Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Histocytological Preparation Techniques: Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Hematoxylin: A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Pathology, Molecular: A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Diathermy: The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.

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Henry Wurtz: Henry Wurtz (5 June 1828 in Easton, Pennsylvania – 1910) was an American chemist. He graduated from Princeton in 1848, and then studied chemistry at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard.FormaldehydeFixative (drawing): In drawing, a fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork, usually a dry media artwork, to better preserve it and prevent smudging.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Microtome: A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections. Important in science, microtomes are used in microscopy, allowing for the preparation of samples for observation under transmitted light or electron radiation.Vital stain: A vital stain in a casual usage may mean a stain that can be applied on living cells without killing them. Vital stains have been useful for diagnostic and surgical techniques in a variety of medical specialties.TridecaneCarnauba wax: Carnauba ( or , , ), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the palm Copernicia prunifera (Synonym: Copernicia cerifera), a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern Brazilian states of Piauí, Ceará, and Rio Grande do Norte. It is known as "queen of waxes" and in its pure state, usually comes in the form of hard yellow-brown flakes.Plastination: Plastination is a technique or process used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts, first developed by Gunther von Hagens in 1977. The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most properties of the original sample.Liquid paraffin (medicinal): Paraffin}}Ganoine: Ganoine or ganoin is a glassy, often multi-layered mineralized tissue that covers the scales, cranial bones and fin rays in some basal ray-finned fishes. It is composed of rod-like, pseudoprismatic apatite crystallites, with less than 5% of organic matter.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Thermal cyclerBrain biopsyRibosomal DNAMonoclonal antibody therapySeparator (oil production): The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil, gas and water.Ki-67 (protein): Antigen KI-67 also known as Ki-67 or MKI67 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKI67 gene (antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67).Palatine tonsilEosinBreast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Tissue microarray: 215px|thumb|right|A Tissue MicroArray BlockCertified Tissue Bank Specialist: A Certified Tissue Bank Specialist (CTBS) designation is a professional certification mark for Tissue Banking Professionals conferred by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). AATB oversees musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, skin and reproductive tissue banks in the United States.Cancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Microwave chemistry: Microwave chemistry is the science of applying microwave radiation to chemical reactions.Microwaves in organic synthesis, Andre Loupy (ed), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006, http://www.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Squamous-cell carcinomaInferior mesenteric lymph nodes: The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of:Chromogenic in situ hybridization: Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a cytogenetic technique that combines the chromogenic signal detection method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques with in situ hybridization. It was developed around the year 2000 as an alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification.Diastase: A diastase (; from GreekEmulsion polymerization: Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant. The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer (the oil) are emulsified (with surfactants) in a continuous phase of water.DiathermyVirtual microscope: The Virtual Microscope project is an initiative to make micromorphology and behavior of some small organisms available online. Images are from Antarctica and the Baltic Sea and available at no cost.Hormone receptor positive breast tumor: A hormone-receptor-positive tumor is a tumor which consists of cells that express receptors for certain hormones. The term most commonly refers to estrogen receptor positive tumors (i.Keratin 6A: Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence determined.Lumpectomy

(1/216) Loss of PTEN expression in paraffin-embedded primary prostate cancer correlates with high Gleason score and advanced stage.

The tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC-1/TEP-1 (referred to hereafter as PTEN) maps to chromosome 10q23 and encodes a dual specificity phosphatase. The PTEN protein negatively regulates cell migration and cell survival and induces a G1 cell cycle block via negative regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathway. PTEN is frequently mutated or deleted in both prostate cancer cell lines and primary prostate cancers. A murine polyclonal antiserum was raised against a glutathione S-transferase fusion polypeptide of the COOH terninus of PTEN. Archival paraffin tissue sections from 109 cases of resected prostate cancer were immunostained with the antiserum, using DU145 and PC-3 cells as positive and negative controls, respectively. PTEN expression was seen in the secretory cells. Cases were considered positive when granular cytoplasmic staining was seen in all tumor cells, mixed when areas of both positive and negative tumor cell clones were seen, and negative when adjacent benign prostate tissue but not tumor tissue showed positive staining. Seventeen cases (15.6%) of prostate cancer were positive, 70 cases (64.2%) were mixed, and 22 cases (20.2%) were negative. Total absence of PTEN expression correlated with the Gleason score (P = 0.0081) and correlated more significantly with a Gleason score of 7 or higher (P = 0.0004) and with advanced pathological stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer stages T3b and T4; P = 0.0078). Thus, loss of PTEN protein is correlated with pathological markers of poor prognosis in prostate cancer.  (+info)

(2/216) Recovery of ranavirus dsDNA from formalin-fixed archival material.

The extraction and amplification of nucleic acid from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues has become an important exercise in the collection of retrospective epidemiological data. A protocol is described that enables the extraction and amplification of dsDNA from fixed tissues within paraffin blocks and from specimens stored in 10% (aq) formalin. The procedure can be used for the examination of ranavirus DNA within archival tissues thereby providing valuable data for identifying the origin and tracing the spread of ranaviruses.  (+info)

(3/216) Relation between antigen release and immune response of oil adjuvanted vaccines in chickens.

The relationship between release properties of the model antigen, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from formulations in vitro and immune response after administration of various oil adjuvanted vaccines containing liquid paraffin was examined in chickens. The vaccine prepared at an hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB) number of 4.8 showed slower release of BSA and higher immune response on injected chickens than that with an HLB number of 6.0. Decreases of aqueous volume ratio in the formulation also led to slower release of BSA and higher immune response. The slower release rate of BSA showed higher ELISA antibody titer even at 20 weeks after vaccination. The ELISA antibody titer inversely was related to the constant release rate, k, calculated from the in vitro release test. The correlation coefficient was 0.863. The immune response of oil adjuvanted vaccines containing Haemophilus paragallinarum agreed well with these results with BSA. Our results indicated that a stronger and more prolonged immune response of oil adjuvanted vaccines was achieved by slower release rate of antigen from the formulation. In addition, there was a good correlation between immune response and the value of k.  (+info)

(4/216) Immunofluorescent detection of alpha1-antitrypsin in paraffin embedded liver tissue.

Alpha1-antitrypsin was detected by indirect immunofluorescence in frozen sections of liver biopsies from patients with clinically and biochemically proven alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. The antigen could also be demonstrated in those liver specimens of the same patients which were fixed in Bouin's fluid and embedded in paraffin. The cellular localization and the brightness of the fluorescence were the same in both frozen and paraffin sections. Four additional biopsies from three other patients were selected on the basis of PAS-positive diastase-resistant inclusions reported in the hepatocytes. All these biopsies showed bright fluorescence in the cytoplasm of the liver cells although one of the biopsies was stored for as long as eight years. Specific fluorescence was constantly found in the periportal hepatocytes with varying degrees of positivity. No fluorescence was observed in the six control biopsies from patients with various other liver diseases. These findings prove that paraffin embedded specimens are suitable for immunofluorescence detection of alpha1-antitrypsin and that a retrospective study on old paraffin blocks is possible.  (+info)

(5/216) Cutaneous necrosis due to cetrimide application.

Reports of necrosis caused by quaternary ammonium compounds, such as cetrimide, are rare. The case is reported of a 77-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital for four months with cutaneous necrosis of the left foot and leg owing to the topical application of cetrimide powder.  (+info)

(6/216) Congenital-infantile fibrosarcoma. A clinicopathologic study of 10 cases and molecular detection of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcripts using paraffin-embedded tissues.

Congenital-infantile fibrosarcoma (CIFS) is a relatively indolent sarcoma that should be distinguished from more aggressive spindle cell sarcomas of childhood. CIFSs have been found to have a novel recurrent reciprocal translocation t(12;15)(p13;q25) resulting in the gene fusion ETV6-NTRK3 (ETS variant gene 6; neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3). We studied immunohistochemical expression of NTRK3, and conducted a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcripts using archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 10 CIFSs. Thirty-eight other spindle cell tumors were included as controls. The ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcripts were identified in 7 (70%) of 10 CIFSs. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the fusion occurred between ETV6 exon 5 and NTRK3 exon 13. The 38 control tumors were negative for the fusion transcript. Immunohistochemically, CIFSs consistently expressed NTRK3. But the expression of NTRK3 also was observed in 22 of 38 control tumors. These results show the diagnostic usefulness of RT-PCR methods to detect ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcripts in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and the important role of NTRK3 in the development of CIFS, despite its being a protein of little importance in differential diagnosis.  (+info)

(7/216) Increasing the number of synapses modifies olfactory perception in Drosophila.

The Drosophila mutant gigas produces an enlargement of postmitotic cells caused by additional rounds of DNA replication. In neurons, the mutant cell establishes more synapses than normal. We have taken advantage of this feature to study the effect of synapse number on odorant perception. Mosaic adults were generated in which one antenna was homozygous for gigas, whereas the contralateral side served as an internal control. Morphological analysis indicates that the number and type of sensory afferents forming the mutant antenna, as well as their projection to the olfactory glomeruli, are normal. In contrast, the volume of identified glomeruli increases to a variable extent, and mutant sensory neurons branch profusely. The number of synapses, estimated in the ventral (V) glomerulus that receives ipsilateral afferents only, is increased twofold to threefold. Large-dense-core vesicle-containing terminals that probably modulate olfactory centers are identified in the V glomerulus. Their number and size are not modified by the mutant input. Sensory transduction, measured by electroantennograms, is normal in amplitude and kinetics. In odorant tests, however, the profile of the behavioral response to ethyl acetate shows attractive responses to concentrations to which sibling controls remain indifferent (10(-)8 and 10(-)7 v/v). In addition, the intensity of the response is augmented both at attractive and repulsive odorant concentrations with respect to that of controls. These results demonstrate that increased synapse number in the sensory neurons can modify the behavior of the organism, allowing a higher sensitivity of perception.  (+info)

(8/216) Cyclin D1 overexpression in multiple myeloma. A morphologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization study of 71 paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens.

Cyclin D1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis and biotin-labeled in situ hybridization (ISH) in a series of 71 decalcified, paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens from patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Cyclin D1 messenger RNA (mRNA) overexpression was detected by ISH in 23 (32%) of 71 cases, whereas cyclin D1 protein was identified by immunohistochemical analysis in 17 (24%) of 71 specimens. All cases that were positive by immunohistochemical analysis also were positive by ISH. Statistically significant associations were found between cyclin D1 overexpression and grade of plasma cell differentiation and between cyclin D1 overexpression and extent of bone marrow infiltration. Our findings demonstrate the following: (1) ISH for cyclin D1 mRNA is a sensitive method for the evaluation of cyclin D1 overexpression in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens with MM. (2) ISH is more sensitive than immunohistochemical analysis in the assessment of cyclin D1 expression. (3) Cyclin D1 overexpression in MM is correlated positively with higher histologic grade and stage.  (+info)