Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Chronic Periodontitis: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Gingival Hemorrhage: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Aggressive Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.Bacteroidaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Treponema denticola: A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Mouth DiseasesFocal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative: An acute or chronic GINGIVITIS characterized by redness and swelling, NECROSIS extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, PAIN; HEMORRHAGE, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the ORAL MUCOSA; TONGUE; PALATE; or PHARYNX. The etiology is somewhat unclear, but may involve a complex of FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM along with spirochetes BORRELIA or TREPONEMA.Gingival DiseasesTreponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Actinobacillus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Gingival Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.Tooth Mobility: Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Subgingival Curettage: Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Pasteurellaceae: A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.Campylobacter rectus: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.Fusobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Prevotella melaninogenica: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.Tooth DiseasesFurcation Defects: Conditions in which a bifurcation or trifurcation of the molar tooth root becomes denuded as a result of periodontal disease. It may be followed by tooth mobility, temperature sensitivity, pain, and alveolar bone resorption.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide: An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.Pericoronitis: Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Eikenella corrodens: Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Capnocytophaga: A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Papillon-Lefevre Disease: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Mutations in the gene for CATHEPSIN C have been associated with this disease.Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.

*  What is Periodontal (Gum) Disease?

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Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease: Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is one of the seven categories of periodontitis as defined by the American Academy of Periodontology 1999 classification system. At least 16 systemic diseases have been linked to periodontitis.Desquamative gingivitisPocket reduction surgery: In dentistry, pocket reduction surgery is a periodontal surgery performed in order to reduce the probeable depth of the gingival sulcus (known as a periodontal pocket in disease) to allow for less plaque accumulation and greater access for hygiene. Reducing the depths of the periodontal pockets eliminates an environment that is hospitable for the more virulent periodontal pathogens.Porphyromonas gingivalis: Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium. It forms black colonies on blood agar.Chronic periodontitis: Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues that is caused by accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.Tooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.Franz Hein: Franz Hein (1892–1976) was a German scientist and artist.Aggressive periodontitis: Aggressive periodontitis describes a type of periodontal disease and includes two of the seven classifications of periodontitis:TD-1 RNA motif: The TD-1 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure found only in the species Treponema denticola, at least among bacteria whose genomes were sequenced in 2007 when the RNA motif was identified. The T.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) is a Gram-negative, facultative nonmotile, rod-shaped oral commensal often found in association with localized aggressive periodontitis, a severe infection of the periodontium, although it is also associated with nonoral infections. Its role in periodontitis was first discovered by Danish-born periodontist Jørgen Slots, a professor of dentistry and microbiology at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry.Fusobacterium nucleatum: Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals.Dental cariesUniversity of Connecticut Department of Periodontology: The Department of Periodontology is a division of the University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences. It carries out research and offers training for pre-doctoral and postgraduate students.Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitisGingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Treponema carateum: Treponema carateum is a species of spirochete bacteria in the genus Treponema.Toothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).Bundle bone: Bundle bone is a histologic term for the portion of the bone of the alveolar process that surrounds teeth and into which the collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament are embedded.Araujo, M; Lindhe, J: The Edentulous Alveolar Ridge.ListerineDental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.ErtapenemJunctional epithelium: The junctional epithelium (JE) is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus. The probing depth of the gingival sulcus is measured by a calibrated periodontal probe.Periodontal diagnosis and classification: In dentistry, numerous types of classification schemes have been developed to describe the teeth and gum tissue in a way that categorizes various defects. All of these classification schemes combine to provide the periodontal diagnosis of the aforementioned tissues in their various states of health and disease.Actinomyces israelii: Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces. Known to live commensally on and within humans, A.Pasteurellaceae: The Pasteurellaceae comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract.Campylobacter rectus: Campylobacter rectus is a species of Campylobacter. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which can induce bone loss.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Filifactor: Filifactor, is a genus of bacteriae belonging to the Firmicutes.Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.Furcation defect: In dentistry, a furcation defect is bone loss, usually a result of periodontal disease, affecting the base of the root trunk of a tooth where two or more roots meet (bifurcation or trifurcation). The extent and configuration of the defect are factors in both diagnosis and treatment planning.Veillonella parvula: Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries as well as various systemic infections.Prevotellaceae: The family Prevotellacae is composed of four genera.National J.HalitosisAntiseptic lavage: Antiseptic lavage is a means of washing, especially of a hollow organ, such as the stomach or lower bowel, with repeated injections of warm water mixed with an antiseptic or antifungal solution. Antiseptic lavages are commonly used as a treatment to pericoronitis of wisdom teeth.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Eikenella corrodens: Eikenella corrodens is a fastidious Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus. It was first identified by M.BiofilmRPTN: RPTN is a gene that encodes the protein repetin. Repetin is an extracellular epidermal matrix protein.Fusobacterium: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends.Capnocytophaga canimorsus: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing Gram-negative rod of the genus Capnocytophaga.Pers C, Gahrn-Hansen B, and Frederiksen W.Abfraction: Abfraction is a theoretical concept explaining a loss of tooth structure not caused by tooth decay (non-carious cervical lesions). It is suggested that these lesions are caused by forces placed on the teeth during biting, eating, chewing and grinding; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes large amounts of stress, causing micro fractures and tooth tissue loss.International Journal of Obesity: The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.Gingival margin: The free gingival margin is the interface between the sulcular epithelium and the epithelium of the oral cavity. This interface exists at the most coronal point of the gingiva, otherwise known as the crest of the marginal gingiva.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Trichomonas gallinae: The protozoan Trichomonas gallinae is a cosmopolitan parasite of pigeons and doves. Other birds such as domestic and wild turkeys, chickens, raptors (hawks, golden eagle, etc.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.

(1/894) Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.

Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case.  (+info)

(2/894) Treponema denticola outer membrane enhances the phagocytosis of collagen-coated beads by gingival fibroblasts.

Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) degrade collagen fibrils in physiological processes by phagocytosis. Since Treponema denticola outer membrane (OM) extract perturbs actin filaments, important structures in phagocytosis, we determined whether the OM affects collagen phagocytosis in vitro by HGFs. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometric assessment of internalized collagen-coated fluorescent latex beads. Confluent HGFs pretreated with T. denticola ATCC 35405 OM exhibited an increase in the percentage of collagen phagocytic cells (phagocytosis index [PI]) and in the number of beads per phagocytosing cell (phagocytic capacity [PC]) compared with untreated controls. The enhancement was swift (within 15 min) and was still evident after 1 day. PI and PC of HGFs for bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads were also increased, indicating a global increase in phagocytic processes. These results contrasted those for control OM from Veillonella atypica ATCC 17744, which decreased phagocytosis. The T. denticola OM-induced increase in bead uptake was eliminated by heating the OM and by depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin D treatment of HGFs. Fluid-phase accumulation of lucifer yellow was enhanced in a saturable, concentration-dependent, transient manner by the T. denticola OM. Our findings were not due to HGF detachment or cytotoxicity in response to the T. denticola OM treatment since the HGFs exhibited minimal detachment from the substratum; they did not take up propidium iodide; and there was no change in their size, granularity, or content of sub-G1 DNA. We conclude that a heat-sensitive component(s) in T. denticola OM extract stimulates collagen phagocytosis and other endocytic processes such as nonspecific phagocytosis and pinocytosis by HGFs.  (+info)

(3/894) In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand.  (+info)

(4/894) Molecular interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae with host proteins: kinetic analyses based on surface plasmon resonance.

Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis are thought to play an important role in the colonization and invasion of periodontal tissues. In this study, we analyzed the interactions of P. gingivalis fimbriae with human hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and salivary components (i.e., proline-rich protein [PRP], proline-rich glycoprotein [PRG], and statherin) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy with a biomolecular interaction analyzing system (BIAcore). The real-time observation showed that the fimbriae interacted more quickly with hemoglobin and PRG than with other proteins and more intensely with fibrinogen. The significant association constant (ka) values obtained by BIAcore demonstrated that the interactions between fimbriae and these host proteins are specific. These estimated Ka values were not too different; however, the Ka values for hemoglobin (2.43 x 10(6)) and fibrinogen (2.16 x 10(6)) were statistically greater than those for the salivary proteins (1.48 x 10(6) to 1.63 x 10(6)). The Ka value of anti-fimbriae immunoglobulin G for fimbriae was estimated to be 1. 22 x 10(7), which was 6.55-fold higher than the mean Ka value of the host proteins. Peptide PRP-C, a potent inhibitor of PRP-fimbriae interaction, dramatically inhibited fimbrial association to PRP and PRG and was also inhibitory against other host proteins by BIAcore. The binding of fimbriae to these proteins was also evaluated by other methods with hydroxyapatite beads or polystyrene microtiter plates. The estimated binding abilities differed considerably, depending on the assay method that was used. It was noted that the binding capacity of PRP was strongly diminished by immobilization on a polystyrene surface. Taken together, these findings suggest that P. gingivalis fimbriae possess a strong ability to interact with the host proteins which promote bacterial adherence to the oral cavity and that SPR spectroscopy is a useful method for analyzing specific protein-fimbriae interactions.  (+info)

(5/894) Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: comparison of individuals with periodontal disease to normal and edentulous subjects.

Cell-mediated immunity in humans to antigens derived from oral plaque bacteria was investigated by using the lymphocyte blastogenesis assay. Subjects with varying severities of periodontal disease including normal, gingivitis, periodontitis, and edentulous were compared. Mononuclear leukocytes were separated from peripheral blood and cultured with antigens prepared by sonication of Actinomyces viscosus (AV), Actinomyces naeslundii (AN), Veillonella alcalescens (VA), Leptotrichia buccalis (LB), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (BM), and homologous dental plaque (DP). The lymphocyte response of subjects with gingivitis or periodontitis was significantly greater than that of normal subjects to antigens of AV, AN, and DP, but did not differ from the response of edentulous subjects. Periodontitis subjects were significantly more reactive than edentulous and normal subjects in response to VA, LB, and BM. These findings suggest that the tested gram-negative bacteria and the host response they evoke are associated with advanced periodontal destruction.  (+info)

(6/894) Environmental modulation of oral treponeme virulence in a murine model.

This investigation examined the effects of environmental alteration on the virulence of the oral treponemes Treponema denticola and Treponema pectinovorum. The environmental effects were assessed by using a model of localized inflammatory abscesses in mice. In vitro growth of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum as a function of modification of the cysteine concentration significantly enhanced abscess formation and size. In contrast, growth of T. denticola or T. pectinovorum under iron-limiting conditions (e.g., dipyridyl chelation) had no effect on abscess induction in comparison to that when the strains were grown under normal iron conditions. In vivo modulation of the microenvironment at the focus of infection with Cytodex beads demonstrated that increasing the local inflammation had no effect on lesion induction or size. In vivo studies involved the determination of the effects of increased systemic iron availability (e.g., iron dextran or phenylhydrazine) on the induction, kinetics, and size of lesions. T. denticola induced significantly larger lesions in mice with iron pretreatment and demonstrated systemic manifestations of the infectious challenge and an accompanying spreading lesion with phenylhydrazine pretreatment (e.g., increases in circulating free hemoglobin). In contrast, T. pectinovorum virulence was minimally affected by this in vivo treatment to increase iron availability. T. denticola virulence, as evaluated by lesion size, was increased additively by in vivo iron availability, and cysteine modified growth of the microorganism. Additionally, galactosamine sensitized mice to a lethal outcome following infection with both T. denticola and T. pectinovorum, suggesting an endotoxin-like activity in these treponemes. These findings demonstrated the ability to modify the virulence capacity of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum by environmental conditions which can be evaluated by using in vivo murine models.  (+info)

(7/894) C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links. Sensitive indicators of periodontal tissue destruction.

C-telopeptides and related pyridinoline cross-links of bone Type I collagen are sensitive markers of bone resorption in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We have studied the release of C-telopeptide pyridinoline crosslinks of Type I collagen as measures of bone destruction in periodontal disease. Studies in preclinical animal models and humans have demonstrated the relationship between radiographic bone loss and crevicular fluid C-telopeptide levels. We have recently found that C-telopeptide levels correlate strongly with microbial pathogens associated with periodontitis and around endosseous dental implants. Host-modulation of bone-related collagen breakdown has been shown by studies in humans demonstrating that MMP inhibition blocks tissue destruction and release of C-telopeptides in patients with active periodontal disease.  (+info)

(8/894) Cryptobacterium curtum gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of gram-positive anaerobic rod isolated from human oral cavities.

Novel Eubacterium-like isolates, strains 12-3T and KV43-B, which were isolated from the periodontal pocket of an adult patient with periodontal disease and necrotic dental pulp, respectively, were studied taxonomically and phylogenetically. The morphological and differential biochemical characteristics of these organisms are also described in this paper. These organisms were Gram-positive, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that were inert in most of the conventional biochemical tests and closely resembled members of asaccharolytic oral Eubacterium species. On the other hand, protein profiles of whole cells in SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting reaction analysis distinguished these isolates from strains of the previously described genus Eubacterium. The G+C content of the DNAs from the novel isolates was 50 and 51 mol%, respectively. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness to other asaccharolytic oral Eubacterium species, including Eubacterium brachy, Eubacterium lentum, Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium timidum, Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium minutum and Eubacterium exiguum, was less than 11%. These organisms also exhibited a very low level of reassociation with the DNA of Eubacterium limosum, the type species of the genus Eubacterium. The results of 16S rDNA sequence comparisons revealed that these organisms represent a novel lineage distinct from all previously described genera of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. On the basis of our results, it is suggested that strains 12-3T and KV43-B should be classified in a new genus and species, for which the name Cryptobacterium curtum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cryptobacterium curtum is 12-3T (= ATCC 700683T).  (+info)



severity of periodontal

  • Specific Aims This cross-sectional study aims to assess the incidence of periodontal disease in male individuals with ED. A possible correlation between severity of periodontal disease, level of systemic hs-CRP and ED will be assessed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis The investigators assume, that severity of ED correlates with severity of periodontal disease as well as with systemic involvement assessed by CRP-levels. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Amounts of microbial deposits are inconsistent with the severity of periodontal tissue destruction. (periobasics.com)

periodontitis

  • Gingivitis is a reversible condition but if left untreated, it may progress to periodontitis, which is characterized by loss of periodontal attachment support (clinical attachment loss [CAL] / loss of attachment) and bone resorption , eventually resulting in tooth mobility and loss. (periobasics.com)
  • The levels of MIP-1α and FGF were lower in diabetes patients (regardless of their periodontal status) than in chronic periodontitis subjects without diabetes. (uib.no)
  • Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. (ac.ir)

crevicular fluid

  • Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on serum and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels during pregnancy and postpartum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy during pregnancy on the gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of six cytokines associated with periodontal disease and preterm birth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion: Although periodontal therapy during pregnancy successfully reduced periodontal inflammation and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels, it did not have a significant impact on serum biomarkers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clinical periodontal measurements were assessed, and crevicular fluid samples were collected from both abutment and control teeth to determine IL-1 levels, which were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. (quintpub.com)

progression

  • Due to slow progression of chronic periodontal disease (0.3-0.5mm attachment loss/year) it can be assumed, that periodontal disease exists mainly before ED develops. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST) was designed to study the hypothesis that periodontal infections predispose to accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis and incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and CVD death. (ahajournals.org)
  • Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the periodontal status and susceptibility to periodontal disease progression of the teeth in contact with removable partial dentures (RPD) and to compare them with control teeth in mouths not restored with a partial denture, by means of both clinical parameters and interleukin (IL)-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. (quintpub.com)
  • Conclusion: RPDs are a risk factor for periodontal disease progression because of increased plaque accumulation associated with increased total IL-1 levels and impaired clinical periodontal parameters. (quintpub.com)

alveolar bone

  • A panoramic radiograph for assessment of alveolar bone loss and a periodontal status (probing depth, recession, bleeding- and plaque-indices) will be performed. (clinicaltrials.gov)

clinical

  • Conclusions- Our data suggest that tooth loss is a marker of past periodontal disease in this population and is related to subclinical atherosclerosis, thereby providing a potential pathway for a relationship with clinical events. (ahajournals.org)
  • As a consequence of the dual and conflicting reasons for tooth loss, clinical measures of periodontal disease may be more difficult to interpret as an exposure of significance for systemic diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • The study's findings demonstrate that clinical symptoms of gingivitis reflect complicated changes in cellular and molecular processes within the body," said Steven Offenbacher, D.D.S., Ph.D., the study's lead author and director of the UNC School of Dentistry-based Center for Oral and Systemic Diseases. (redorbit.com)

gingivitis

  • Primary etiology for this disease is bacterial plaque on the tooth surface that leads to marginal tissue inflammation, known as gingivitis. (periobasics.com)
  • If untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontal disease, which has been studied extensively for its possible relation to heart disease, diabetes and pre-term birth. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers said that understanding how gingivitis develops and resolves on a molecular level can possibly provide critical insights into gum disease prevention, as well as new treatments. (redorbit.com)
  • Understanding the thousands of individual genes and multiple systems involved in gingivitis will help explain exactly what is occurring in a person's body at the onset of the disease and how it relates to their overall health. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers believe learning about how the body interacts with bacteria overgrowth during gingivitis could provide insight into a variety of bio-film-associated diseases. (redorbit.com)

gingival

  • This study evaluated the potential of gingival bleeding on probing to serve as a predictor of future periodontal breakdown. (blogspot.com)
  • Persistent gingival bleeding on probing was associated with an increased risk for periodontal breakdown, and the absence of gingival bleeding seemed to be a useful, although not perfect, indicator of disease stability. (blogspot.com)

cytokine

  • Recent studies have attempted to elucidate the role of cytokine networks involved in periodontal diseases. (ac.ir)

tissues

  • Background Pathological changes in periodontal tissues are mediated by the interaction between microorganisms and the host immune-inflammatory response. (uib.no)

cardiovascular

  • The incidence of ED increases in patients with diabetes, hypertonia, hypercholesteremia, cardiovascular diseases and renal failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background and Purpose- Chronic infections, including periodontal infections, may predispose to cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subjects received a comprehensive periodontal examination, extensive in-person cardiovascular disease risk factor measurements, and a carotid scan using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several investigators have suggested that chronic infections may predispose to cardiovascular disease (CVD). (ahajournals.org)

parameters

  • Periodontal parameters (dental plaque, bleeding on probing and periodontal pocket depth) were recorded. (uib.no)

teeth

  • nd appointment: At the department of Oral Surgery (Bernhard Gottlieb School of Dentistry) the periodontal situation and the index of decayed-missing-filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index of the patients will be determined. (clinicaltrials.gov)

oral

  • Methods- We enrolled 711 subjects with a mean age of 66±9 years and no history of stroke or myocardial infarction in the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 The relationship between oral health, specifically periodontal disease, and CVD has been a subject of mounting research in recent years 3-10 and is both biologically plausible and supported by data on transient bacteremia and elevated inflammatory markers. (ahajournals.org)
  • It also assessed the ability of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite twice-a-week oral rinse to convert periodontal pockets showing bleeding on probing to nonbleeding sites. (blogspot.com)
  • Impact of type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease on oral status of Sudanese adults. (uib.no)

tooth

  • The present study investigates the relationship of periodontal disease and tooth loss with subclinical atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11-13 Studies have reported associations between CVD events and periodontal infections 5-7,14-16 or tooth loss. (ahajournals.org)

Participants

  • Participants were randomly allocated to receive either comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal therapy before 24 gestational weeks (n = 30, test group) or only one appointment for supragingival calculus removal (n = 30, control group). (biomedsearch.com)

levels

  • Background Increased levels of C reactive protein (CRP) can be found not only within individuals with periodontal diseases and those with atherosclerotic alterations but also have been proved in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). NO seems to be the key mediator in the endothelial-derived vasodilation and penile erection. (clinicaltrials.gov)

relationship

  • First evidence suggests that there is a relationship between periodontal disease and ED as well. (clinicaltrials.gov)

difficult

  • The diagnosis of periodontal diseases is indeed difficult to make. (periobasics.com)

present

  • Only oxytalan fibers are present within the periodontal ligament. (periobasics.com)