Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Cacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Rats, Inbred F344Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Uroplakin II: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Urinary Reservoirs, Continent: Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.Flavoxate: A drug that has been used in various urinary syndromes and as an antispasmodic. Its therapeutic usefulness and its mechanism of action are not clear. It may have local anesthetic activity and direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle as well as some activity as a muscarinic antagonist.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Papilloma, Inverted: A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Reflex, Abdominal: Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DioxolanesMesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.CreatinineOxotremorine: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Pteridium: A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Cystotomy: Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.ButylaminesOsmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).AcroleinPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Urinary Catheters: Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

*  Neurogenic Bladder; about Neurogenic Bladder dysfunction | Patient
Neurogenic Bladder is caused by neurological damage. More about Neurogenic Bladder. ... Neurogenic bladder is bladder dysfunction that may be either flaccid or spastic. ... Bladder contraction and external urinary sphincter relaxation are typically unco-ordinated (detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia). ... Any condition that impairs bladder and bladder outlet afferent and efferent signalling can cause neurogenic bladder. Causes may ...
  https://patient.info/doctor/neurogenic-bladder
*  Flexibly adding-on Second Antimuscarinic Agent to the First Antimuscarinics for Refractory Overactive Bladder Syndrome - Full...
Urinary Bladder, Overactive. Urinary Bladder Diseases. Urologic Diseases. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Urological ... Patients with known active urinary tract infection, urinary stone or malignancy. * Patients have laboratory abnormalities at ... Capsaicin receptor VR1 and ATP-gated ion channel P2X3 in human urinary bladder. BJU Int. 2001 Jun;87(9):774-9. ... Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), the Urgency Severity Scale (USS) ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01824420?recr=Open&cond=%22Urinary+Bladder%2C+Overactive%22&rank=18
*  What is urinary catheterisation? | Topics, Living with a urinary catheter, Long term conditions, People's Experiences |...
Urinary catheterisation is undertaken to empty the bladder, to drain urine from the bladder. And this is a very ancient art. ... And if the bladder fails to empty, it gets very distended and painful. So urinary catheterisation is being undertaken to drain ... when there is obstruction in the urinary tract (such as a bladder stone or, in men, a swollen prostate gland) and surgery or ... Urinary catheterisation and why it's used *What is urinary catheterisation?. *Reasons for needing a long-term indwelling ...
  http://www.healthtalk.org/peoples-experiences/long-term-conditions/living-urinary-catheter/what-urinary-catheterisation
*  Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white light cystoscopy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. - Surgical...
CONCLUSIONS: PDD detects more bladder tumors than WLC, including more high-risk tumors. Based on four RCTs reporting clinical ... Using PDD at transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) resulted in fewer residual tumors at check cystoscopy (relative ... in people suspected of new or recurrent bladder cancer. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of randomized controlled ... Urinary Bladder Neoplasms ... Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with white ...
  https://www.situ.ox.ac.uk/publications/449443
*  Preserved micturition after intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection for treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in...
... bladder augmentation or urinary diversions) remain when urinary frequency and subsequent urinary incontinence persists and/or ... Effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on the function of the urinary bladder. Ann Neurol. 2004;55(1):118-20.View Article ... UDI bladder diary. Urinary frequency (day-/nighttime) decreased ICIQ/UDI improved PVR increased PVR 250 mL -- , ISC in 2 female ... UDI bladder diary QoL (ICIQ). Urinary frequency (day-/nighttime) decreased UDI improved QoL (ICIQ) improved PVR increased no ...
  https://bmcurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12894-016-0174-2/
*  Incontinence Overview, Incidence & Prevalence - Urinary Incontinence - HealthCommunities.com
... or the loss of bladder control causing urine leakage is a common but treatable problem. Causes, diagnosis, and treatment ... Urinary control relies on the finely coordinated activities of the smooth muscle tissue of the urethra and bladder, skeletal ... Better Bladder Control. Up to 54% of people with symptoms of bladder control problems haven't talked to their doctor. ... Urinary incontinence can result from anatomic, physiologic, or pathologic (disease) factors. Congenital and acquired disorders ...
  http://www.healthcommunities.com/urinary-incontinence/overview-of-incontinence.shtml
*  Urinary Bladder - Anatomy and Physiology
Urinary Bladder. The urinary bladder is a hollow elastic organ that functions as the body's urine storage tank. Urine produced ... The urinary bladder is made of several distinct tissue layers:. *The innermost layer of the bladder is the mucosa layer that ... The urinary bladder functions as a storage vessel for urine to delay the frequency of urination. It is one of the most elastic ... In females the urinary bladder is somewhat reduced in size and must share the limited space of the pelvic cavity with the ...
  http://www.innerbody.com/image_dige05/dige15.html
*  Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder
... Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo North Manchester General Hospital, Department of Urology, Delaunays ... Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo, "Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder," Advances in Urology, vol. 2014, Article ID 327917, 19 pages, 2014 ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2014/327917/cta/
*  Articles, tagged with "urinary bladder"
This inflammation of urinary bladder is highly chronic and leads to urgent and frequent need to urinate. The infection can also ... It is connected to the urinary bladder which passes the urine as soon as a signal from the brain is received.... Read ,. Author ... But canine bladder enlargement and urinary track infections can ... Read ,. Author: Jeff Grill ... Unfortunately, bladder problems in pets are becoming all too common. A canine thickened bladder wall can be a debilitati... ...
  http://www.articlealley.com/tags-101367.html
*  What is a collapsed urinary bladder? | Reference.com
The condition is also known as a 'prolapsed bladder' or 'cystocele.'... ... A collapsed urinary bladder occurs in women when the bladder collapses into the vagina, states WebMD. ... What is the function of a urinary bladder in a frog?. A: The function of the urinary bladder in a frog is to store and excrete ... What is the function of the urinary bladder of a pig?. A: According to The Pig Site from 5m Publishing, the urinary bladder of ...
  https://www.reference.com/health/collapsed-urinary-bladder-4cfd7645de602d13
*  Complications of urinary bladder catheters and preventive strategies
Urinary bladder catheters are used for urinary drainage or as a means to collect urine for measurement. Many clinical ... Urinary bladder catheters are used for urinary drainage or as a means to collect urine for measurement. Many clinical ... Complications of urinary bladder catheters and preventive strategies. Author. Anthony J Schaeffer, MD. Anthony J Schaeffer, MD ... Recurrent urinary tract infections as a result of chronic catheter use can lead to acute or chronic pyelonephritis, or bladder ...
  http://www.uptodate.com/contents/complications-of-urinary-bladder-catheters-and-preventive-strategies
*  Urinary Tract Bladder & Kidney Health Products | Forrest Health
... urinary tract and bladder health including nutrients, therapeutic foods, herbs and homeopathic remedies. ... Kidneys & Bladder. Kidneys/Urinary Tract/Bladder Health. Forrest Health Online offers a complete range of professional products ... Bladder Manager 30 tabs SKU: EURP035. Bladder Manager 30 tabs , Euromedica - This formula helps support Healthy Bladder ... BTD Urinary Tract Support SKU: GENT046. BTD Urinary Tract Support 1 kit , Generstra - Synergistic formulas traditionally used ...
  http://www.forresthealth.com/kidneys-urinary-tract-bladder-health/
*  Urinary Bladder - Inflammation - Gallery - Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas
Urinary Bladder - Inflammation - Gallery. Chronic-active inflammation involving the urothelium and subepithelial layers from a ...
  https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/nnl/urinary/urinary_bladder/inflamm/gallery/index.htm
*  Clinical NIRS of the urinary bladder - A demonstration case report
... A. J. Macnab,1,3 R. E. Gagnon,1 and L. Stothers2 ... Lynn Stothers, Ramon Guevara, and Andrew Macnab, "Classification of Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Using Mathematical ... "A transvaginal probe for near infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the bladder detrusor muscle and urethral sphincter," ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2005/406262/citations/
*  A Rare Case of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma with Urinary Bladder Metastasis
... Heather Katz,1 Rahoma E. Saad,2 Krista Denning,3 and ... J. P. Schuurman, T. S. De Vries Reilingh, S. M. Roothaan, R. T. Bijleveld, and M. J. Wiezer, "Urinary bladder metastasis from ... V. Velcheti and R. Govindan, "Metastatic cancer involving bladder: a review," The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 14, no. 1, ... "Best practices recommendations in the application of immunohistochemistry in the bladder lesions: report from the International ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2017/9343896/ref/
*  Urinary Bladder - Calculus/Crystal - Gallery - Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas
Urinary Bladder - Calculus/Crystal - Gallery. A calculus (asterisk) fills the entire bladder lumen from a male F344/N rat in a ...
  https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/nnl/urinary/urinary_bladder/calculus/gallery/index.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 9
Urinary Bladder 9. Chinese Name: Yuzhen (English translation: Jade Pillow). Location: On the posterior aspect of the head, 2.5 ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 9. ...
  http://www.acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub9.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 5
Urinary Bladder 5. Chinese Name: Wuchu (English translation: Fifth Place). Location: On the scalp, 1.0 cun posterior to the ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 5. ...
  http://acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub5.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 34
Urinary Bladder 34. Chinese Name: Xialiao (English translation: Lower Crevice). Location: In the region of the sacrum, medial ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 34. ...
  http://www.acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub34.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 64
Urinary Bladder 64. Chinese Name: Jinggu (English translation: Capital Bone). Location: On the lateral aspect of the foot, ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 64. ...
  http://www.acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub64.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 25
Urinary Bladder 25. Chinese Name: Dachangshu (English translation: Large Intestine Shu). Location: On the back, 1.5 cun lateral ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 25. ...
  http://www.acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub25.htm
*  Acupuncture.Com - Acupuncture Points - Urinary Bladder UB 55
Urinary Bladder 55. Chinese Name: Heyang (English translation: Yang Union). Location: On the posterior aspect of the lower leg ... Home , Education , Acupuncture Point Location , Urinary Bladder Meridian , UB 55. ...
  http://www.acupuncture.com/education/points/urinarybladder/ub55.htm
*  Chemical Summary for Coffee urinary bladder
This database and website are updated and enhanced by Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA). The project is made possible by our Sponsors and by PANNA general funds. We need your support to maintain and improve this system. Please support the database and website - donate to PANNA ...
  http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC42572
*  Acufinder.com - Urinary Bladder 46 (UB 46)
Urinary Bladder 46 (UB 46). Pinyin Name & English Translation. Geguan, Diaphragm's Pass Location. 3 cun lateral to Zhiyang (Du ...
  https://www.acufinder.com/Acupuncture+Points/Urinary+Bladder+46+
*  Conservative management of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder.
We report a very rare case of intra-peritoneal spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder which was successfully managed ... conservatively in a 77-year-old woman, who presented with lower abdominal pain, acute urinary retention and pelvic organ ... We report a very rare case of intra-peritoneal spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder which was successfully managed ... Following 8 weeks of urinary catheterisation, the bladder healed spontaneously. A subsequent sub-total abdominal hysterectomy ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Conservative-management-spontaneous-rupture-urinary/21110187.html

Bladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.Autoschizis: "Autoschizis" is a term derived from the Greek αὐτο- auto-, meaning "self", and σχίζειν skhizein, "to split". It was introduced in 1998 to describe a novel form of cancer cell death characterized by a reduction in cell size that occurs due to the loss of cytoplasm through self-excision (the cell splits open) without the loss of cell organelles, morphologic degradation of the cells nucleus and nucleolus without the formation of apoptotic bodies and destruction of the cell membrane.Urinary bladder disease: -, - |Bladder stonePapillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential: In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra.Transitional cell carcinoma: -8130Overactive bladderCystitis glandularis: Cystitis glandularis is a term describing a metaplastic transformation of mucosal cells lining the urinary bladder. The main importance is in histopathology, distinguishing the metaplastic change from urothelial cell carcinoma.Transurethral incision of the prostateUpper motor neuron lesion: An upper motor neuron lesion (also known as pyramidal insufficiency) is a lesion of the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. This is in contrast to a lower motor neuron lesion, which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord or the cranial motor nuclei to the relevant muscle(s).Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Hexvix: Hexvix is an optical imaging agent developed by the Norwegian pharmaceutical company Photocure ASA. Hexvix is designed to enhance detection of bladder cancer, in particular carcinoma in situ (CIS), it reveals lesions that may not be seen with standard white light cystoscopy.Urinary catheterizationUrinary retentionCystectomyUrodynamic testingPope Marinus II: Pope Marinus II (or Martin III; died May 946), was Pope from 30 October 942 to his death in 946.Roc Ordman: Alfred B. "Roc" Ordman (born October 25, 1948) is an American biochemist and researcher into aging, life extension and the effects of free radicals on the body.Calculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Thin basement membrane diseaseMuscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Pneumaturia: Pneumaturia is the passage of gas or "air" in urine. This may be seen or described as "bubbles in the urine".Urinary diversion: Urinary diversion is any one of several surgical procedures to reroute urine flow from its normal pathway. It may be necessary for diseased or defective ureters, bladder or urethra, either temporarily or permanently.Urethral soundingBladder exstrophyNational Association For Continence: National Association For Continence (NAFC) is a national, private, non-profit organization dedicated to improving the quality of life of people with incontinence, voiding dysfunction, and related pelvic floor disorders. NAFC's purpose is to be the leading source for public education and advocacy about the causes, prevention, diagnosis, treatments, and management alternatives for incontinence.Cacodyl oxideUrethrostomy: Urethrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a permanent opening in the urethra, commonly to remove obstructions to urine flow. The procedure is most often performed in male cats, where the opening is made in the perineum.Glomerulation: Glomerulation refers to bladder hemorrhages which are thought to be associated with some types of interstitial cystitis (IC).Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.Mitrofanoff principle: In urology, the Mitrofanoff principle is the creation of a passageway for urine or enema fluid that, by its (surgical) construction, has a valve mechanism to allow continence.Muscarinic antagonist: A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter, whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes.Ureteroureterostomy: Ureteroureterostomy ( "urétero-uréte-róstomy") is end-to-end connection (anastomosis) of the two portions of a transected ureter; also called ureteroureteral anastomosis and van Hook operation (after Weller van Hook, surgeon).http://www.Urologic disease: Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.Laryngeal papillomatosisUrinalysisVasopressin analogue: Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.Stratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.FlavoxateHemiphractidae: The Hemiphractidae are a family of frogs from South and Central America. Previously, this group had been classified as a subfamily (Hemiphractinae) under family Hylidae.Direct Blue 1CA19-9: CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by monoclonal antibody binding to CA 19-9, the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A.Gas pyelogram: A Gas pyelogram is a pyelogram in which the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters are filled with gas, and have a radiolucent appearance. This gas is produced by some gas producing micro organisms which infect most upper parts of urinary system.HydronephrosisAllantois: Allantois (; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a sac-like structure that forms part of a developing amniote's conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Department of Urology, University of Virginia: {{Infobox universityNitrosamine: Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic.Atelopus onorei: Atelopus onorei is a small species of bright yellow and green toad in the Bufonidae family. It is endemic to Ecuador.Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.PD-0298029Kennel clubClinical Genitourinary Cancer: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier, and previously by CIG Media Group (Cancer Information Group). The journal publishes articles on detection, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of genitourinary cancers.DihydrocapsaicinVasotocinWithdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Urolithiasis

(1/3541) Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases.

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

(2/3541) Evidence for beta3-adrenoceptor subtypes in relaxation of the human urinary bladder detrusor: analysis by molecular biological and pharmacological methods.

The purpose of the present study was to confirm the presence of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the relaxation of human urinary bladder detrusor tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR); direct sequencing of the PCR product, in situ hybridization; and isometric contraction. Using reverse transcription-PCR, the mRNAs of three receptor subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) were expressed in the human urinary bladder detrusor tissue. Direct sequencing of the PCR product of the above beta3-adrenoceptor revealed no mutation in the amplified regions. In situ hybridization with digoxygenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe revealed the presence of the mRNA of beta3-adrenoceptor subtype in the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder. The relaxant effects of isoproterenol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist); ZD7114, BRL37344, and CGP12177A (putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonists); and SR59230A (a putative selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist) were tested using an isometric contraction technique. Isoproterenol in either the presence or absence of both atenolol (a beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) and butoxamine (a beta2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist) revealed a relaxant effect on the carbachol-induced contraction of the human urinary bladder detrusor. Both BRL37344 and CGP12177A also revealed relaxant effects on the human urinary bladder detrusor, but ZD7114 did not elicit any relaxation. These results suggest that beta3-adrenoceptor may have some role in urine storage in the human urinary bladder.  (+info)

(3/3541) Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

(4/3541) M2 receptors in genito-urinary smooth muscle pathology.

In vitro bladder contractions in response to cumulative carbachol doses were measured in the presence of selective muscarinic antagonists from rats which had their major pelvic ganglion bilaterally removed (denervation, DEN) or from rats in which the spinal cord was injured (SCI) via compression. DEN induced both hypertrophy (505+/-51 mg bladder weight) and a supersensitivity of the bladders to carbachol (EC50=0.7+/-0.1 uM). Some of the SCI rats regained the ability to void spontaneously (SPV). The bladders of these animals weighed 184+/-17 mg, significantly less than the bladders of non voiding rats (NV, 644+/-92 mg). The potency of carbachol was greater in bladder strips from NV SCI animals (EC50=0.54+/-0.1 uM) than either bladder strips from SPV SCI (EC50=0.93+/-0.3 microM), DEN or control (EC50=1.2+/-0.1 microM) animals. Antagonist affinities in control bladders for antagonism of carbachol induced contractions were consistent with M3 mediated contractions. Antagonist affinities in DEN bladders for 4-diphenlacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 8.5) and para fluoro hexahydrosilodifenidol (p-F-HHSiD, 6.6); were consistent with M2 mediated contractions, although the methoctramine affinity (6.5) was consistent with M3 mediated contractions. p-F-HHSiD inhibited carbachol induced contraction with an affinity consistent with M2 receptors in bladders from NV SCI (pKb=6.4) animals and M3 receptors in bladders from SPV SCI animals (pKb=7.9). Subtype selective immunoprecipitation of muscarinic receptors revealed an increase in total and an increase in M2 receptor density with no change in M3 receptor density in bladders from DEN and NV SCI animals compared to normal or sham operated controls. M3 receptor density was lower in bladders from SPV SCI animals while the M2 receptor density was not different from control. This increase in M2 receptor density is consistent with the change in affinity of the antagonists for inhibition of carbachol induced contractions and may indicate that M2 receptors or a combination of M2 and M3 receptors directly mediate smooth muscle contraction in bladders from DEN and NV SCI rats.  (+info)

(5/3541) Eosinophil peroxidase increases membrane permeability in mammalian urinary bladder epithelium.

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability.  (+info)

(6/3541) Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is required for neutrophil passage across the epithelial barrier of the infected urinary tract.

IL-8 is a major human neutrophil chemoattractant at mucosal infection sites. This study examined the C-X-C chemokine response to mucosal infection, and, specifically, the role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, one of the mouse IL-8 equivalents, for neutrophil-epithelial interactions. Following intravesical Escherichia coli infection, several C-X-C chemokines were secreted into the urine, but only MIP-2 concentrations correlated to neutrophil numbers. Tissue quantitation demonstrated that kidney MIP-2 production was triggered by infection, and immunohistochemistry identified the kidney epithelium as a main source of MIP-2. Treatment with anti-MIP-2 Ab reduced the urine neutrophil numbers, but the mice had normal tissue neutrophil levels. By immunohistochemistry, the neutrophils were found in aggregates under the pelvic epithelium, but in control mice the neutrophils crossed the urothelium into the urine. The results demonstrate that different chemokines direct neutrophil migration from the bloodstream to the lamina propria and across the epithelium and that MIP-2 serves the latter function. These findings suggest that neutrophils cross epithelial cell barriers in a highly regulated manner in response to chemokines elaborated at this site. This is yet another mechanism that defines the mucosal compartment and differentiates the local from the systemic host response.  (+info)

(7/3541) Nosema notabilis (Microsporidia), its ultrastructure and effect on the myxosporean host Ortholinea polymorpha.

Nosema notabilis Kudo, 1939 produces chain-forming meronts with a dense cell coat in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic microtubules and membranaceous whorls could be observed in meront cytoplasm. Sporonts differ in that they have a thicker cell wall and more conspicuous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. Sporoblasts have an externally ridged cell wall. Spores have an apically located anchoring disc, an isofilar polar tube with 6 to 9 turns and polyribosomal strands in the sporoplasm. Diplokarya occur in all stages. Heavily infected plasmodia of Ortholinea polymorpha (Davis, 1917) reveal marked pathological signs. The most prominent are reduction of surface projections and/or pinocytosis, inflated mitochondria with altered inner structures, affected vegetative nuclei, damage to generative cells and occurrence of various anomalous formations in the plasmodium cytoplasm. The damage may result in complete disintegration of the plasmodium. However, the development of the microsporidian is affected by a remarkably high percentage of teratological stages revealing membranaceous and tubular structures.  (+info)

(8/3541) Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways.

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)



  • residual
  • Using PDD at transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) resulted in fewer residual tumors at check cystoscopy (relative risk [RR], 0.37, 95 percent CI, 0.20-0.69) and longer recurrence-free survival (RR, 1.37, 95 percent CI, 1.18-1.59), compared with WLC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • lower
  • Suprapubic catheterisation is the alternative approach and involves a small operation to form an artificial track directly into the bladder through the lower abdomen. (healthtalk.org)