diseases has started to become recognized, mainly in relation to the effects of nutrients on molecular processes within the body.

(1/185) Oral treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and zidovudine suppresses murine accessory cell-dependent immune responses.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), commonly used for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in AIDS patients, often produces a high incidence of treatment-limiting reactions. We investigated the effect of oral administration of TMP-SMX alone or in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (ZDV) on hematopoiesis and cellular immunity in BALB/c mice. Daily treatment for 28 days with TMP-SMX (160:800 mg/kg) had no effect on hematopoiesis or the ex vivo proliferative response of splenic T lymphocytes to allogeneic tumor cells (EL-4) or to concanavalin A (ConA), or that of splenic B cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ZDV at 240 mg/kg/day was not immunosuppressive but caused a mild macrocytic anemia. Combined treatment produced severe pancytopenia, a significant drop in splenic cellularity, and a 61% decrease in the percentage of splenic macrophages. The percentage of splenic CD3+ lymphocytes increased 150% in the TMP-SMX + ZDV group, but the ratios of T-cell subsets and the frequency of B cells remained unchanged. Combined drug treatment did not impair the proliferative response of B cells to LPS or that of T cells to EL-4 cells. In concert with the reduction in the percentage of macrophages, the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to ConA decreased significantly. Optimal ConA-induced T-cell proliferation requires the participation of accessory cells (AC) (e.g., macrophages); EL-4 cells are able to function as AC. These data indicate that ZDV synergizes with TMP-SMX, causing severe hematotoxicity and suppressing AC-dependent immune function, and suggest that this therapeutic regimen may contribute to the immune deterioration in AIDS patients.  (+info)

(2/185) Hereditary hemochromatosis in a patient with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia.

Herein is described the case of a young woman presenting with iron overload and macrocytosis. The initial diagnosis was hereditary hemochromatosis. Severe anemia developed after a few phlebotomies, and she was also found to have congenital dyserythropoietic anemia that, though not completely typical, resembled type II. Only genetic testing allowed the definition of the coexistence of the 2 diseases, both responsible for the iron overload. This report points out the need to consider congenital dyserythropoietic anemia in patients with hemochromatosis and unexplained macrocytosis and, conversely, to check for the presence of hereditary hemochromatosis in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and severe iron overload. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of homozygosity for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene in a patient affected by congenital dyserythropoietic anemia.  (+info)

(3/185) Erythropoiesis in steel mutant mice: effects of erythropoietin in vitro.

Adult SI/SI-d mutant mice have severe macrocytic, normochromic anemia. Moreover these animals are unresponsive to the stimulation of erythropoietin in vivo. By means of a bone marrow cell suspension culture system, the present investigation shows that in adult SI/SI-d marrow, there are cells capable of responding in vitro to erythropoietin in a normal fashion. Moreover, the erythropoietin present in SI/SI-d serum is biologically active in vitro without any prior biochemical modification. These observations support the suggestion that there is a defect in differentiation in the erythroid cell lines of SI/SI-d mice in vivo due to an abnormal hemopoietic microenvironment.  (+info)

(4/185) Depressed cell-mediated immunity in megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency.

Cell-mediated immunity has been studied in patients with 1) megaloblastic anemia of folic acid deficiency, 2)megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy, or 3) iron-deficiency anemia. Using dinitrochlorobenzene skin tests, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte transformation, and rosette inhibition by antilymphocyte globulin, we have shown that cell-mediated immunity is depressed in megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency; this depression was reversed by folate treatment. Cell-mediated immunity was not impaired by iron-deficiency anemia. Suggested interactions between iron deficiency and folate metabolism were not clarified by these studies.  (+info)

(5/185) Arsenic intoxication as a cause of megaloblastic anemia.

We have described a case of chronic arsenic intoxication associated with pancytopenia and megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The patient had the typical laboratory manifestations of effective erythorpoiesis due to a megaloblastic process, including macroovalocytes, mild pancytopenia, low reticulocyte index, increased marrow cellularity with erythroid hyperplasia, and morphologic evidence of megaloblastic maturation in the marrow. The patient's serum folate and vitamin B12 were normal, and the anemia regressed without therapy. Our case suggests that the combination of megaloblastosis with normoblastic or megaloblastic karyorrhexis,should raise the suspicion of arsenic intoxication in the mind of the observer. In addition, arsenic should be added to the list of agents causing a reversible megaloblastic anemia.  (+info)

(6/185) Unusual megaloblastic anaemia wiht multinucleate erythroblasts: two cases with septicaemia and acute renal failure.

The case histories and blood pictures of two patients who had cardiac lesions, septicaemia, and renal failure and terminally developed a leucoerythroblastic anaemia with megloblastic features associated with multinucleate erythroblasts, are described. Though folate deficiency may have made a minor contribution to the blood abnormalities, it is considered that some other disturbance in erythropoiesis was responsible for the bizarre blood and bone marrow changes in these patients. Similar cases reported in the earlier literature are reviewed.  (+info)

(7/185) Erythrocyte volume distribution in normal and abnormal subjects.

Size-frequency distribution curves of erythrocytes were generated with the Coulter Counter in 73 normal subjects and patients. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) determined by routine calculation and MCV determined by size-frequency distribution were similar in all normal subjects and in patients with a single population of erythrocytes. Some patients with iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, and vitamin B12 deficiency had two discrete erythrocyte populations. Some patients with microcytic anemia were shown to have a population of normocytes in addition to the predominant microcytic population. Reticulocytes and normocytes were identified in two patients recovering from macrocytic anemia. Transfused blood was identified as a separate population in a patient with microcytic anemia. In cases with two erythrocyte populations, the MCV of the principal population, as determined from size-distribution curves, differed from the MCV of the entire erythrocyte pool, as was determined by routine methods. Analysis of sequential erythrocyte size distributions in patients under treatment demonstrated the dynamics of erythrocyte subpopulations. Anisocytosis was quantified and shown to be associated frequently with hospitalized patients.  (+info)

(8/185) A new hematologic syndrome with a distinct karyotype: the 5 q--chromosome.

Five patients, four women and one man, age 32-8- yr, all whites, had refractory anemia with the same abnormal bone marrow karyotype, i.e., a partial deletion of the long arm of the No. 5 chromosome. The hematologic syndrome was practically the same in these five cases. Examination of the blood revealed a moderate to severe, generally macrocytic anemia with slight leukopenia but normal or elevated platelet count. The bone marrow showed a depressed erythroid series and some abnormalities of the granulocytic series with an occasional excess of myeloblasts. Most of the megakaryocytes had a nonlobulated nucleus. These features, as well as cytogenetic, electron microscopic, isotopic, platelet function, and immunologic studies, are described in detail. The relationship of this newly established syndrome to other hematologic diseases is discussed. The syndrome constitutes another example of the association between a specific abnormal chromosome and a distinct hematologic disorder.  (+info)



  • hemolysis
  • Also, rapid blood replacement from the marrow after a traumatic blood loss, or rapid red blood cell turnover from rapid hemolysis (G6PD deficiency), also often produces mild macrocytosis in the associated anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are larger than their normal volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a macrocytic anemia, the larger red cells are always associated with insufficient numbers of cells and often also insufficient hemoglobin content per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these factors work to the opposite effect of larger cell size, to finally result in a total blood hemoglobin concentration that is less than normal (i.e., anemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia: Differential Diagnosis Full blood count Mean corpuscular hemoglobin ‹ The template below (Myeloid blood tests) is being considered for merging. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, which may include confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, or increased thirst. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • However, a role for PCFT in heme and iron homeostasis is excluded by the observation that humans or mice with loss-of-function PCFT mutations are not iron or heme deficient and the anemia, and all other systemic consequences of the loss of this transporter, are completely corrected with high-dose oral, or low-dose, parenteral folate. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The three main types of anemia are due to blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, and increased red blood cell breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • Anemia increases costs of medical care and lowers a person's productivity through a decreased ability to work. (wikipedia.org)