Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Isomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.SucraseDietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Fructokinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.Glycoside HydrolasesSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.TrehaloseHypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.DextranaseConditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.TritiumWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.

*  Escherichia coli W shows fast, highly oxidative sucrose metabolism and low acetate formation
... do not grow on sucrose. Here, using a sucrose utilizing strain, E. coli W, we undertake an in-depth comparison of sucrose and ... the phosphoenol-pyruvate-glyoxylate cycle was not active on sucrose. Lower acetate accumulation was also observed in sucrose ... However, sucrose metabolism in Escherichia coli is not well understood because the two most common strains, E. coli K-12 and B ... In summary, sucrose metabolism was fast, efficient and led to low acetate accumulation making it an ideal carbon source for ...
*  Healthy Truth About Sucrose - American Crystal Sugar Company
The Healthy Truth About Sucrose Current Knowledge of the Effects of Sugar Intake. By Anne L. Mardis, MD, MPH 1 Center for ... In two studies based on a large, prospective study of U.S. women, sucrose and carbohydrate intake were not associated with an ... that there is no evidence that refined sugars such as sucrose behave any differently from other types of simple carbohydrates. ...
*  Carbon source-sink relationship inArabidopsis thaliana: the role of sucrose transporters | SpringerLink
The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated withAtSUC andAtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression ... proton-coupled sucrose carrier ZmSUT1 mediates sucrose efflux under the control of the sucrose gradient and the proton motive ... 2012) and sucrose is then accumulated in the companion cell (CC) by an energy dependent AtSUC2 H+/sucrose symporter (Stadler ... Apoplastic sucrose unloading involves sucrose transporters in sink organs or its conversion to hexoses by a cell-wall invertase ...
*  Osmosis. To investigate which sucrose concentration is the same as the concentration of cell sap inside the potato by narrowing...
The five boiling tubes will contain these six concentrations of sucrose solutions: 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 %. Sucrose ... To investigate which sucrose concentration is the same as the concentration of cell sap inside the potato by narrowing down the ... Sucrose Concentration (%) Starting Mass of potato chip (g) Final Mass of potato chip (g) Change in mass (g) Increase or ... Osmosis, What is the effect of sucrose concentration on the rate of osmosis in ... Surface Area: The surface area of the potato ...
*  Characterization of a chromosomally encoded, non-PTS metabolic pathway for sucrose utilization inEscherichia coliEC3132 |...
... mnemonic for chromosomally coded sucrose genes) transferred to strains of E. coli K12. ... that is able to grow on sucrose was isolated and its csc genes ( ... Sucrose Non-PTS pathway H+-symport Chromosomal genes E. coli ... controlled by a sucrose-specific repressor CscR, together with structural genes for a sucrose hydrolase (invertase) CscA, for a ... A wild-type isolate, EC3132, of Escherichia coli, that is able to grow on sucrose was isolated and its csc genes (mnemonic for ...
*  Sucrose Defense | Cake Games
Help mum defend the cakes from insects and rats! You can use and upgrade many kinds of weapons like anti-insect spray, electric rakcet, or even gatling gun!
*  Time course of cardiometabolic alterations in a high fat high sucrose diet mice model and improvement after GLP-1 analog...
... high sucrose (34 %) (HFHSD) or a standard diet (SD) during 4 months were explored every month with multimodal CMR to determine ... Time course of cardiometabolic alterations in a high fat high sucrose diet mice model and improvement after GLP-1 analog ... Time course of cardiometabolic alterations in a high fat high sucrose diet mice model and improvement after GLP-1 analog ... Time course of cardiometabolic alterations in a high fat high sucrose diet mice model and improvement after GLP-1 analog ...
*  Carbohydrate profiling in seeds and seedlings of transgenic triticale modified in the expression of sucrose:sucrose-1...
... sucrose-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) ... Carbohydrate profiling in seeds and seedlings of transgenic triticale modified in the expression of sucrose: ... Sucrose:sucrose-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST); Sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT); Oligofructans; Transcripts; ... Constructs with sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) from rye and or sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) ...
*  Sucrose intolerance - Wikipedia
It is important for those with sucrose intolerance to minimize sucrose consumption as much as possible. Dietary supplements or ... secondary sucrose intolerance). There are specific tests used to help determine if a person has sucrose intolerance. The most ... so-called primary sucrose intolerance). Sucrose intolerance can also be caused by irritable bowel syndrome, aging, or small ... Sucrose (also termed saccharose) is a disaccharide and is a two-sugar chain composed of glucose and fructose which are bonded ...
*  Sucrose Metabolism
Sucrose is one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants, and the most common form of carbohydrate transported from ... Figure 1. Sucrose metabolism in plants. (a) Sucrose is synthesised via the phosphorylated intermediate sucrose‐6′‐phosphate ( ... Sucrose is synthesised via the phosphorylated intermediate sucrose‐6′‐phosphate, by sucrose‐phosphate synthase (SPS) and ... Reactions are catalysed by the following enzymes: (1) 1‐sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1‐SST); (2) 6‐sucrose:fructan ...
*  Sucrose Upcoming Shows - Live Nation
Discover Sucrose concert details and information. Explore Sucrose photos, videos, and more from past shows. ... Find all tickets for all Sucrose upcoming shows. ...
*  Sucrose 10055-T
Testing Status of Sucrose 10055-T. CASRN: 57-50-1. Formula: C12-H22-O11. Synonyms/Common Names. *alpha-D-glucopyranoside, beta- ...
*  Sucrose - DrugBank
Porin for sucrose uptake.. Gene Name. scrY. Uniprot ID. P22340. Uniprot Name. Sucrose porin. Molecular Weight. 55466.87 Da. ... Sucrose. PDB Entries. 1a0t / 1ex2 / 1fe0 / 1fe4 / 1fee / 1gnx / 1iw0 / 1iw1 / 1jcq / 1jgi … ... Catalyzes the synthesis of alpha-glucan from sucrose. Catalyzes, in addition, sucrose hydrolysis, maltose and maltotriose ... Sucrose (3.74 g/5mL) + Phosphoric acid (21.5 mg/5mL). Solution. Oral. Select Brands Distributors. 2008-01-01. Not applicable. ...
*  sucrose Archives - All About Beer
Tag: sucrose. * Brewing Instructions - Full Pints Killing Candi March 1, 2006 - Randy Mosher As a writer, brewer and marketing ...
*  Sucrose Bold Font - YouWorkForThem
Try the demo weights for free!Sucrose is highly detailed and may process slowly on some systems. ... Sucrose from Yellow Design Studio is a premium high-resolution letterpress family with rectangular letterforms and authentic, ... Sucrose Bold Font Font Family. SucroseSucrose. Glyphs. 368 Copyright. Copyright (c) 2015 by Yellow Design Studio. All rights ... Try the demo weights for free! Sucrose is highly detailed and may process slowly on some systems.. OpenType. Standard, Access ...
*  Critical Miss: Deus Ex - Sucrose Revolution
The mouthpiece of the gaming generation, The Escapist aims to capture and celebrate the contemporary video gaming lifestyle and the diverse global video game culture by way of in-depth features, thought provoking articles and relevant columns authored by leading video game authorities, as well as cutting-edge video shorts, engaging forums and robust social media elements that incorporate the video gaming experience.
*  What is the solubility of sucrose? |
... is 204 g sucrose/100 g water. Solubility varies with the temperature of the solution. As the temperature of the water... ... The solubility of sucrose in water at 20 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit) ... The solubility of sucrose in water at 20 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit) is 204 g sucrose/100 g water. Solubility ... The following list shows the solubility of sucrose in water at various temperatures (given in Celsius): *0 degrees: 179 g/100 g ...
*  Browse Products Containing: SUCROSE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
*  Sucrose Analgesia: Identifying Potentially Better Practices | SUPPLEMENT ARTICLES | Pediatrics
Stocking and tracking sucrose was an issue for units.. One of the first questions to ask when introducing sucrose is the form ... Sucrose guidelines are presented in Tables 2 and 3. Implementation of oral sucrose for procedural pain will be unique in each ... Evidence to Support Sucrose Analgesia. The use of oral sucrose to decrease pain during painful or stressful procedures is the ... Precise sucrose dosing and age parameters are not well defined. Sucrose volumes ranging from 0.05 mL to 2 mL have been ...
*  Re: what do sucrose usually do to chloroplasts?
... Date: Mon Jan 14 06:34:12 2008. Posted By: Eli Hestermann, Assistant Professor ... She said that sucrose is used as an osmotic stabilizer so that the chloroplast doesn't disintegrate. In other words, the buffer ... just uses sucrose as a convenient large molecule that won't cross the membrane, not for any particular biological activity. ...
*  Sugar (Part 1): Sucrose - jimseven
Sucrose in coffee. Sucrose isn't present in roasted coffee, as it all reacts to form other components during roasting. However ... The profile of sucrose is different again. Sucrose takes a short time to register on the tongue, whereas fructose is more ... 8 Comments → Sugar (Part 1): Sucrose * alex April 11, 2007 at 10:01 pm. hi nice site. ... In a cold drink it makes sense to sweeten something with fructose rather than sucrose. It is sweeter so you can use less which ...
*  Indian Sucrose Share Holding - Business Standard News | Page 1
Indian Sucrose Share Holding, Indian Sucrose updates and more at Business Standard news. , Page 1 ... Quick Links for Indian Sucrose:. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ...
*  Sucrose Myristate | Cosmetics Info
Sucrose Cocoate, Sucrose Dilaurate, Sucrose Distearate, Sucrose Hexaerucate, Sucrose Laurate, Sucrose Myristate, Sucrose Oleate ... Sucrose Hexapalmitate, Sucrose Laurate; Sucrose Myristate, Sucrose Oleate, Sucrose Palmitate, Sucrose Pentaerucate, Sucrose ... Sucrose Hexapalmitate, Sucrose Laurate, Sucrose Myristate, Sucrose Oleate, Sucrose Palmitate, Sucrose Pentaerucate, Sucrose ... Sucrose Hexapalmitate, Sucrose Laurate; Sucrose Myristate, Sucrose Oleate, Sucrose Palmitate, Sucrose Pentaerucate, Sucrose ...
*  Sucrose - Wikipedia
A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid; or, to put it another way, 25 grams of sucrose sugar ... Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of 50% glucose and 50% fructose and has a glycemic index of 65. Sucrose is digested rapidly, ... Widespread replacement of sucrose by high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has not diminished the danger from sucrose. If smaller ... Sucrose does not deteriorate at ambient conditions. Sucrose does not melt at high temperatures. Instead, it decomposes-at 186 ° ...

Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Invertase: Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar). Alternate names for invertase include , saccharase, glucosucrase, beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid invertase, and the systematic name: beta-fructofuranosidase.Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase: Abscisate beta-glucosyltransferase (, ABA-glucosyltransferase, ABA-GTase, AOG) is an enzyme with system name UDP-D-glucose:abscisate beta-D-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionTaste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Fructose malabsorptionStarch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Isomaltooligosaccharide: Isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) is a mixture of short-chain carbohydrates which has a digestion-resistant property. IMO is found naturally in some foods, as well as being manufactured commercially.FODMAP: FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), disaccharides, monosaccharides and related alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. These include short chain (oligo-) saccharide polymers of fructose (fructans) and galactose (galactans), disaccharides (lactose), monosaccharides (fructose), and sugar alcohols (polyols) such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.Sucrase: Sucrase is the name given to a number of enzymes located in on the brush border of the small intestine that catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to fructose and glucose. The enzyme invertase, which occurs more commonly in plants, also hydrolyzes sucrose but by a different mechanism.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Cell fractionation: Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a larger population of cells.Iron sucroseHappy Tooth: 72px|thumb|right|"Happy Tooth" logoStreptococcus mutans: Streptococcus mutans is facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.High maltose corn syrup: High maltose corn syrup is a food additive used as a sweetener and preservative. The majority sugar is maltose.Sieve tube elementMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".RaffinoseFructokinase: Fructokinase (/fruc•to•ki•nase/ [-ki´nas]) (), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase,DBGET ENZYME: 2.7.List of glycoside hydrolase families: Glycoside hydrolases (O-Glycosyl hydrolases) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of numerous different families.Halotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Alpha,alpha-trehalose synthase: Alpha,alpha-trehalose synthase (, trehalose synthase, trehalose synthetase, UDP-glucose:glucose 1-glucosyltransferase, TreT, PhGT) is an enzyme with system name ADP-glucose:D-glucose 1-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionElectrogustometry: Electrogustometry is the measurement of taste threshold by passing controlled anodal current through the tongue. When current passes through the tongue a unique and distinct metallic taste is perceived.Glucose transporterQuinine total synthesis: 400px|right|quinine carbon atom numbering scheme left and asymmetric centers rightLow-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.AspartameColes PhillipsCryoprotectant: A cryoprotectant is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e.Disaccharide: A disaccharide or bioseBiose on www.merriam-webster.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Xuzhou Medical CollegeAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Leifsonia xyli xyli: Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli is a small, fastidious, Gram-positive, coryneform bacterium that causes ratoon stunting disease, a major worldwide disease of sugarcane.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Glycoside hydrolase family 66: In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 66 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.Cell membraneMediated transportSalting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.Decyl polyglucose: Decyl polyglucose is a mild non-ionic synthetic surfactant. It is a type of alkylpolyglycoside derived from glucose or starch and the fatty alcohol decanol.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Oncotic pressure: Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system. It is the opposing force to capillary filtration pressure and interstitial colloidal osmotic pressure.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.

(1/4572) Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

(2/4572) Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol.

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

(3/4572) Purification and characterization of rat hippocampal CA3-dendritic spines associated with mossy fiber terminals.

We report a revised and improved isolation procedure for CA3-dendritic spines, most of them still in association with mossy fiber terminals resulting in a 7.5-fold enrichment over nuclei and a 29-fold enrichment over myelin. Additionally, red blood cells, medullated fibers, mitochondria and small synaptosomes were significantly depleted. We show by high resolution electron microscopy that this subcellular fraction contains numerous dendritic spines with a rich ultrastructure, e.g. an intact spine apparatus, membranous organelles, free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, endocytic structures and mitochondria. This improved experimental system will allow us to study aspects of post-synaptic functions at the biochemical and molecular level.  (+info)

(4/4572) Site-directed mutagenesis of loop L3 of sucrose porin ScrY leads to changes in substrate selectivity.

The difference in substrate selectivity of the maltodextrin (LamB) and sucrose (ScrY) porins is attributed mainly to differences in loop L3, which is supposed to constrict the lumen of the pores. We show that even a single mutation (D201Y) in loop L3 leads to a narrowing of the substrate range of ScrY to that resembling LamB. In addition, we removed the putative N-terminal coiled-coil structure of ScrY and studied the effect of this deletion on sucrose transport.  (+info)

(5/4572) Characterization of the divergent sacBK and sacAR operons, involved in sucrose utilization by Lactococcus lactis.

The divergently transcribed sacBK and sacAR operons, which are involved in the utilization of sucrose by Lactococcus lactis NZ9800, were examined by transcriptional and gene inactivation studies. Northern analyses of RNA isolated from cells grown at the expense of different carbon sources revealed three sucrose-inducible transcripts: one of 3.2 kb containing sacB and sacK, a second of 3.4 kb containing sacA and sacR, and a third of 1.8 kb containing only sacR. The inactivation of the sacR gene by replacement recombination resulted in the constitutive transcription of the sacBK and sacAR operons in the presence of different carbon sources, indicating that SacR acts as a repressor of transcription.  (+info)

(6/4572) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents.

BACKGROUND: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. DESIGN: Twelve healthy, male adolescents aged 14-16 y received, for 9 d, 15 g oligofructose or sucrose (control treatment) daily over 3 main meals. The treatments were given according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 19-d washout period. On the 8th day of each treatment period, 44Ca was given orally with a standard breakfast containing approximately 200 mg Ca. Within half an hour after administration of 44Ca, 48Ca was administered intravenously. Fractional calcium absorption was computed from the enrichment of 44Ca:43Ca and 48Ca:43Ca in 36-h urine samples, which was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: An increase in true fractional calcium absorption (%) was found after consumption of oligofructose (mean difference +/- SE of difference: 10.8+/-5.6; P < 0.05, one sided). The results are discussed in relation to the methods used. CONCLUSION: Fifteen grams of oligofructose per day stimulates fractional calcium absorption in male adolescents.  (+info)

(7/4572) Rapid induction of functional and morphological continuity between severed ends of mammalian or earthworm myelinated axons.

The inability to rapidly restore the loss of function that results from severance (cutting or crushing) of PNS and CNS axons is a severe clinical problem. As a novel strategy to help alleviate this problem, we have developed in vitro procedures using Ca2+-free solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions), which within minutes induce functional and morphological continuity (PEG-induced fusion) between the cut or crushed ends of myelinated sciatic or spinal axons in rats. Using a PEG-based hydrogel that binds to connective tissue to provide mechanical strength at the lesion site and is nontoxic to nerve tissues in earthworms and mammals, we have also developed in vivo procedures that permanently maintain earthworm myelinated medial giant axons whose functional and morphological integrity has been restored by PEG-induced fusion after axonal severance. In all these in vitro or in vivo procedures, the success of PEG-induced fusion of sciatic or spinal axons and myelinated medial giant axons is measured by the restored conduction of action potentials through the lesion site, the presence of intact axonal profiles in electron micrographs taken at the lesion site, and/or the intra-axonal diffusion of fluorescent dyes across the lesion site. These and other data suggest that the application of polymeric fusiogens (such as our PEG solutions), possibly combined with a tissue adherent (such as our PEG hydrogels), could lead to in vivo treatments that rapidly and permanently repair cut or crushed axons in the PNS and CNS of adult mammals, including humans.  (+info)

(8/4572) Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.

Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro.  (+info)

  • moiety
  • The polar sucrose moiety serves as a hydrophilic end of the molecule, while the long fatty acid chain serves as a lipophilic end of the molecule. (
  • Using specific mutagenic assays, Asp-192 was found to be the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme, "attacking C-1 of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose" (Schwarz and Nidetzky 2006). (
  • sugars
  • Francois B. Paul, Pierre F. Monsan, Magali M. C. Remaud, Vincent P. Pelenc, 'Process for the enzymatic preparation from sucrose of a mixture of sugars having a high content of isomaltose, and products obtained. (
  • The word "sucrose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller from the French sucre ("sugar") and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose. (
  • uridine
  • Other names in common use include uridine diphosphogalactose-sucrose 6F-alpha-galactosyltransferase, UDPgalactose:sucrose 6fru-alpha-galactosyltransferase, and sucrose 6F-alpha-galactotransferase. (
  • purification
  • The by now clear sugar syrup is then concentrated by boiling under vacuum and crystallised as the final purification process to produce crystals of pure sucrose. (
  • molecule
  • In other words, the buffer just uses sucrose as a convenient large molecule that won't cross the membrane, not for any particular biological activity. (
  • fatty acids
  • Esters are the esters of sucrose with edible fatty acids. (
  • They may be prepared from sucrose and the methyl and ethyl esters of edible fatty acids usually in the presence of a solvent . (
  • Later, the concept of synthesizing sucrose ester from sucrose and fatty acids was patented in 1952. (
  • The three primary hydroxyl groups are more reactive due to lower steric hindrance, so they react with fatty acids first, resulting in a sucrose mono-, di-, or triester. (
  • Due to the hydrophilic property of sucrose and the lipophilic property of fatty acids, the overall hydrophilicity of sucrose esters can be tuned by the number of hydroxyl groups that are reacted with fatty acids and the identity of the fatty acids. (
  • The fewer free hydroxyl groups and the more lipophilic fatty acids, the less hydrophobic the resulting sucrose ester becomes. (
  • The melting point of sucrose esters is between 40 °C and 60 °C depending on the type of fatty acids and the degree of substitution. (
  • metabolic
  • It was believed that most cases of sucrose intolerance were to do an autosomal recessive, genetic, metabolic disease. (
  • Aguilera AA, Diaz GH, Barcelata ML, Guerrero OA, Ros RM: Effects of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats with sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome. (
  • Lombardo YB, Drago S, Chicco A, Fainstein-Day P, Gutman R, Gagliardino JJ, Gomez Dumm CL: Long-term administration of a sucrose-rich diet to normal rats: relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and morphological changes in the endocrine pancreas. (
  • proceeds
  • 2006), supporting the hypothesis that reaction catalyzed by sucrose phosphorylase proceeds through the ping-pong mechanism. (
  • sugar
  • Sucrose is common table sugar. (
  • Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which table sugar is refined. (
  • Sugar mills are located where sugar cane is grown to crush the cane and produce raw sugar which is shipped around the world for refining into pure sucrose. (
  • Some sugar mills also process the raw sugar into pure sucrose. (
  • The purity of sucrose is measured by polarimetry, through the rotation of plane-polarized light by a solution of sugar. (
  • carbon
  • The formula for sucrose's decomposition can be represented as 2 step reaction, first simplified reaction is dehydration of sucrose to pure Carbon and water then carbon oxidises to CO2 with O2 from air. (
  • regulation
  • Global regulation of DNA molecules containing the gene for sucrose phosphorylase is performed by catabolite repression. (
  • First discovered in Gram-negative bacteria, both Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) function in sucrose phosphorylase regulation (Reid and Abratt 2005). (
  • mono
  • In 1950s, Foster Snell and his team conducted research on the production of several mono- and di-substituted sucrose esters. (
  • produces
  • Mixing sucrose with the oxidizer potassium nitrate produces the fuel known as rocket candy that is used to propel amateur rocket motors. (
  • digestion
  • Since sucrose-isomaltase is involved in the digestion of starches, some GSID patients may not be able to absorb starches as well. (
  • carbohydrate
  • An earlier study investigated whether the effects of sucrose were attributable to the sweet taste or the carbohydrate content, and it was determined to be attributable to effect of sweetness, with any solution 12% or higher being effective. (
  • drops
  • These studies show efficacy in reducing pain behaviors in infants with the use of oral sucrose by pacifier or via syringe drops that are administered onto the tongue or the cheek. (
  • However, put it in a cup of coffee and its perceived sweetness drops to that of sucrose. (
  • procedure
  • 7 Significant decreases in crying, grimacing, heart rate, and pain scores have been reported in neonates who were given sucrose solution before a procedure when compared with water, 7 and repeating the dose every 2 minutes up to 3 times increases the effect. (
  • potentially
  • The objectives of this study were to review the use of oral sucrose for procedural pain management in NICUs, develop potentially better practice guidelines that are based on the best current evidence, and provide ideas for the implementation of these potentially better practices. (
  • A collaboration of 12 centers of the Vermont Oxford Network worked together to review the strength of the evidence, clinical indications, dosage, administration, and contraindications and identify potential adverse effects for the use of sucrose analgesia as the basis of potentially better practices for sucrose analgesia guidelines. (
  • On the basis of many studies and a Cochrane review of the efficacy of sucrose as an analgesic for procedural pain in neonates, 7 sucrose became the focus of a potentially better practice for the pain and analgesia group. (
  • production
  • Abdominal cramps and bloating Diarrhea and constipation Vomiting Hypoglycemia and headaches Poor weight gain and growth Upper respiratory tract and viral diseases Anxiety and heart palpitations Excess gas production Sucrose intolerance can be caused by genetic mutations in which both parents must contain this gene for the child to carry the disease (so-called primary sucrose intolerance). (
  • specific
  • There are specific tests used to help determine if a person has sucrose intolerance. (
  • This chamber contains an isotonic sucrose solution of a high specific resistance. (
  • Specific resistance describes the ability of a material or solution to oppose electric current, so a sucrose solution of a high specific resistance is effective in electrically isolating the three chambers. (
  • Solution
  • A nonionic sucrose solution is used to increase resistance in the extracellular area between the two groups. (
  • Two chambers containing sucrose solutions are used to isolate a node of the nerve or tissue, which is immersed in a physiological solution. (