Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.

*  ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*) JOHN JOSEPH WEBSTER, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*). Ann Intern Med. 1950;33:854-864. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-33-4 ... This paper reports our experience in the treatment of liver disease using a new therapy: extract of adrenal cortex. ... Liver transplantation in adults with liver disease due to common variable immunodeficiency leads to early recurrent disease and ...

*  Trial in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (FIRM-ACT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Liposomal doxorubicin. Cisplatin. Doxorubicin. ... Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. ... Number of Disease-free Patients [ Time Frame: every 8 weeks until progression (up to 5 years) ]. complete response or disease- ... Carcinoma, Adrenal Cortical Drug: Etoposide Drug: Doxorubicin Drug: Cisplatin Drug: Streptozotocin Drug: Mitotane Phase 3 ...

*  Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Adrenocortical Tumor - Full Text View -...

Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. ... Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma. ... Endocrine System Diseases. Liposomal doxorubicin. Etoposide phosphate. Cisplatin. Doxorubicin. Etoposide. Mitotane. Lenograstim ...

*  Adrenal Tumors - Pathogenesis and Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Epinephrine. Racepinephrine. ... Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Hyperaldosteronism. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Paraganglioma. Neuroendocrine Tumors. ... Adrenal Tumors - Pathogenesis and Therapy. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and Locations ...

*  9780071763721 - CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment | eCampus.com

Diseases of the Thyroid Gland. Diseases of the Parathyroids. Metabolic Bone Disease. Diseases of the Adrenal Cortex. ... Diseases of the Ear. Diseases of the Nose & Paranasal Sinuses. Diseases of the Oral Cavity & Pharynx. Diseases of the Salivary ... Diseases of the Stomach & Duodenum. Diseases of the Small Intestine. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. Anorectal Diseases. 16. ... Chronic Kidney Disease. Glomerular Diseases. Nephrotic Spectrum Disease in Primary Renal Disorders. Nephrotic Spectrum Disease ...

*  Full text of "Bulletin"

W. O. Thompson read a paper on "An Adrenal Cortex Extract Effective in Addison's Disease" before another section. At the ... Experience in com- municable disease nursing is arranged at the Chicago Municipal Contagious Disease Hospital, while the ... The prevention of disease is not only car- ried on by active work, but also by education of every one who comes in contact with ... Different diseases make different shad- ows on the film, and it is the business of the roentgenologist to know what is ...

*  Free Nursing Flashcards about Endocrine Block 13

1. Adrenalectomy 2. Pituitary hypofunction 3. Longstanding steroid therapy 4. cancer of adrenal cortex 5. autoimmune disease 6 ... 1. Hyperplasia of adrenal tissue 2. Tumor of adrenal cortex 3. Overuse of corticosteroid drugs. ... Another name for Addison's Disease. Adrenal HYPOfunction.. Causes of Addison's Disease.. ... 1. restore fluid and electrolyte balance 2. replace deficient adrenal hormones. Diet of patient with Addison's disease. High in ...

*  A & P II Electrolytes Flashcards - Cram.com

excessive perspiration, vomiting, alkalosis, diarrhea, renal disease, adrenal cortex, burns Which is more common hypo/hyper ... concentration of sodium ions decrease, the adrenal cortex secretes the hormone aldosterone. The presence of this hormone causes ...

*  The Endurolytes Rationale | Hammer Nutrition

A final action of angiotensin II is to stimulate ALDOSTERONE production and release from the adrenal cortex. ALDOSTERONE IS A ... Addison's disease -Adrenalectomy. Hypermagnesemia Signs and Symptoms: [related to Mg sedative effect on the neuromuscular ... Aldosterone is synthesized in the adrenal cortex. It stimulates the kidney tubule cells to increase their REABSORPTION OF ... INCREASE IN SERUM POTASSIUM DIRECTLY STIMULATES THE ADRENAL CORTEX TO PRODUCE AND RELEASE ALDOSTERONE. The increased sodium ...

*  Toy Poodle Life Expectancy | Best Small Dog Breeds

Addison's disease is a common problem in Poodles. In Addison's disease the adrenal cortex produces too little glucocorticoid ... The diseases that occur most frequently in Poodles are: Addison's disease, Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV or bloat and ... This disease is often undiagnosed because the early symptoms can be vague, but if it's caught early dogs can usually live a ... Like all breeds they are subject to some health problems and diseases but the breed tends to be long-lived. Toy Poodle life ...

*  Disease - 5 | Britannica.com

... of the adrenal cortex. The primary actions of aldosterone are to increase retention of salt and water and to increase excretion ... Gaucher disease was initially described.... * genetic disease, human any of the diseases and disorders that are caused by ... heart disease any disorder of the heart. Examples include coronary heart disease, congenital heart disease, and pulmonary heart ... Disease. Disease. any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated ...

*  Print Friendly

... debilitating disease that is rarely identified in its early stages. In Addison's disease, the function of the adrenal cortex ... Function of the Adrenal Glands. Each adrenal gland has an outer region, called the cortex, and an inner region, called the ... Adrenal insufficiency, or decreased production of adrenal hormones, can occur for several reasons. Autoimmune Addison's disease ... Diagnosis and Biomarkers of Adrenal Gland Dysfunction. Addison's disease. Addison's disease is typically diagnosed based on ...

*  Plus it

The 21-OH autoantibodies are markers of autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. In the T1DGC Autoantibody Workshop, the ... for celiac disease, to 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) for Addison disease, and to H+/K+-ATPase (ATPase) for pernicious anemia (5). ... Given the co-occurrence of other organ-specific autoimmune diseases with type 1 diabetes, there was interest in determining the ... Measurements were made of nonislet autoantibodies focused on the thyroid (TPO and TG), adrenal (21-OH), and parietal cell ( ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Cancer: Endocrine: Adrenal

Cancer of the adrenal cortex is also called adrenocortical carcinoma. The inside layer of the adrenal gland is called the ... Cancer that starts in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma. ... A rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the adrenal cortex. ... A rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the adrenal cortex. Cancer of the adrenal cortex is also called ...

*  Free Medical Flashcards about MMT Ch 15

Addison disease. chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex; symptoms may ... Adrenal Glands located above each kidney.. adrenal cortex. Part of the adrenal gland that produces three mayor groups of ... adrenal medulla. inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. glucocorticoids. helps body resist long- ... adrenal glands. a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) ...

*  Rhomboidal tibia and fibula | definition of rhomboidal tibia and fibula by Medical dictionary

Certain hormones of the anterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex hypersecrete to increase resistance. Such resistance ... Syn. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. See Harada's disease.. Wagner's syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by ... Refsum's disease.. Reiter's syndrome See Reiter's disease.. retraction syndrome See Duane's syndrome.. Rieger's syndrome A rare ... addisonian syndrome the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison's disease, under disease. ...

*  Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome | definition of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis...

Certain hormones of the anterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex hypersecrete to increase resistance. Such resistance ... Syn. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. See Harada's disease.. Wagner's syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by ... Refsum's disease.. Reiter's syndrome See Reiter's disease.. retraction syndrome See Duane's syndrome.. Rieger's syndrome A rare ... addisonian syndrome the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison's disease, under disease. ...

*  Free Medical Flashcards about Chapter 18

Addison disease. Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol. ... Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples. Cortisol. Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex ... Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance. Androgen. Male hormone responsible for developing and ... Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. ...

*  Free Science Flashcards about Large

Cushings Disease. Causes- hypersecretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex, breakdown of muscle protein Symptoms- spindly arms/legs ... Addisons Disease. Causes- hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone Symptoms- mental lethargy, anorexia, nausea, ...

*  PubMed Search Strategies: 2009

"Hypothalamic Diseases"[mesh] OR "Pituitary diseases"[mesh] OR "Adrenal Cortex Hormones"[mesh] OR "Hydrocortisone"[mesh] OR " ... "graves disease" OR "grave's disease" OR "graves' disease" OR "Basedow's Disease" OR "Basedow's Disease" OR "Basedow Disease" OR ... disease (34) disease-related concept (1) diseases (4) disparities (1) dopamine (1) drug (128) drug-related concept (23) drugs ( ... "Chronic Disease"[mesh] OR "chronic disease" OR "chronic diseases" OR Lupus OR arthritis OR osteoarthritis OR polymyositis OR ...

*  Books - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine

Gene expression analysis of the adrenal cortex in health and disease. -- DNA microarray analysis of human uterine ... With chapters dedicated to cardiovascular disease, oncology, inflammatory disease, metabolic disease, neuropsychiatric disease ... Kennedy Disease -- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease type 1A -- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease type 1B -- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease ... Pompe Disease -- Glycogenosis type 3, Cori-Forbes Disease -- Glycogenosis type 5, McArdle Disease -- Danon Disease -- Kearns- ...

*  Spinal Cord Diseases Summary | CureHunter Mobile

Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids) : 3 outcomes 1 study in 14 results : IBA ... Diseases Related to Spinal Cord Diseases. * Radiculopathy (Radiculopathy, Cervical) * Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (Tropical ... Key Therapies for Spinal Cord Diseases. Efficacy Chart ,, * Decompression : 35 outcomes 36 studies in 374 results ... Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.. Also ...

*  Combined Vasopressin, Methylprednisolone, and Epinephrine for Inhospital Cardiac Arrest - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Heart Arrest. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Epinephrine. ...

*  The harm of high triglycerides

Overactive thyroid, adrenal cortex hypofunction, severe liver function is low, easy to cause fatty liver disease, etc. ... Kidney disease hospital zhuang ´╝éChinese medicine kidney dis. Kidney disease hospital zhuang Chinese medicine kid ... ... 1) the family high tg blood disease, mixed hyperlipidemia. (2) secondary disease common in diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage ... coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity and high lipoprotein hematic disease often have family gathering. Pure high tg levels ...

*  PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY/PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Flashcards - Cram.com

The adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and aldosterone. Hyposecretion of these hormones can result in _____ Disease, while ... Parkinson's disease is due to the degeneration of ______ containing cells in the substantia nigra and involves tremor at rest. ... Damage to the prefrontal cortex is most likely to result in deficits in:. a. visual processing. b. judgment and planning. c. ... Parkinson's disease is believed to be caused by _____ at caudate synapses:. a. insufficient dopamine. b. insufficient ...

Absent adrenal glandSympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.Zona reticularis: The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. The cells are arranged cords that project in different directions giving a net-like appearance (L.Adrenal tumorTBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.Zona glomerulosa: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").Adrenocortical adenoma: A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex.Adrenocortical carcinomaCongenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencySecondary somatosensory cortex: The human secondary somatosensory cortex (S2, SII) is a region of cortex in the parietal operculum on the ceiling of the lateral sulcus.Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Alcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.CorticosteroneCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone.

(1/59) Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

(2/59) Dual effects of prolonged ACTH stimulation on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide-induced adrenocortical lesions in rats.

The effects of a long-acting synthetic ACTH on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO)-induced adrenocortical lesions were investigated in female rats. A total of 140 6-week-old rats were divided into 4 equal groups, given a single s.c. injection of 7 mg/kg 4HAQO or vehicle, followed by repeated sc administration of the synthetic ACTH or no further treatment. Subgroups of 10 rats in each group were sequentially sacrificed at weeks 20, 30, and 40. Adenomas and adenomatous nodules developed in the adrenal cortex of animals receiving 4HAQO and the chronic ACTH stimulation. Both lesions were located in the deeper zones of the adrenal cortex adjacent to the medulla and were composed of large-sized, clear-type cells. From week 20, middle zone, cortical cystic degeneration, which mimics the age-associated degenerative change named adrenal peliosis, was frequently observed in the adrenal glands of animals treated with 4HAQO alone. Its development was inhibited by ACTH. In the control animals, peliotic changes occurred at low incidence and only at the termination of experiment. These results indicate that long-term stimulation of ACTH promotes the development of adrenocortical tumors but suppresses the occurrence of adrenal peliosis in rats treated with 4HAQO.  (+info)

(3/59) Lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced cortisol responses in men with pedophilia.

There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and a higher body temperature than normal volunteers. The mCPP-induced cortisol responses were significantly greater in pedophiles than in normal volunteers. In normal volunteers, mCPP-induced a hyperthermic response, whereas in pedophiles no such response was observed. mCPP induced different behavioral responses in pedophiles than in normal men. In pedophiles, but not in normal men, mCPP increased the sensations "feeling dizzy, " "restless," and "strange" and decreased the sensation "feeling hungry". The results suggest that there are several serotonergic disturbances in pedophiles. It is hypothesized that the results are compatible with a decreased activity of the serotonergic presynaptic neuron and a 5-HT2 postsynaptic receptor hyperresponsivity.  (+info)

(4/59) Structure-activity relationships for ulcerogenic and adrenocorticolytic effects of alkyl nitriles, amines, and thiols.

In rats, a single administration of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) produces a rapidly occurring bilateral adrenal apoplexy. Structure-activity studies have shown that a close derivative, propionitrile (ethyl cyanide), causes duodenal ulcer without markedly affecting the adrenal glands. Prolonging the two-carbon chain of propionitrile by a methyl group (n-butyronitrile) enhances, replacing the methyl by bromide or nitrile decreases, while substitution by an amino group abolistes the ulcerogenic potency and variably affects the adrenocorticolytic action. On assaying a large number of nonnitrile compounds as well for ulcerogenic effect, such as thiols and amines, this effect was found to be related to a two-carbon structure bearing electronegative radicals on one or both ends of the chain.  (+info)

(5/59) Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization of human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and PKA regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A)-associated protein PAP7, and studies in PRKAR1A mutant cells and tissues.

A mouse protein that interacts with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIalpha (PRKAR1A), named PBR and PKA-associated protein 7 (PAP7), was identified and shown to be involved in hormone-induced steroid biosynthesis. We report the identification of the human PAP7 gene, its expression pattern, genomic structure, and chromosomal mapping to 1q32-1q41. Human PAP7 is a 60-kDa protein highly homologous to the rodent protein. PAP7 is widely present in human tissues and highly expressed in seminal vesicles, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, renal cortex, enteric epithelium, muscles, myocardium and in steroidogenic tissues, including the gonads and adrenal cortex. These tissues are also targets of Carney complex (CNC), a multiple neoplasia syndrome caused by germline inactivating PRKAR1A mutations (PRKAR1A-mut) and associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and increased steroid synthesis. PAP7 and PRKAR1A expression were studied in PPNAD and in lymphoblasts from patients bearing PRKAR1A-mut. Like PRKAR1A, PAP7 was decreased in CNC lymphocytes and PPNAD nodules, but not in the surrounding cortex. These studies showed that, like in the mouse, human PAP7 is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues, where it follows the pattern of PRKAR1A expression, suggesting that it participates in PRKAR1A-mediated tumorigenesis and hypercortisolism.  (+info)

(6/59) Allgrove or 4 "A" syndrome: an autosomal recessive syndrome causing multisystem neurological disease.

Allgrove's or "4 A" syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition with alacrima, achalasia, autonomic disturbance, and ACTH insensitivity among other features. Recent studies have identified mutations in the AAAS, a candidate gene on chromosome 12q13 in such patients. Manifestations in adult patients are rarely reported. The syndrome usually presents during the first decade of life with dysphagia or severe (occasionally fatal) hypoglycaemic or hypotensive attacks, related to adrenocortical insufficiency. Onset of adrenal insufficiency or other features may be delayed to adulthood. In contrast with paediatric patients, adult patients with Allgrove's syndrome may present with multisystem neurological disease; the childhood history of achalasia or alacrima may be overlooked. The authors describe two families with two affected siblings and a further unrelated patient with typical clinical features of Allgrove's syndrome, who exhibit signs of multisystem neurological disease including hyperreflexia, muscle wasting, dysarthria, ataxia, optic atrophy, and intellectual impairment. None of the cases have developed adrenal insufficiency but all have progressive neurological disability. Autonomic dysfunction was a significant cause of morbidity in two cases. The three index cases represent the longest described follow up of Allgrove's syndrome into adulthood. It is speculated that they represent a subgroup of patients who follow an often undiagnosed chronic neurological course. Recognition of the syndrome presenting in adult life permits treatment of unrecognised autonomic dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency and dysphagia, and appropriate genetic advice.  (+info)

(7/59) Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenocortical adenomas with unique histological features.

Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas rarely occurs. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adenomas. Both adenomas had distinct cell compositions, and were compared with emphasis on immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for cytochrome P450(11beta) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD). A 37 year-old female was diagnosed with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome based on physical findings and hormonal evaluation. High-resolution CT scan showed bilateral adrenocortical adenomas and atrophied glands. 131I-methylnorcholesterol incorporation into both glands suggested both adenomas were functional. Clinical diagnosis prior to surgery was ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to functioning bilateral adenomas. The left adrenal gland was totally resected, while the right one was partially resected by laparoscopic approach. Both adenomas were black on cut sections, and were comparatively evaluated by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for P450(11beta) and 3betaSD. The left adenoma was 1.6 cm in diameter and had a complex cellular composition and enzyme expression similar to that of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), while the right adenoma was 1.8 cm in diameter with compact cells typical of a solitary cortisol-producing adenoma. Adjacent bilateral adrenal cortex showed marked atrophy, but contained several micronodules. Serum cortisol levels, both at basal and after a low dodexamethasone, normalized thirteen months after surgery. In conclusion, the present case of Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal adenomas demonstrated for the first time the simultaneous occurrence of two distinct adenomas, an ordinary cortisol-producing adenoma and a PPNAD-like adenoma. Further case reports of multiple adrenal adenomas should be well-analyzed to clarify whether the results from this case represent a new subgroup of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome.  (+info)

(8/59) Aldosteronism associated with adrenal cortical adenoma.

An electrolyte-regulating corticoid has been identified and given the name aldosterone. This hormone may be produced in amounts above normal in adrenal cortical tumors in hyperplastic adrenal glands and in normal appearing adrenal glands. Overproduction of aldosterone is accompanied by certain characteristic clinical manifestations which should suggest the diagnosis. The diagnosis may be supported by examinations available in most well equipped clinical laboratories. Bioassay of aldosterone in the urine and estimation of exchangeable body sodium and potassium, using radioactive salts, are necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis.Since the description of this salt-retaining hormone by Simpson and Tait and the discovery of its chemical structure by Reichstein in 1954, reports of 14 cases have been published. Surgical removal of the offending tissue gives spectacular relief from the very distressing symptoms.  (+info)



medulla

  • What does the adrenal medulla release? (studystack.com)
  • Tumor, ususally found in adrenal medulla, causes excessive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. (studystack.com)
  • Each adrenal gland has an outer region, called the cortex , and an inner region, called the medulla . (lifeextension.com)
  • The adrenal medulla produces the catecholamine hormones , which comprise epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine (PubMed Health 2011a). (lifeextension.com)
  • The inside layer of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal medulla. (dmoztools.net)
  • Cancer that starts in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma. (dmoztools.net)

secretes

  • As the concentration of sodium ions decrease, the adrenal cortex secretes the hormone aldosterone. (cram.com)

Addison's

  • Causes of Addison's Disease. (studystack.com)
  • What is Addison's disease? (studystack.com)
  • Addison's disease is a common problem in Poodles. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)
  • In Addison's disease the adrenal cortex produces too little glucocorticoid and/or mineralocortoid. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)
  • This protocol will provide an overview of adrenal function and examine the development and consequences of the two primary adrenal disorders - Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome. (lifeextension.com)

aldosterone

  • Aldosterone is synthesized in the adrenal cortex. (hammernutrition.com)
  • High Aldosterone levels occur in response to stress, renal dysfunction, adrenal cortical overactivity, pregnancy. (hammernutrition.com)

regulates the production

  • For example, one of the actions of the hypothalamus is to direct the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) , which regulates the production and secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex. (lifeextension.com)

Cortical

  • an acute, emergency, life-threatening state of profound adrenal cortical insufficiency that occurs when the adrenal glands suddenly fail. (studystack.com)

glands

  • Describe the location of the adrenal glands. (studystack.com)
  • 3. Mitotane (Lysodern) cytotoxic agent that is toxic to adrenal glands for inoperable adrenocoritcal cancer. (studystack.com)
  • In addition, the adrenal glands also produce a small amount of testosterone (PubMed Health 2011a). (lifeextension.com)
  • Under normal healthy conditions, the secretion of hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal cortex hormones is finely controlled by each of the other glands (Head 2009). (lifeextension.com)
  • Adrenal Glands located above each kidney. (studystack.com)

adrenocortical

  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether treatment with etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane (EDP/M) prolongs survival as compared to streptozotocin and mitotane (Sz/M) in patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) whose disease is not amenable to complete surgical resection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The current study investigates different aspects of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors and evaluates different therapeutic options in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rare condition in which the plasma levels of adrenocortical hormones are increased, resulting in excess secretion of adrenal hormones. (studystack.com)
  • Cancer of the adrenal cortex is also called adrenocortical carcinoma. (dmoztools.net)

tumor

hormones

  • What hormones does the adrenal cortex release? (studystack.com)
  • Adrenal androgens are precursors to sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen (Gurnell 2008). (lifeextension.com)
  • Adrenal androgens (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] ) are precursors of the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen (Gurnell 2008). (lifeextension.com)
  • A precisely regulated relationship exists between the adrenal hormones and hormones secreted by the hypothalamus (a small region located at the center of the brain) and the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located at the base of the brain). (lifeextension.com)
  • the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress. (studystack.com)
  • Part of the adrenal gland that produces three mayor groups of steroid hormones called corticosteroids. (studystack.com)

autoimmune

  • autoimmune disease 6. (studystack.com)
  • The availability of extensive genetic data provided an opportunity to investigate the associations between type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases for which autoantibodies could be measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With recognition of the clustering of multiple autoimmune diseases and overlap among genes contributing to multiple autoimmune diseases, additional organ-specific antibodies were measured in T1DGC samples. (diabetesjournals.org)

Cancer

  • To this end the trial compares the two most promising drug combinations investigated in phase II trials, considered by the 'International Consensus Conference on Adrenal Cancer' (Ann Arbor/USA, 2003) as valuable first line treatments for advanced ACC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cancer of adrenal cortex 5. (studystack.com)
  • A rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the adrenal cortex. (dmoztools.net)
  • This fund supports full time adrenal cancer research and patient support at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. (dmoztools.net)

symptoms

  • into your practice Written by clinicians renowned in their respective fields, CMDToffers the most current insight into symptoms, signs, epidemiology, and treatment for more than 1,000 diseases and disorders. (ecampus.com)
  • This disease is often undiagnosed because the early symptoms can be vague, but if it's caught early dogs can usually live a normal life. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)
  • The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease. (thefreedictionary.com)

Disorders

  • Conventional strategies for managing adrenal disorders will be discussed, as well as emerging medical approaches and scientifically studied natural therapies. (lifeextension.com)

therapy

  • This paper reports our experience in the treatment of liver disease using a new therapy: extract of adrenal cortex. (annals.org)

occurs

thyroid

  • Other health problems that can currently be tested for include Legg-Calve Perthes (LCP), thyroid, elbow dysplasia, and von Willebrand's disease. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)
  • These additional assays were for antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for Hashimoto disease, to transglutaminase (TG) for celiac disease, to 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) for Addison disease, and to H+/K+-ATPase (ATPase) for pernicious anemia ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)

liver disease

  • Liver transplantation in adults with liver disease due to common variable immunodeficiency leads to early recurrent disease and poor outcome. (annals.org)

Syndrome

  • acquired immune deficiency syndrome , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome an epidemic, transmissible retroviral disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, manifested in severe cases as profound depression of cell-mediated immunity, and affecting certain recognized risk groups. (thefreedictionary.com)

Registry

  • Poodle breeders maintain an international Poodle Health Registry so they can register and track diseases in Poodles. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)

infection

  • Diagnosis is by the presence of a disease indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity (e.g., life-threatening opportunistic infection) in the absence of any known causes of underlying immunodeficiency or of any other host defense defects reported to be associated with that disease (e.g., iatrogenic immunosuppression). (thefreedictionary.com)

health

  • Like all breeds they are subject to some health problems and diseases but the breed tends to be long-lived. (bestsmalldogbreeds.org)

treatment

  • The pathogenesis of adrenal tumors is still not fully elucidated and the treatment options for malignant tumors are poor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Finsen, Niels Ryberg Danish physician, founder of modern phototherapy (the treatment of disease by the influence of light), who received the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the application of light in the treatment of skin diseases. (britannica.com)

Another

High

  • fever abnormally high bodily temperature or a disease of which an abnormally high temperature is characteristic. (britannica.com)

complex

  • feline respiratory disease a complex of viral contagions of cats (including rhinotracheitis, pneumonitis, and influenza), marked by fever, sneezing, and running eyes and nose. (britannica.com)