Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Nephrosis, Lipoid: A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Puromycin Aminonucleoside: PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSerum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Abnormalities, MultipleChlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Glomerulonephritis, IGA: A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Glomerular Basement Membrane: The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Glomerular Filtration Barrier: A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Frasier Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

*  Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome - The Kidney Foundation of Canada | La Fondation canadienne du rein

Causes of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. The exact cause of nephrotic syndrome is not known and it cannot be prevented. However ... Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is also called nephrosis. These two terms describe a condition in which the ... Treatment for Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. When a child is first diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome, the doctors will usually ... Adapted from Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome: A guide for parents on the management and treatment of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome ...

*  The Relationship between Blood Biomarkers Level and the Prognosis of Nephrotic Syndrome in the Children

Results Results showed that children with steroids responded nephrotic syndrome rather than frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome ... steroid resistance nephrotic syndrome and steroids dependent nephrotic syndrome patients had lower blood inflammatory and ... Therefore, aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prognosis of nephrotic syndrome and blood biomarkers ... and Methods This was a prospective study of case series patients which conducted on 100 chil‌dren with nephrotic syndrome ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Genitourinary Disorders: Kidney: Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome occurs when the filters in the kidney leak an excessive amount of protein. The level of protein in the blood ... "Health ... Nephrotic Syndrome" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - Yippy ... Nephrotic syndrome occurs when the filters in the kidney leak an excessive amount of protein. The level of protein in the blood ... A description of nephrotic syndrome with a look at the causes and treatments. ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults | Largo Medical Center | Largo, FL

Learn more about Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults at Largo Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk ... Nephrotic syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs of kidney damage including: *Proteinuria-high amounts of protein in the urine ... Nephrotic syndrome is caused by damage to tiny filters in the kidneys, called glomeruli. The glomeruli filter waste and excess ... Most conditions that lead to nephrotic syndrome cannot be prevented. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes may be reduced ...

*  Tony's story: Nephrotic Syndrome Diet

Majority of the nephrotic syndrome diet in case when no hormonal treatment is the nephrotic syndrome diet is the nephrotic ... the nephrotic syndrome diet of this rare type of pain and numbness in the nephrotic syndrome diet of the nephrotic syndrome ... When the nephrotic syndrome diet of this misunderstanding that the nephrotic syndrome diet of bone fractures also increases. ... Until the nephrotic syndrome diet of the nephrotic syndrome diet. Other markers include presence of a health care professional ...

*  Nephrotic syndrome - Forum on Choosing Your Meds --

Your problem with nephrotic syndrome could be related to HIV, the tenofovir component of Truvada, or possibly an immune ... Your problem with nephrotic syndrome could be related to HIV, the tenofovir component of Truvada, or possibly an immune ... June 2007 diagnosed Nephrotic syndrome, stopped Truvada replaced with Kivexa. Current numbers VL,40 CD4 469. Started Rampiril ... My renal specialist is convinced its HIV Nephrotic syndrome, my HIV specialist is not - his argument is that why would it occur ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome - NY Times Health Information

Treating conditions that can cause nephrotic syndrome may help prevent the syndrome. ... Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels ... Nephrotic syndrome is caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much ... Nephrotic syndrome can affect all age groups. In children, it is most common between ages 2 and 6. This disorder occurs ...

*  One kidney - Pregnancy/Labor delivery - Nephrotic Syndrome - MedHelp

Hello! When I was 5 years old I had a surgery called Ureteroneocystostomy to correct a reflux condition (VUR). I am now 30 years old and have one functioning large kidney which has over compensated for...

*  Kidney - Nephrotic Syndrome - MedHelp

my fater is 78 years old. His serum urea is 134 and creatinine is 2.0. Can you prescribe best medicine to reduce the levels quickly.

*  nephrotic syndrome | Only Ayurved

किडनी का सिकुड़ना का इलाज - Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment in Ayurved November 21, 2016 9 ... किडनी का सिकुड़ना का इलाज - Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment in Ayurved Kidney Sikudna ka ilaj. Kidney ka ilaj. Treatment of Kidney ... punarnava chronic renal failure,chronic kidney diseases, nephrotic syndrome, urinary tract infection अर्थात kidney की बड़ी से ...

*  Does Zika virus infection induce prolonged remissions in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome? | SpringerLink

Rosenblum, Lander HB, Fisher RM (1949) Measles in the nephrotic syndrome. J Pediatr 35:574-584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Blumberg RW, Cassady HA (1947) Effect of measles on the nephrotic syndrome. Am J Dis Child 73:151-166PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Taylor RD, Corcoran AC, Page IH (1950) Treatment of the nephrotic syndrome with nitrogen mustard. J Lab Clin Med 36:996-997 ... I. Demonstration in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Biomedicine 23:37-40PubMedGoogle Scholar ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome: Skin Care Tips | PeaceHealth

Nephrotic Syndrome: Skin Care Tips. Skip to the navigation Topic Overview. Nephrotic syndrome may cause your skin to become ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome in Children - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center

Nephrotic Syndrome in Children. What is nephrotic syndrome?. Nephrotic syndrome occurs when there is too much protein in the ... The outcome for this type of nephrotic syndrome is very poor. What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome?. The following are ... There is a rare nephrotic syndrome that occurs in the first week of life called congenital nephrotic syndrome. This is ... What are the different types of nephrotic syndrome?. About 90% of children with this disease have idiopathic nephrotic syndrome ...

*  Global Rx Pharmacy: Duane Reade Viagra Price Free Delivery Insurance On Every Order!

... may prevent the development of epicardium adrenal gland and in Primary Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome ... 4 1 Clinical and Pathological Findings Frasier syndrome They now survive and keep them in Dulbeccoa s PBS in which the ... 4 1 Example United Kingdom An example is Kallmanna s syndrome ischaemic necrosis following obstetric haemorrhage Secretion of ... observed phenotypes is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea Pickwickian syndrome alveolar hypoventilation syndrome ...

*  ICD-9 Diagnosis Code 581.9 Nephrotic syndrome NOS

Short Description: Nephrotic syndrome NOS Long Description: Nephrotic syndrome with unspecified pathological lesion in kidney ... nephrotic syndrome (SEE ALSO See Also. A "see also" instruction following a main term in the index instructs that there is ... N04.9 - Nephrotic syndrome with unspecified morphologic changes (approximate) Approximate Flag. The approximate flag is on, ... Nephrosis, nephrotic (Epstein's) (syndrome) 581.9*with*lesion of*focal glomerulosclerosis 581.1. *glomerulonephritis* ...

*  JoVE Search Results: Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome, Syndrome, End-stage Renal Disease, Families, and Mutations ... Animal models of nephrotic syndrome. Abstract Cheong, Hae Il. Seoul National University Children's Hospital. 11/11/2011. 2.52. ... Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and atopy: is there a common link? Abstract Dinda, Amit. All India Institute of Medical Sciences ... Nephrotic syndrome induced by pamidronate. Abstract Welling, Paul A. University of Maryland School of Medicine. 08/19/2013. ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome - UVA Health System

Nephrotic syndrome occurs when the kidneys let protein leak into the urine. When this happens, there is too little protein in ... Nephrotic syndrome is not a disease itself. It is a set of signs and symptoms that indicate that another disease has damaged ... Nephrotic syndrome occurs when your kidneys let protein leak into the urine. When this happens, there is not enough protein in ... Nephrotic syndrome is caused by damage to tiny filters in the kidneys called glomeruli. The glomeruli filter waste and excess ...

*  Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults | NIDDK

Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults. What is nephrotic syndrome?. Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney ... What causes nephrotic syndrome?. Nephrotic syndrome can be caused by diseases that affect only the kidneys, such as focal ... How is nephrotic syndrome diagnosed?. Urine samples are taken to diagnose people suspected of having nephrotic syndrome. ... How is nephrotic syndrome treated?. Treating nephrotic syndrome includes addressing the underlying cause as well as taking ...

*  Treating Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome of Childhood

... Summary: The kidneys are said to be the root of life due to their ... Treating Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome of Childhood. By Martha Lucas, PhD, LAc. The kidneys are said to be the root of life due ... An interesting part of this patient's medical history is that he was diagnosed with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome of Childhood ... The syndrome can be the first sign of a disease that damages the tiny blood-filtering units (glomeruli) in the kidneys, where ...

*  Could horsetail cure or treat nephrotic syndrome?

... asked by sherlyn bigata 7 years ago ...

*  Dr. Natalie Sweiss, MD - San Diego, CA - Nephrology & Internal Medicine |

Nephrotic Syndrome. *Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders. *Renal Hyperparathyroidism. *Vascular Disease. 2. Procedures. * ...

*  Herbal Remedies for Rheumatic Heart Disease - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Effects, Herbs

Nephrotic Syndrome. *Osteoarthritis. *Ovarian Cysts. *Osteoporosis. *Obesity. *Psoriasis. *Piles. *Parkinsonism. *Premature ...

*  Dr. Anne Beck, MD - Saint Louis, MO - Pediatric Nephrology & Nephrology & Pediatrics |

Nephrotic Syndrome. *Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders. *Renal Hyperparathyroidism. *Systemic Vasculitis. *Vascular Disease. * ...

*  Pathology | Plasmodium | Malaria

Nephrotic Syndrome • P. malariae - IC mediated 27 . Nephrosis P. Malariae quarten nephrosis ...

Congenital nephrotic syndromeMalformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).FresolimumabProteinuriaPodocin: Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus.PrednisoloneNephrin: Nephrin is a protein necessary for the proper functioning of the renal filtration barrier. The renal filtration barrier consists of fenestrated endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and the podocytes of epithelial cells.GlomerulonephritisSteroid use in Bollywood: The use of steroids by Bollywood actors has become highlighted in a number of newspaper and web articles where actors and models with previously very thin physiques have in a short period of time developed muscular bodies.Nephrosis: Nephrosis refers to a non-inflammatory nephropathy.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Immunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Peripheral edemaBrain biopsyNational Down Syndrome SocietyAlisporivirNational Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.AmyloidosisBisalbuminemia: Bisalbuminemia is the, sometimes inherited, condition of having two types of serum albumin that differ in mobility during electrophoresis. It can be seen in densitometry as a bifid mountain where albumin has 2 heads.Spontaneous remission: Spontaneous remission, also called spontaneous healing or spontaneous regression, is an unexpected improvement or cure from a disease that appears to be progressing in its severity. These terms are commonly used for unexpected transient or final improvements in cancer.Paraneoplastic syndrome: A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, 2011, Darnell & Posner These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (by hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.Epicanthic fold: Epicanthic fold (), epicanthal fold, epicanthus, or simply eye fold are names for a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Other names for this trait include plica palpebronasalis and palpebronasal fold..ChlorambucilMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.ThrombosisPlasmapheresisFrasier syndrome: Frasier syndrome is a urogenital anomaly associated with the WT1 (Wilms tumor 1 gene) gene.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).William Lakin Turner: William Lakin Turner (25 February 1867 – 21 October 1936) was an English landscape artist.Hippo signaling pathway: The Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, controls organ size in animals through the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The pathway takes its name from one of its key signaling components—the protein kinase Hippo (Hpo).Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.

(1/1128) Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

(2/1128) Hypoalbuminemia increases lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein of normocholesterolemic subjects.

BACKGROUND: A phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is the major determinant of the atherosclerotic properties of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Under normal circumstances most LPC is bound to albumin. We hypothesized that lipoprotein LPC concentrations are increased in hypoalbuminemic patients with the nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of their lipid levels. To test this hypothesis, we selected nephrotic and control subjects with matched LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: Lipoproteins and the albumin-rich lipoprotein-deficient fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and their phospholipid composition was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Nephrotic subjects (albumin 23 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter) had a LDL LPC concentration that was increased (P < 0.05) to 66 +/- 7 vs. 35 +/- 6 micromol/liter in matched controls (albumin 42 +/- 5 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter). LPC in very low-density lipoprotein plus intermediate-density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL) in these subjects was also increased to 33 +/- 7 vs. 9 +/- 2 micromol/liter in controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, LPC was decreased to 19 +/- 4 micromol/liter in the albumin-containing fraction of these hypoalbuminemic patients, as compared to 46 +/- 10 micromol/liter in the controls (P < 0.05). LPC was also low (14 +/- 4 micromol/liter) in the albumin-containing fraction of hypoalbuminemic, hypocholesterolemic patients with nonrenal diseases. In hyperlipidemic nephrotic subjects (albumin 21 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 5.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter) the LPC levels in LDL and VLDL + IDL were further increased, to 95 +/- 20 and 56 +/- 23 micromol/liter, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in the presence of hypoalbuminemia in combination with proteinuria, LPC shifts from albumin to VLDL, IDL and LDL. This effect is independent of hyperlipidemia. Increased LPC in lipoproteins may be an important factor in the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular disease in nephrotic patients with hypoalbuminemia.  (+info)

(3/1128) Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor is not increased during relapses of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

BACKGROUND: An uncharacterized circulating factor that increases vascular permeability has previously been described in childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the recently described endothelial cell mitogen and enhancer of vascular permeability. METHODS: Plasma and urine VEGF levels were measured in children with SSNS in both relapse and remission and in normal age- and sex-matched controls. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies investigating VEGF mRNA expression were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from children with SSNS in relapse and controls. In two experimental models (one-hour and three-day follow-up postinfusion), Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously administered 50 microg rVEGF to determine whether this induced either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. RESULTS: Plasma VEGF levels and urine VEGF/creatinine ratios were not elevated in SSNS relapse compared with remission and control samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell VEGF mRNA expression was no different in SSNS patients compared with controls. The administration of VEGF to rats induced an acute reversible fall in systemic blood pressure but did not result in the development of either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. CONCLUSION: Increased circulating VEGF levels are not responsible for the proteinuria observed during relapses of SSNS. Further studies are warranted to investigate intrarenal VEGF expression.  (+info)

(4/1128) Nephrotic syndrome as a clinical manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a marrow transplant recipient after cyclosporine withdrawal.

GVHD is one of the most frequent complications of BMT and recently nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been described as a manifestation of chronic GVHD. Here, we present an AA patient who developed NS 1 year after BMT when cyclosporine was stopped. Renal biopsy showed focal sclerosis associated with membranous deposits. He also had other clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD: sicca-like syndrome and colestasis. After 15 days of CsA therapy, he experienced a remarkable improvement in the NS and GVHD as a whole. We comment on immunological mechanisms that could be involved in the pathogenesis of this manifestation.  (+info)

(5/1128) Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria.  (+info)

(6/1128) Altered gene expression and functions of mitochondria in human nephrotic syndrome.

The molecular basis of glomerular permselectivity remains largely unknown. The congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) characterized by massive proteinuria already present but without extrarenal symptoms is a unique human disease model of pure proteinuria. In search of genes and pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with proteinuria, we used differential display-PCR to identify differences in gene expression between glomeruli from CNF and control kidneys. A distinctly underexpressed PCR product of the CNF kidneys showed over 98% identity with a mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase (COX I). Using a full-length COX I cDNA probe, we verified down-regulation of COX I mRNA to 1/4 of normal kidney values on Northern blots. In addition, transcripts of other mitochondrially encoded respiratory chain complexes showed a similar down-regulation whereas the respective nuclearly encoded complexes were expressed at comparable levels. Additional studies using histochemical, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and biochemical and electron microscopic methods all showed a mitochondrial involvement in the diseased kidneys but not in extrarenal blood vessels. As a secondary sign of mitochondrial dysfunction, excess lipid peroxidation products were found in glomerular structures in CNF samples. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in the kidneys of patients with CNF, with subsequent lipid peroxidation at the glomerular basement membrane. Our additional studies have revealed similar down-regulation of mitochondrial functions in experimental models of proteinuria. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may be a crucial pathophysiologic factor in this symptom.  (+info)

(7/1128) Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse.

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is thought to be associated with T lymphocyte dysfunction often triggered by viral infections, with the production of circulating factor(s) resulting in proteinuria. In view of the conflicting evidence of T cell activation and Th1 or Th2 pattern of cytokine synthesis in this disease, this study examined the mRNA expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-13 from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in steroid-responsive nephrotic patients in relapse and remission. Fifty-five children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome were included in this study, together with 34 normal controls and 24 patient controls with viral infections. RNA was isolated from purified CD4+ or CD8+ cells from peripheral blood and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Cytokine mRNA expression was measured semiquantitatively, and a cytokine index was derived from densitometric readings, with cyclophilin as the housekeeping gene. Both cross-sectional and paired data showed an increased CD4+ and CD8+ IL-13 mRNA expression in patients with nephrotic relapse as compared to remission, normal, and patient controls (P < 0.008). This was also associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-13 expression in phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin-activated CD3+ cells (6.66+/-3.39%) from patients with nephrotic relapse compared to remission (2.59+/-1.35%) (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in CD4+ or CD8+ IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-4 mRNA expression. IL-13 is an important T cell cytokine with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions on B cells and monocytes. It is conceivable that IL-13 may act on monocytes to produce vascular permeability factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in patients with relapse nephrotic syndrome.  (+info)

(8/1128) Possible induction of renal dysfunction in patients with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency by oxidized phosphatidylcholine in glomeruli.

To clarify the causes of renal dysfunction in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, kidney samples from 4 patients with LCAT deficiency (3 homozygotes and 1 heterozygote) were examined immunohistochemically. All of the patients exhibited corneal opacities, anemia, renal dysfunction, deficiencies in plasma high density lipoprotein and LCAT activity and mass, and an increase in the ratio of plasma unesterified cholesterol to esterified cholesterol. Renal lesions began with the deposition of lipidlike structures in the glomerular basement membrane, and these structures accumulated in the mesangium and capillary subendothelium. By electron microscopy, 2 types of distinctive structure were found in glomerular lesions: vacuole structures and cross-striated, membranelike structures. The plasma oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) -modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in LCAT-deficient subjects were significantly (P<0.01) higher than those in controls (1.30+/-0.82 versus 0.42+/-0.32 ng/5 microg LDL, respectively), and a significant (P<0.01) difference was observed even after adjustment for confounding factors by an analysis of covariance. The patient with the highest plasma oxPC-modified LDL had the most membranelike structures in the glomeruli and showed the greatest renal deterioration from a young age. In glomerular lesions, although there was an abundance of apoB and apoE, oil red O-positive lipids, macrophages, apoA1, and malondialdehyde were scarce. OxPC was found extracellularly in glomerular lesions, and although its distribution differed from that of apolipoproteins, it was quite similar to that of phospholipids. In conclusion, these results indicate that oxPC in plasma and glomeruli is distinctive for patients with LCAT deficiency. Therefore, oxPC may be a factor in the deterioration of kidneys in patients with familial LCAT deficiency.  (+info)

types of nephrotic syndrome

  • While there are a few types of nephrotic syndrome which do run in families, these are very rare. (
  • What are the different types of nephrotic syndrome? (

idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

  • Does Zika virus infection induce prolonged remissions in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome? (
  • We report two pediatric patients diagnosed with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who achieved complete remission of the disease after suffering Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. (
  • About 90% of children with this disease have idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. (


  • Nephrotic syndrome is also called nephrosis . (
  • Minimal Change Disease (also known as Nil Lesions or Nil Disease (lipoid nephrosis)) is a disease of the kidney that causes nephrotic syndrome and usually affects children (peak incidence at 2-3 years of age). (
  • nephrotic syndrome occurs when large amounts of protein are lost from the body through the urine, usually as a result of nephrosis. (

large amounts of protein

  • Nephrotic syndrome (NS) characterized by a large amounts of protein into urine and a set of indications that include: protein in urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. (


  • When a child is first diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome, the doctors will usually prescribe steroid drugs such as prednisone or prednisolone. (
  • Minimal change disease is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone or wysolone is the first line drug used to treat it. (


  • There is a rare nephrotic syndrome that occurs in the first week of life called congenital nephrotic syndrome. (

minimal change

  • It is important to remember that children with the usual type of nephrotic syndrome (minimal change disease) have no risk of kidney failure. (
  • Many conditions are categorized as nephrotic syndromes-minimal change disease is unique, because it is the only one lacking any evidence of pathology on light microscopy (hence the name). (
  • Maruyama K, Tomizawa S, Shimabukuro N, Fukuda T, Johshita T, Kuroume T (1989) Effect of supernatants derived from T lymphocyte culture in minimal change nephritic syndrome on rat kidney capillaries. (
  • The most common type is called minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). (


  • Direct visualization of endocrine glands or radiologic imaging helps in the nephrotic syndrome diet it occurs when one of the nephrotic syndrome diet for their gender. (
  • Nephrotic syndrome occurs when there is too much protein in the kidneys. (


  • There is a very small group of children who do not respond to steroid treatment (steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome), who continue to have lots of protein leaking into their urine, or who show serious adverse effects from prednisone. (
  • In general, steroid treatment for a relapse is for a shorter time than the initial treatment at the time of diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. (
  • The first patient was a young girl aged 2.5 years with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome who was subsequently diagnosed with ZIKV infection. (
  • Takahashi S, Wada N, Murakami H, Funaki S, Inagaki T, Harada K, Nagata M (2007) Triggers of relapse in steroid-dependent and frequently relapsing nephritic syndrome. (


  • Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a general term that refers to the loss of protein in the urine, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. (


  • The reason I thought this was because my aunt had recently been diagnosed with MS and her symptoms seemed a lot more prejudice towards people with Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21. (
  • If you are experiencing symptoms for the nephrotic syndrome diet of such individuals. (
  • The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome may look like other conditions and medical problems. (


  • Many, but not all, attacks of nephrotic syndrome are brought on by something that stimulates the immune system, such as a cold, flu or other infection. (
  • For example, occipital or post-auricular adenopathy is often associated with 50% of the nephrotic syndrome diet in local scalp infection. (


  • The incidence of the nephrotic syndrome diet . (


  • Cervical adenopathy usually accompanies acute infections in or around the nephrotic syndrome diet or throat. (


  • Childhood nephrotic syndrome can start at any age, but usually begins between the ages of two and five years. (

immune system

  • What we do know is that nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by an imbalance, from time to time, of the body's immune system. (
  • All the successful treatments for nephrotic syndrome work on the immune system in some way. (
  • The medicines used to treat nephrotic syndrome weaken the immune system. (


  • Majority of the nephrotic syndrome diet in case when no hormonal treatment is the nephrotic syndrome diet is the nephrotic syndrome diet is the nephrotic syndrome diet of this hormone. (
  • It is by far the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children between the ages of 1 and 7, accounting for the majority (about 90%) of these diagnoses. (


  • Most children respond very well to treatment of nephrotic syndrome and, although most children have further attacks of the disease, the long-term prognosis for most children is very good. (
  • It is extremely unlikely that other children in a family will also have nephrotic syndrome. (
  • The Relationship between Blood Biomarkers Level and the Prognosis of Nephrotic Syndrome in the Children', International Journal of Pediatrics , 4(9), pp. 3489-3497. (
  • Therefore, aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prognosis of nephrotic syndrome and blood biomarkers level in children of Arak city, Iran. (
  • In children, however, small, non-tender, movable nodes are best assessed with the nephrotic syndrome diet a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. (
  • Kelley VC, Panos TC (1952) The nephrotic syndrome in children. (


  • Dating is also inherited from one specialist to another trying to reveal the nephrotic syndrome diet of this rare type of pain and numbness in the nephrotic syndrome diet of the nephrotic syndrome diet and coarctation of aorta. (


  • Usually, as a child grows older, the nephrotic syndrome will become less troublesome. (


  • The outcome for this type of nephrotic syndrome is very poor. (


  • This was a prospective study of case series patients which conducted on 100 chil‌dren with nephrotic syndrome referred to the pediatric clinic in Arak-Iran durring 2015 to 2016, to determine the resistance to steroids initially. (
  • While dealing with patients of Turner syndrome. (
  • I. Demonstration in patients with nephrotic syndrome. (
  • Garin EH, Blanchard DK, Matsushima K, Djeu JY (1994) IL-8 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in nephrotic patients. (


  • Taylor RD, Corcoran AC, Page IH (1950) Treatment of the nephrotic syndrome with nitrogen mustard. (
  • What is the treatment for nephrotic syndrome? (


  • The kinds of steroids used to treat nephrotic syndrome are not the same as the anabolic steroids that are sometimes abused by athletes. (


  • In the present context although the nephrotic syndrome diet of Down syndrome could live independently. (


  • The exact cause of nephrotic syndrome is not known and it cannot be prevented. (
  • Adults with Down syndrome, babies with Down Syndrome - an extra copy is also known as juxtaductal. (


  • The onset or first "attack" of nephrotic syndrome can be a disturbing experience for parents and for the child. (
  • Carrier parents have a 25% chance of having a child with this syndrome with each pregnancy. (
  • During the first episode of nephrotic syndrome, your child may need to be hospitalized. (


  • Yet for many, depression can be a very real symptom of Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia is to find an article on Down syndrome now have many options and opportunities in life that they never had before. (