Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Salivary Gland DiseasesAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Sebaceous Gland Diseases: Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Eyelid DiseasesSubmandibular Gland DiseasesMeibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.

*  Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
... adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent ... The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: ... CT and MR imaging of massive macronodular adrenocortical disease: a rare cause of autonomous primary adrenal hypercortisolism. ... The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited:. * adrenal hyperplasia *micronodular adrenal ...
  https://radiopaedia.org/articles/bilateral-adrenal-gland-enlargement
*  What are the possible reasons for running low on sodium? | Reference.com
Other causes include burns, adrenal gland disease, liver scarring and medications... ... Other causes include burns, adrenal gland disease, liver scarring and medications for high blood pressure called diuretics. ... A: Common causes of wheezing include asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, ...
  https://www.reference.com/health/possible-reasons-running-low-sodium-1ad6975ff7c552ff
*  VETORYL® CAPSULES(trilostane)
Side effects generally involve an over suppression of the adrenal glands (hypoadrenocorticism, also known as Addison's Disease ... Cortisol is normally released from the adrenal gland into the bloodstream at times of stress. In dogs with hyperadrenocorticism ... In some cases, it may take months for adrenal function to return and some dogs never regain adequate adrenal function. ... One dog developed an adrenal rupture, believed to be secondary to adrenal necrosis, approximately six weeks after starting ...
  https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=11916
*  NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease
What is Addison's disease?. Addison's disease is the result of an underactive adrenal gland. An underactive adrenal gland ... Onset of this disease may occur at any age.. What causes Addison's disease?. Destruction of the adrenal gland due to an ... Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease. Fact Lack of corticosteroids in the blood may cause the pituitary gland to ... How is Addison's disease treated?. The goal of treatment is to restore the adrenal glands to normal function, producing normal ...
  http://www.nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW000397&More=DIW&language=Chinese
*  Diseases of the Adrenal Glands | Health and Wellness on ActForLibraries.org
Adrenal Gland Disease Adrenal Gland Tumors Adrenal Glands in Humans Diseases of the Adrenal Gland ... Diseases of the Adrenal Glands. Health. The adrenal glands are small, endocrine organs located just above each kidney. They are ... The disease is caused by a tumor, or by an enlargement of the adrenal gland due to another disease process, such as cirrhosis ... Two of the major hormones secreted by the adrenal glands are cortisol and aldosterone. With Addison's disease, the adrenals are ...
  http://www.actforlibraries.org/health/health/2015/05/diseases-adrenal-glands.html
*  Cushing's disease and other adrenal gland disorders (Q&A with Dr. E.C. Feldman)
... medicine/Cushings-disease-and-other-adrenal-gland-disorders/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/672663?contextCategoryId=40534 ... Cushing's disease and other adrenal gland disorders A Q&A with veterinary endocrinologist Edward C. Feldman Jun 1, 2010 By: Avi ... Cushing's disease and other adrenal gland disorders (Q&A with Dr. E.C. Feldman) Cushing's disease and other adrenal gland ... Thread: Cushing's disease and other adrenal gland disorders (Q&A with Dr. E.C. Feldman) ...
  http://www.k9cushings.com/forum/showthread.php?2231-Cushing-s-disease-and-other-adrenal-gland-disorders-
*  Study of Adrenal Gland Tumors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System ... Virilizing Adrenal Tumor. Feminizing Adrenal Tumor. Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease. Adrenal Gland Tumor. ... Adrenal Cancer Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland ACTH-independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia ... MedlinePlus related topics: Adrenal Gland Cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adrenocortical ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00005927?cond=%22Adenoma+of+the+adrenal+gland%22&rank=5
*  Study of Adrenal Gland Tumors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System ... Virilizing Adrenal Tumor. Feminizing Adrenal Tumor. Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease. Adrenal Gland Tumor. ... Adrenal Gland Cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's ... The adrenal glands, located atop the kidneys, normally produce several types of hormones. Tumors of these glands may or may not ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00005927?term=NICHD+Cushing
*  Adrenal Gland Disorders - Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment
Adrenals may produce too much hormones or too little hormones. ... Adrenal gland disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not ... Addison s disease - This is an auto immune disease in which the body attacks its own adrenal glands. The adrenal glands fail to ... What are Adrenal Gland Disorders?. Significant disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not work properly. Adrenals may ... it is due to an abnormal growth of the glands.. Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders. Adrenal gland disorders produce a broad ...
  http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/adrenal-gland-disorders.htm
*  Ferrets - Other Hormonal Diseases
Adrenal Gland Disease. "In ferrets, true Cushing's disease does not occur.". Disease associated with hyperactivity of the ... In ferrets, true Cushing's disease does not occur. Although hyperactive adrenal glands and adrenal gland tumors occur, the ... adrenal gland disease) and diabetes mellitus. The first disease occurs in a large number of ferrets in North America, while the ... In many cases, clinical signs and a thorough medical history can lead to a presumptive diagnosis of adrenal gland disease. ...
  http://www.lifelearn-cliented.com/iframe.php?action=view&clinic=4305&rid=977&c=&print=1
*  Does Serum-DXM Increase Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overnight DXM Suppression Test in the Work-up of Cushing's Syndrome? -...
Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Syndrome. Alcoholism. Cushing Syndrome. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol ... Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Dexamethasone acetate. Dexamethasone. BB 1101. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Antiemetics. Autonomic Agents ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01504555?recr=Open&cond=%22Adrenal+Gland+Neoplasms%22&rank=13
*  Dr. Bill Law Jr, MD - Knoxville, TN - Endocrinology & Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism | Healthgrades.com
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Adrenal Incidentaloma. *Adrenal Insufficiency. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases ... I was referred to Dr.Law for hyperactive thyroid, which he later diagnosed as Grave's disease. I don't have enough room to go ... One of those 'symptoms', was thyroid eye disease which is now a severe case and should've been handled aggressively from beg. I ...
  https://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-bill-law-y28nx
*  Effects and Interactions of Liquorice and Grapefruit on Glucocorticoid Replacement Therapy in Addison's Disease - Full...
Addison Disease. Adrenal Insufficiency. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System ... Addison's disease is a rare disease, wherein the adrenals can not produce sufficient steroid hormones (cortisol and aldosterone ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Addison Disease Dietary Supplement: Liquorice Dietary Supplement: Grapefruit ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Addison's Disease Hypoadrenalism ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01271296?term=%22Addison+Disease%22+%5BDISEASE%5D&rank=1
*  Ovarian Follicle Function in Patients With Primary Ovarian Failure - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Endocrine System Diseases. Menstruation Disturbances. Pathologic Processes. Ovarian Diseases. Adnexal Diseases. Adrenal ... Genital Diseases, Male. Genital Diseases, Female. Gonadal Disorders. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Turner Syndrome Gonadal Dysgenesis Hypoadrenalism Hypoaldosteronism ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001275
*  Dr. Omar Santana Hernandez, MD - Tampa, FL - Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism | Healthgrades.com
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Adrenal Incidentaloma. *Adrenal Insufficiency. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases ...
  https://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-omar-santana-hernandez-ghjmc
*  Study of Cushing's Syndrome Not Related to ACTH Production - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... scan of one or both adrenal glands. They will fill out questionnaires on their disease symptoms, quality of life, and on basic ... PATIENTS WITH NORMAL ADRENAL GLANDS:. Patients with normal adrenal glands will be recruited from those studied under NCI ... adrenal adenomas and massive macronodular adrenal disease (MMAD).. Patients with low levels of ACTH and Cushing's syndrome will ... Patients with normal adrenal glands who are participating in National Cancer Institute studies and are scheduled for ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00006278?term=nichd+Cushing
*  Dr. Michael Jenkins, MD - Panama City, FL - Urology | Healthgrades.com
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Atrophic Vaginitis. *Balanoposthitis. *Bedwetting. *Bladder Cancer. *Bladder Diseases. *Bladder ...
  https://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-michael-jenkins-3csp9
*  Dose Response Relationship for Single Doses of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Normal Volunteers and in Patients With...
Addison Disease. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune ... Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction Adrenal Gland Hypofunction Cushing's Syndrome Healthy Drug: Ovine Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone ( ... Problems can occur in any of the steps of this process and result in a variety of diseases (Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal ... ACTH then causes the adrenal glands to make a third hormone, cortisol. This process is known as the hypothalamic-pituitary- ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00001180
*  Trial in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (FIRM-ACT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. ... Number of Disease-free Patients [ Time Frame: every 8 weeks until progression (up to 5 years) ]. complete response or disease- ... Carcinoma, Adrenal Cortical Drug: Etoposide Drug: Doxorubicin Drug: Cisplatin Drug: Streptozotocin Drug: Mitotane Phase 3 ... Endocrine System Diseases. Liposomal doxorubicin. Cisplatin. Doxorubicin. Etoposide. Mitotane. Streptozocin. Antineoplastic ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00924144?view=record
*  Value of 25 mcg Cortrosyn Stimulation Test - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Insufficiency. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Insulin, Globin Zinc. Insulin. Adrenocorticotropic ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Adrenal Insufficiency Procedure: 1 ug ACTH stimulation test Procedure: 250 ug ACTH ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01428336
*  Dr. Noriecel Mendoza, MD - Medford, OR - Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism | Healthgrades.com
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Adrenal Incidentaloma. *Adrenal Insufficiency. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases ...
  https://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-noriecel-mendoza-y682j
*  Dr. Douglas Politz, MD - Wesley Chapel, FL - Endocrine Surgery & Endocrinology | Healthgrades.com
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Adrenal Incidentaloma. *Adrenal Insufficiency. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases ... Dr Politz's intuition that I had abnormal glands despite not having super high calcium levels saved my life, literally and ...
  https://www.healthgrades.com/physician/dr-douglas-politz-xd4bp
*  Efficacy of Adjuvant Mitotane Treatment (ADIUVO) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. ... Caution should be adopted particularly in patients with low risk of disease relapse, in whom the benefit of therapy should be ... Study Rationale Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare disease with a high risk of relapse after radical surgery. The ... The purpose of the present study is to determine whether adjuvant mitotane treatment is effective in prolonging the disease ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00777244?cond=%22Adrenocortical+carcinoma%22&rank=16
*  Pilot Study Assessing Oxidative Stress in Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenal Insufficiency. Disease Attributes. Pathologic Processes. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. ... Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is common in critically ill children and adults. AI is a condition in which the adrenal glands, ... Role fo oxidative stress in adrenal insufficiency has not been studied. The degree of oxidative stress and it's role in ... Prevalence of Oxidative Stress in Critically Ill Children and Its Relationship to Adrenal Insufficiency; a Pilot Study. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01052207?term=%22Adrenal+Gland+Diseases%22+%5BDISEASE%5D&rank=17

Absent adrenal glandSebaceous adenitis: In canines, sebaceous adenitis, or SA, refers to the autoimmune disease found in some breeds of dog and more rarely in cats, rabbits and horses. It is an uncommon, idiopathic skin disease, characterised by an immune response against the dog's sebaceous glands (glands found in the hair follicles in the skin dermis), which can lead to the destruction of the gland.DacryoadenitisAdrenal tumorBlepharochalasisMeibomian gland: The meibomian glands (or tarsal glands) are a special kind of sebaceous gland at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tear spillage onto the cheek, trapping tears between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight.Sympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.Dredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.Autoimmune diseaseAmphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Bombardier Challenger 300: The Bombardier BD-100 Challenger 300 is a super-mid-sized jet capable of traversing transcontinental distances. It is not developmentally related to the similarly named Challenger 600 series, or the 600-derived Challenger 800 series.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyAdrenocortical adenoma: A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex.Catecholaminergic cell groups: Catecholaminergic cell groups refers to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain one of the neurotransmitters dopamine or norepinephrine. Thus, it represents the combination of dopaminergic cell groups and noradrenergic cell groups.Alcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.CorticosteronePheochromocytomaCushing reflex: Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and a reduction of the heart rate. It is usually seen in the terminal stages of acute head injury and may indicate imminent brain herniation.Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Zona reticularis: The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. The cells are arranged cords that project in different directions giving a net-like appearance (L.Hematidrosis: Hematidrosis (also called hematohidrosis or hemidrosis or blood sweat. From Greek haima/haimatos αἷμα, αἵματος, blood; hidrōs ἱδρώς blood) is a very rare condition in which a human sweats blood.Adrenocortical hyperfunctionChromaffin cellSerous demiluneAldosterone-to-renin ratio: Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity in blood plasma. The aldosterone/renin ratio is recommended as screening tool for primary hyperaldosteronism.Harderian gland: The Harderian gland is a gland found within the eye's orbit which occurs in tetrapods (reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals) that possess a nictitating membrane.AdosterolGeranylhydroquinone 3''-hydroxylase: Geranylhydroquinone 3-hydroxylase (, GHQ 3-hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name geranylhydroquinone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionZona glomerulosa: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Addison's disease in canines: Addison's disease in canines refers to hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison's disease, when it occurs in canines. The first case of Addison's disease in dogs was recorded in 1953, over 100 years after it was described in humans by Thomas Addison.Adrenocortical carcinomaDopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency: Dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency is a condition involving inadequate Dopamine beta hydroxylase. It is characterized by increased amounts of serum dopamine and the absence of nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.MyelolipomaAdrenalin O.D.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.

(1/202) In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man.

Dopamine receptors type 2 (D2)-like receptor blockers cause an increase in the norepinephrine response to intense physical exercise. However, during intense physical exercise, D2-like antagonists also cause an increase in the epinephrine response, which itself might cause an increase in plasma norepinephrine through the activation of beta2 presynaptic receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of domperidone, a D2-like antagonist, on the norepinephrine response to physical exercise in 6 Addison patients (3 were adrenalectomized and 3 had adrenal tuberculosis). In these patients, the norepinephrine increase observed during exercise was significantly higher after the administration of domperidone than a placebo (F=4,328; P<0.001). Because peripheral plasma norepinephrine does not reflect the sympathetic tone to the heart accurately, we evaluated the effect of domperidone administration (20 mg orally) on the sympathovagal balance, which was measured by the ratio between the high- and low-frequency components of heart rate variability, in 9 normal volunteers in the supine and sitting positions. When compared with placebo, domperidone caused a significant increase in the low/high frequency ratio (P<0.05) in the sitting position without modifying basal and stimulated norepinephrine plasma levels or blood pressure. These data support a role for endogenous dopamine in modulating norepinephrine release by human sympathetic nerves in vivo.  (+info)

(2/202) Traumatic adrenal injury in children.

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past. OBJECTIVES: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident. METHODS: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury. RESULTS: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma.  (+info)

(3/202) A case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

A low plasma ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and an exaggerated and delayed plasma ACTH response to CRH stimulation have been considered as an indicator of hypothalamic hypopituitarism. We report a case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency which manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. This case provides important information to categorize hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency caused by abnormal regulation of CRH release.  (+info)

(4/202) Apparently normal ovarian differentiation in a prepubertal girl with transcriptionally inactive steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) and adrenocortical insufficiency.

Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) plays an essential role in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, controlling expression of their many important genes. The recent description of a 46,XY patient bearing a mutation in the NR5A1 gene, causing male pseudohermaphroditism and adrenal failure, demonstrated the crucial role of SF-1 in male gonadal differentiation. The role of SF-1 in human ovarian development was, until now, unknown. We describe a phenotypically and genotypically normal girl, with signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and no apparent defect in ovarian maturation, bearing a heterozygote G-->T transversion in exon 4 of the NR5A1 gene that leads to the missense R255L in the SF-1 protein. The exchange does not interfere with protein translation and stability. Consistent with the clinical picture, R255L is transcriptionally inactive and has no dominant-negative activity. The inability of the mutant (MUT) NR5A1/SF-1 to bind canonical DNA sequences might offer a possible explanation for the failure of the mutant protein to transactivate target genes. This is the first report of a mutation in the NR5A1 gene in a genotypically female patient, and it suggests that NR5A1/SF-1 is not necessary for female gonadal development, confirming the crucial role of NR5A1/SF-1 in adrenal gland formation in both sexes.  (+info)

(5/202) Endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 111 consecutive cases.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (ERA). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice for benign adrenal pathology. Although the adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum, most surgeons prefer the transperitoneal laparoscopic approach to adrenal tumors. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 111 ERAs from January 1994 to December 1999 were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients underwent 111 ERAs (79 unilateral, 16 bilateral). Indications were Cushing syndrome (n = 22), Cushing disease (n = 8), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (n = 6), Conn's adenoma (n = 25), pheochromocytoma (n = 19), incidentaloma (n = 11), and other (n = 4). Tumor size varied from 0.1 to 8 cm. Median age was 50 years. Unilateral ERA required 114 minutes, with median blood loss of 65 mL. Bilateral ERA lasted 214 minutes, with median blood loss of 121 mL. The conversion rate to open surgery was 4.5%. The complication rate was 11%. Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days for unilateral ERA and 5 days for bilateral ERA. The death rate was 0.9%. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the recurrence rate of disease was 0.9%. CONCLUSION: For benign adrenal tumors less than 6 cm, ERA is recommended.  (+info)

(6/202) Evaluation of incidental renal and adrenal masses.

Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and cost-efficient means of evaluating renal lesions combines ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning, with close communication between the family physician and the radiologist. Asymptomatic patients with simple renal cysts require no further evaluation. Patients with minimally complicated renal cysts can be followed radiographically. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in patients with indeterminate renal masses, and referral is required in patients with symptoms or solid masses. The need for referral of patients with adrenal masses is determined by careful assessment of clinical signs and symptoms, as well as the results of screening laboratory studies and appropriate radiologic studies. Referral is indicated for patients with incidental adrenal masses more than 6 cm in greatest diameter. Appropriate laboratory screening tests include the following: a 24-hour urinary free cortisol measurement for patients with evidence of Cushing's syndrome; a 24-hour urinary metanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid or catecholamine measurement for patients with evidence of pheochromocytoma; and a serum potassium level for patients with evidence of hyperaldosteronism.  (+info)

(7/202) Adrenal gland: structure, function, and mechanisms of toxicity.

The adrenal gland is one of the most common endocrine organs affected by chemically induced lesions. In the adrenal cortex, lesions are more frequent in the zona fasciculata and reticularis than in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones with a 17-carbon nucleus following a series of hydroxylation reactions that occur in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Toxic agents for the adrenal cortex include short-chain aliphatic compounds, lipidosis inducers, amphiphilic compounds, natural and synthetic steroids, and chemicals that affect hydroxylation. Morphologic evaluation of cortical lesions provides insight into the sites of inhibition of steroidogenesis. The adrenal cortex response to injury is varied. Degeneration (vacuolar and granular), necrosis, and hemorrhage are common findings of acute injury. In contrast, chronic reparative processes are typically atrophy, fibrosis, and nodular hyperplasia. Chemically induced proliferative lesions are uncommon in the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells (that produce epinephrine, norepinephrine, chromogranin, and neuropeptides) and ganglion cells. Proliferative lesions of the medulla are common in the rat and include diffuse or nodular hyperplasia and benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Mechanisms of chromaffin cell proliferation in rats include excess growth hormone or prolactin, stimulation of cholinergic nerves, and diet-induced hypercalcemia. There often are species specificity and age dependence in the development of chemically induced adrenal lesions that should be considered when interpreting toxicity data.  (+info)

(8/202) New adrenal-scanning agent.

A new adrenal-specific compound, 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(NCL-3-I), which is derived from 19-iodocholesterol (CL-19-I), has been found. Tissue distribution studies have revealed that the rat adrenal gland accumulates ten times more NCL-6-131-I than CL-19-131-I. The advantage of NCL-6-131-I as a possible adrenal-scanning agent is discussed.  (+info)



  • cancer
  • To this end the trial compares the two most promising drug combinations investigated in phase II trials, considered by the 'International Consensus Conference on Adrenal Cancer' (Ann Arbor/USA, 2003) as valuable first line treatments for advanced ACC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Also, reduced expression of the gene occurs in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients and overexpression has been observed in adrenal gland cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • The patients will have a 24-hour urine collection, and part of the adrenal gland tissue removed for their treatment will be used for research purposes of this study, possibly including genetic study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • it may also be used for genetic studies related to the disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vitiligo has been proposed to be a multifactorial disease with genetic susceptibility and environmental factors both thought to play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both diseases share the same genetic risk factors (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes). (wikipedia.org)
  • 13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disease caused by the deletion of some or all of the large arm of human chromosome 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • Some medications also lead to malfunction of the adrenals. (medindia.net)
  • Examples of cases where stretch marks are common, also given by the Mayo Clinic, include weight gain (in the form of fat and/or muscle), pregnancy, and adolescent growth spurts, though it is also noted that some medications, as well as other medical conditions and diseases, may increase the likelihood of stretch marks appearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes include certain medications, sepsis, and bleeding into both adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • In dogs and cats, this is condition is called hyperadrenocorticism or Cushing's disease. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • These cases may be managed surgically or medically, depending on many factors such as which gland is affected (right or left - rarely both), the size of the adrenal gland, the availability of an experienced surgeon, the age of the ferret, the severity of clinical signs, the condition of the ferret, the presence of other diseases and, in some cases, financial considerations. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Asthenia (Greek: ἀσθένεια, lit lack of strength but also disease) is a medical term referring to a condition in which the body lacks or has lost strength either as a whole or in any of its parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addison described this condition in his 1855 publication: On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • They will fill out questionnaires on their disease symptoms, quality of life, and on basic information about themselves, such as marital status, education level, place of residence, etc. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Symptoms can vary greatly from patient to patient, which makes the disease difficult to diagnose. (wikipedia.org)