Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms: A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Retropharyngeal Abscess: An accumulation of purulent material in the space between the PHARYNX and the CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. This usually results from SUPPURATION of retropharyngeal LYMPH NODES in patients with UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS, perforation of the pharynx, or head and neck injuries.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Parathyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Cervical Rib: A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Hemiarthroplasty: A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Head and Neck Cancer Alliance: The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Squamous-cell carcinomaCervical fractureDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer: -,, |Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Lymphovascular invasionLipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.LaryngectomyInternal fixationRiding-like sittingTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTransurethral incision of the prostateExternal beam radiotherapyPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Gangliocytic paraganglioma: A gangliocytic paraganglioma, abbreviated GP, is a rare tumour that is typically found in the duodenum and consists of three components: (1) ganglion cells, (2) epithelioid cells (paraganglioma-like) and, (3) spindle cells (schwannoma-like).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Infectious intracranial aneurysm: An infectious intracranial aneurysm (IIA, also called mycotic aneurysm) is a cerebral aneurysm that is caused by infection of the cerebral arterial wall.ThyroidectomyRande Lazar: Rande Lazar is an otolaryngologist with a primary focus in pediatric ear, nose, and throat disorders. He has special expertise in adult and pediatric sleep and snoring disorders and surgery, as well as adult and pediatric sinus disorders.Bruce Goldsmith: Bruce Goldsmith is a British paraglider pilot and designer, and the 2007 Paragliding World Champion. He won the title at Manilla in Australia, flying an Airwave Magic FR3.Thyroid cancerInfraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.WorkraveCaphosol: Caphosol (EUSA Pharma) is a mouth rinse designed to moisten, lubricate and clean the oral cavity including the mucosa of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis in patients receiving radiation therapy or chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:HyperintensityAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Abdominal aortic aneurysmWorld Osteoporosis Day: World Osteoporosis Day is observed annually on 20 October, and launches a year-long campaign dedicated to raising global awareness of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. Organized by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), World Osteoporosis Day involves campaigns by national osteoporosis patient societies from around the world with activities in over 90 countries.Rotation flap: A rotation flap is a semicircular skin flap that is rotated into the defect on a fulcrum point. Rotation flaps provide the ability to mobilize large areas of tissue with a wide vascular base for reconstruction.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Retropharyngeal lymph nodes: The retropharyngeal lymph nodes, from one to three in number, lie in the buccopharyngeal fascia, behind the upper part of the pharynx and in front of the arch of the atlas, being separated, however, from the latter by the Longus capitis.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Osteoradionecrosis: Osteoradionecrosis is a possible complication following radiotherapy where an area of bone does not heal from irradiation. Irradiation of bones causes damage to osteocytes and impairs the blood supply.Z-plastyPhilip D'Arcy HartCancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Chemoradiotherapy: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer.http://www.Jugular venous pressurePeri-implant mucositis: Peri-implant mucositis defines the presence of inflammation in the soft tissue surrounding a dental implant without signs of any loss of supporting bone.Zitzmann, NU; Berglundh, T.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.John Mendelsohn (doctor)Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Minimally invasive hip resurfacing: Minimally invasive hip resurfacing (MIS) is "total or partial hip surgery that can be carried out through an incision of less than 10 cm (3.94 inches) without imparting great forces on the anatomy or compromising component positioning"Comis Orthopaedics websiteTorticollisLow-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Brain positron emission tomography: Positron emission tomography (PET) measures emissions from radioactively labeled metabolically active chemicals that have been injected into the bloodstream. The emission data are computer-processed to produce multi-dimensional images of the distribution of the chemicals throughout the brain.Avid Radiopharmaceuticals: Avid Radiopharmaceuticals is an American company, founded by Dr. Daniel Skovronsky, and based at the University City Science Center research campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Parathyroid neoplasm
(1/1532) Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability.
The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands. (+info)
(2/1532) Contribution of extracranial lymphatics and arachnoid villi to the clearance of a CSF tracer in the rat.
The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles of arachnoid villi and cervical lymphatics in the clearance of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in rats. 125I-labeled human serum albumin (125I-HSA; 100 micrograms) was injected into one lateral ventricle, and an Evans blue dye-rat protein complex was injected intravenously. Arterial blood was sampled for 3 h. Immediately after this, multiple cervical vessels were ligated in the same animals, and plasma recoveries were monitored for a further 3 h after the intracerebroventricular injection of 100 micrograms 131I-HSA. Tracer recovery in plasma at 3 h averaged (%injected dose) 0.697 +/- 0.042 before lymphatic ligation and dropped significantly to 0.357 +/- 0. 060 after ligation. Estimates of the rate constant associated with the transport of the CSF tracer to plasma were also significantly lower after obstruction of cervical lymphatics (from 0.584 +/- 0. 072/h to 0.217 +/- 0.056/h). No significant changes were observed in sham-operated animals. Assuming that the movement of the CSF tracer to plasma in lymph-ligated animals was a result of arachnoid villi clearance, we conclude that arachnoid villi and extracranial lymphatic pathways contributed equally to the clearance of the CSF tracer from the cranial vault. (+info)
(3/1532) Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood--a clinicopathological study of 17 cases.
AIMS: To assess the clinical and pathological features of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood to define the salient clinical and histological features. METHODS: 17 cases were included on the basis of positive culture or demonstration of bacilli of appropriate morphology and staining characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 4.86 years. All children were systemically well, with clear chest x rays. Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was the commonest mode of presentation. Differential Mantoux testing played no part in diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis improved with awareness. Treatment varied with surgeons opting for excision and paediatricians adding six months antituberculous chemotherapy. Acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli were identified in nine cases. Bacterial cultures were conducted in 16 cases and were positive for atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria in 14, the main organism being M avium-intracellulare complex (11 cases). Histologically, 12 cases had bright eosinophilic serpiginous necrosis with nuclear debris scattered throughout the necrotic foci. Langhans type giant cells featured in the majority of cases but infiltration by plasma cells and neutrophils was not consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis of childhood represents a rare but significant disease with characteristic clinical and histological features. (+info)
(4/1532) Bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation: a new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism?
OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this new approach are examined. BACKGROUND: Standard bilateral parathyroid exploration under general anesthesia is associated with significant risk, especially in an elderly population. Image-guided unilateral approaches, although theoretically less invasive, expose patients to the potential risk of missing multiple adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia. Initial bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation may maximize the strengths of both approaches while minimizing their weaknesses. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 121 initial cervicotomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed between 1995 and 1997, 31 patients were selected on the basis of their own request to undergo a conventional bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. Neither preoperative testing of hypnotic susceptibility nor expensive localization studies were done. A hypnotic state (immobility, subjective well-being, and increased pain thresholds) was induced within 10 minutes; restoration of a fully conscious state was obtained within several seconds. Patient comfort and quiet surgical conditions were ensured by local anesthesia of the collar incision and minimal intravenous sedation titrated throughout surgery. Both peri- and postoperative records were examined to assess the safety and efficacy of this new approach. RESULTS: No conversion to general anesthesia was needed. No complications were observed. All the patients were cured with a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 12 months. Mean operating time was <1 hour. Four glands were identified in 84% of cases, three glands in 9.7%. Adenomas were found in 26 cases; among these, 6 were ectopic. Hyperplasia, requiring subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy, was found in five cases (16.1%), all of which had gone undetected by localization studies when requested by the referring physicians. Concomitant thyroid lobectomy was performed in four cases. Patient comfort and recovery and surgical conditions were evaluated on visual analog scales as excellent. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimal. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 0.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Initial bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism can be performed safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively under hypnosedation, which may therefore be proposed as a new standard of care. (+info)
(5/1532) Neck soft tissue and fat distribution: comparison between normal men and women by magnetic resonance imaging.
BACKGROUND: Obesity and increased neck circumference are risk factors for the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). SAHS is more common in men than in women, despite the fact that women have higher rates of obesity and greater overall body fat. One factor in this apparently paradoxical sex distribution may be the differing patterns of fat deposition adjacent to the upper airway in men and women. A study was therefore undertaken to compare neck fat deposition in normal men and women. METHODS: Using T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the fat and tissue volumes in the necks of 10 non-obese men and 10 women matched for age (men mean (SE) 36 (3) years, women 37 (3) years, p = 0.7), body mass index (both 25 (0. 6) kg/m2, p>0.9), and Epworth Sleepiness Score (both 5 (1), p = 0.9) were assessed; all denied symptoms of SAHS. RESULTS: Total neck soft tissue volume was greater in men (1295 (62) vs 928 (45) cm3, p<0. 001), but the volume of fat did not differ between the sexes (291 (29) vs 273 (18) cm3, p = 0.6). The only regions impinging on the pharynx which showed a larger absolute volume of fat in men (3.2 (0. 7) vs 1.1 (0.3) cm3, p = 0.01) and also a greater proportion of neck fat in men (1.3 (0.3)% vs 0.4 (0.1)%, p = 0.03) were the anterior segments inside the mandible at the palatal level. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in neck fat deposition between the sexes which, together with the greater overall soft tissue loading on the airway in men, may be factors in the sex distribution of SAHS. (+info)
(6/1532) Volume flow estimation by colour duplex.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of volume blood flow using a digitised colour duplex scanner. DESIGN: Observer-blinded experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Method comparison was performed with linear regression analysis of 89 paired observations in 11 anaesthetised pigs. A Siemens Sonoline Elegra ultrasound system was used for transcutaneous volume flow estimation using invasive transit time flowmetry by Cardiomed as a reference. RESULTS: For the individual measurement we found a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 22 ml/min. For the regression line, however, the SEE was only 0.2 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Digitised colour-duplex sonography has a volume flow measurement error that is too high for single measurements in the individual patient for the method to be useful in clinical decision making, but sufficient for examinations of groups and comparison of groups. (+info)
(7/1532) Dural arteriovenous fistula of the cervical spine presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The diagnosis of DAVF was based on spinal angiography. A review of the literature revealed that five of 13 previously reported DAVFs of the cervical spine were accompanied by SAH. SAH has not been observed in DAVFs involving other segments of the spinal canal. (+info)
(8/1532) Can nuchal cord cause transient increased nuchal translucency thickness?
When detected in a first trimester scan, an increased thickness of nuchal translucency (NT) may be associated with chromosomal, cardiac or genetic disorders. However, less attention has been devoted to the outcome of those fetuses who have confirmed normal anatomies and karyotyping, but have abnormal first trimester scans. Thus, a challenging new issue is how to counsel such cases of transient increased NT in which the translucency rapidly vanishes with no evidence of other underlying abnormalities. Two cases of transient increased thickness of NT are reported. In both, a nuchal cord was ultrasonographically demonstrated and a thorough work-up revealed chromosomally and anatomically normal fetuses. The pathophysiological theories behind these observations and their significance are discussed. Based on these observations, we suggest that transvaginal sonography combined with Doppler flow studies should be utilized for the presize detection of cord patterns to accomplish the work-up in cases of increased NT. (+info)