Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Phoca: A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Distemper Virus, Phocine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in seals.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.North SeaRegulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Anoplura: An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Pacific OceanOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Guadalupe Fur Seal Ocean Stock Footage Royalty Free Video Guadalupe Fur Seal Ocean Videos and Rights Managed | NatureFootageFree video download of preview Guadalupe Fur Seal Ocean video clips ... Guadalupe Fur Seal Ocean Nature Stock Footage 4K video and Royalty Free stock video footage from leading cinematographers. ... Guadalupe Fur Seal Ocean Stock Footage Viewing 1 to 80 of Rights Managed and Royalty Free Video Clips ...
French Colonies - Crozet Archipelago, Les Iles CrozetThe primary reason for visits to Crozet and the other islands in the territory was to hunt the abundant population of fur seals ... As a result, by 1835 the fur seal population was nearly wiped out on Crozet and Kerguelen. The trade was then replaced by ...
Northen Fur Seal: Part Two :: University of Alaska Museum of the NorthThe northern fur seal is an eared seal similar to the sea lion. They have a thick waterproof underfur with over 350,000 hairs ... The fur seals leave the Pribilofs in November and December, then will stay 10 -100 miles from shore, rarely touching land again ... Each spring around 1.4 million fur seals, over 2/3 of the population worldwide, come to the Pribilof Islands to give birth and ... Their fur appears gray or brown when dry, and black when wet. Females and young males have a lighter colored throat, while ...
South African fur seals - Stock Image Z936/0137 - Science Photo LibraryThese fur seals spend most of the year at sea, coming to shore only during the breeding season. When they come ashore, the ... These seals feed mainly on fish, although they also take squid, crabs and occasionally birds. Bulls can reach a length of ... South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) on a rocky coast. ... Caption: South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) on a rocky coast. These fur seals spend most of the year at sea, ...
Step 14. How to Draw a Realistic Seal, Cape Fur SealHow to Draw a Realistic Seal, Cape Fur Seal' online. ... Cape Fur Seal FREE Step-by-Step Online Drawing Tutorials, Sea ... I had so much fun drawing this cape fur seal that I'll definitely add more species of seals to my list of future tutorials. So ... draw realistic animals,how to draw realistic,draw realistic,how to draw seals ... Learn How to Draw a Realistic Seal, ...
CAPE FUR SEAL CALLFor the Seals Francois Hugo Seal Alert-SA 27-21-790 8774 Seal Alert-SA Press Release, June 26, 2007 4 Days to Go to the start ... On the same species of seal, the Cape fur seals, South Africa after a Commission on Sealing enquiry, announced a moratorium on ... Announce An End to Namibia's Seal Culling Policy ?. Seal cow mourns the recent loss of her clubbed baby seal pup. ... Seals 20 000. As Cape Cross Seals is a relatively new entrant into seal harvesting, clearly therefore the two established ...
Cape Fur Seal feeding on shark Stock PhotoHigh Quality Cape Fur Seal Stock Photos and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library. ... Stock Photo of Cape Fur Seal feeding on shark. ... Cape Fur Seal feeding on shark Stock Photo Click the Image ... Image Description: Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) feeding on a captured bottom dwelling shark. Seal Island, ...
Arctocephalus philippii (Juan Fernández Fur Seal)If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information ...
Recent Articles | Nest Building, Evolution And Ecology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 34Due to the effects of climate change, female fur seals that successfully breed do so later in life and are more likely to have ...
'Galapagos Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Galapagoensis)' Picture art prints and posters by Wolfgang Kaehler - ARTFLAKES...Galapagos Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Galapagoensis)' Picture by Wolfgang Kaehler posters, art prints, canvas prints, greeting ...
Northern Fur Seals and The Pribilofs, Part 2 - Seattle Aquarium Blog... of northern fur seals in the world, representing over half of the world's northern fur seal population. Collaborating on the ... northern fur seals, Pribilogs, pup shearing, rookery, seal pups, Seattle Aquarium, St. Paul. Bookmark the permalink. ... Northern Fur Seals and The Pribilofs, Part 2. Posted on September 13, 2012 by Julie Carpenter, Mammal Biologist ... To learn more about northern fur seals, come visit the Aquarium!. The work described here was authorized under Marine Mammal ...
Johnny Rooks Stalk Fur Seal Pup... Johnny Rooks usually prefer vulnerable chicks as a meal, but one ambitious group targets prey ... Johnny Rooks Stalk Fur Seal Pup. Johnny Rooks usually prefer vulnerable chicks as a meal, but one ambitious group targets prey ... This Johnny Rook is resolute, using his long talons to dig into the fur seal pup's back. He will not give up. ...
South African Fur SealPinnipeds and Seal conservation, research, information and rehabilitation. ... believed to be derived from the South African fur seal population.. South African fur seal: The South African fur seal is found ... Australian fur seal: It is estimated that 200,000 Australian fur seals were killed for their fur in the 18th - 19th centuries. ... South African fur seals have been known to dive to over 400m while Australian fur seals are known to dive to over 200m on ...
'Sunbather' NZ fur seal photo print | Trade...Sunbather' NZ fur seal photo print for sale on Trade Me, New Zealand's #1 auction and classifieds website ... Sunbathing NZ fur seal photographed by Auckland based photographer Simon Hutton. This auction is for one A4 (210mm x 297mm) ...
Galapagos fur seal photo - Arctocephalus galapagoensis - G32856 | ArkiveView amazing Galapagos fur seal photos - Arctocephalus galapagoensis - on Arkive ... Galapagos fur seal' title='Arkive photo - Galapagos fur seal' border='0'/,,/a,. ... Galapagos fur seal © Pete Oxford / naturepl.com. Nature Picture Library. 5a Great George Street Bristol BS1 5RR United Kingdom ... cdn2.arkive.org/media/A5/A5511A27-CC08-440E-8DBC-FB03D1037125/Presentation.Portlet/Galapagos-fur-seal.jpg' alt='Arkive photo - ...
Subantarctic fur seal photo - Arctocephalus tropicalis - G88276 | ArkiveView amazing Subantarctic fur seal photos - Arctocephalus tropicalis - on Arkive ... Subantarctic fur seal portrait' title='Arkive photo - Subantarctic fur seal portrait' border='0'/,,/a,. ... Subantarctic fur seal portrait © M. Watson / www.ardea.com. Ardea wildlife pets environment. 59 Tranquil Vale London SE3 0BS ... cdn1.arkive.org/media/31/31B947EB-D720-48A2-994A-E63B19F38168/Presentation.Portlet/Subantarctic-fur-seal-portrait.jpg' alt=' ...
Northern fur seal photo - Callorhinus ursinus - G133283 | ArkiveView amazing Northern fur seal photos - Callorhinus ursinus - on Arkive ... Northern fur seal pup on rock' title='Arkive photo - Northern fur seal pup on rock' border='0'/,,/a,. ... www.arkive.org/northern-fur-seal/callorhinus-ursinus/image-G133283.html#src=portletV3web' title='Arkive photo - Northern fur ... cdn2.arkive.org/media/D4/D4083C61-C8B7-4592-81E8-4E3F82F89F9B/Presentation.Portlet/Northern-fur-seal-pup-on-rock.jpg' alt=' ...
Two fur seals ~ Video Clip Royalty Free #12119267 | Pond5Stock video footage Two fur seals play on the rock. 00:00:08 . From $29. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 ,,, ... fur seal, harbor, head, high, life, lion, mammal, motion, nature, outdoors, protection, pup, relaxation, scenics, sea, seal, ... fur seal, harbor, head, high, life, lion, mammal, motion, nature, outdoors, protection, pup, relaxation, scenics, sea, seal, ...
Southern Fur Seal | Definition of Southern Fur Seal by Merriam-WebsterWhat made you want to look up southern fur seal? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). ...
https://merriam-webster.com/dictionary/southern fur seal
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South American fur seal videos, photos and facts - Arctocephalus australis | Arkive... with amazing South American fur seal videos, photos and facts on Arkive ... Learn more about the South American fur seal - ... The South American fur seal is a relatively stocky fur seal ... South American fur seal threats. The South American fur seal has a large population which is believed to be increasing, and is ... South American fur seal range. As its common name suggests, the South American fur seal occurs along both the Atlantic and ...
Fur seals at the sea :: University of Alaska FairbanksFur seals at the sea Description Title by cataloguer .. A view of fur seals at the sea. Male Fur Seal is approximately seven ... The male fur seal can be distinguished from the female by its thicker fur and darker (grayish-brown) color. ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany ... RINGED SEALS (1) * RINTATOLIMOD (1) * RIO GRANDE DO SUL (2) * RISK COMMUNICATIONS (20) ...
Comments<...Great White Shark Hunts Fur Seals. Interactive Anatomy: The Great White's Weapons. ... seals and sea lions, otters, polar and grizzly bears, lions, tigers, and chimpanzees. Researchers in New Zealand have even ...
Gone Fish | Audubon... northern fur seals, and the fishery kills lots of bycatch. That's probably true. "Pollock," explains the guide, "live ...
Gavriil Pribylov: Gavriil Loginovich Pribylov (; first name also spelled Gavriel, Gerasim or Gerassim, last name also spelled Pribilof) (died 1796) was a Russian navigator who discovered the Bering Sea islands of St. George Island and St.Gynaephora groenlandica: Gynaephora groenlandica, the Arctic woolly bear moth, is a lymantriid moth found within the Arctic circle, in Greenland and Canada. It is best known for its very slow rate of development.San Miguel, BoholSaturation diving: Saturation diving is a diving technique that allows divers to reduce the risk of decompression sickness ("the bends") when they work at great depths for long periods of time.Wildlife of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha: Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha as well the other uninhabited islands nearby are a haven for wildlife in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The islands are or were home to much endemic flora and fauna, especially birds, and many endemic fish species found in the reef ecosystems off the islands.Artigas BaseMarineland, NapierROV PHOCAHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Non-rapid eye movement sleepEcosystemIron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Phocine distemper virus: Phocine distemper virus (PDV) is a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus that is pathogenic for pinniped species, particularly seals. Clinical signs include laboured breathing, fever and nervous symptoms.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Chaenocephalus aceratus: Chaenocephalus aceratus, the blackfin icefish, is a species of crocodile icefish known from around Bouvet Island and the northern Antarctic Peninsula where it occurs at depths of . This species grows to a length of TL.AcariasisGenetic variation: right|thumbSiderophore: Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and grasses.Miller, Marvin J.Hair analysisMiddle North Sea Group: The Middle North Sea Group (abbreviation: NM) is a group of geologic formations in the Dutch subsurface, part of the North Sea Supergroup. The three formations of this group form a thick sequence of sediments in the Dutch subsurface, they crop out in parts of the southern Netherlands.Nif regulonColes PhillipsHudson Bay Mountain: Hudson Bay Mountain is an ultra prominent peak located above Smithers, British Columbia, Canada. It is the location of the Hudson Bay Mountain Resort (formerly Ski Smithers) ski resort.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Sembilang National ParkSao Domingos MineDistemper (paint): Distemper is a term with a variety of meanings for paints used in decorating and as a historical medium for painting pictures, and contrasted with tempera. The binding element may be some form of glue or oil; these are known in decorating respectively as soft distemper and oil bound distemper.Taiji dolphin drive hunt: The Taiji dolphin drive hunt is a dolphin drive hunt that takes place in Taiji, Wakayama in Japan every year from September to March. According to the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency, 1,623 dolphins were caught in Wakayama Prefecture in 2007 for human consumption or resale to dolphinariums, and most of these were caught at Taiji.Bradyrhizobium elkaniiEcosystem of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest contiguous ecosystem on earth. In oceanography, a subtropical gyre is a ring-like system of ocean currents rotating clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere caused by the Coriolis Effect.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Operator (biology): In genetics, an operator is a segment of DNA to which a transcription factor binds to regulate gene expression. The transcription factor is a repressor, which can bind to the operator to prevent transcription.
(1/58) Heart rate and behavior of fur seals: implications for measurement of field energetics.
Archival data loggers were used to collect information about depth, swimming speed, and heart rate in 23 free-ranging antarctic fur seals. Deployments averaged 9.6 +/- 5.6 days (SD) and totaled 191 days of recording. Heart rate averaged 108.7 +/- 17.7 beats/min (SD) but varied from 83 to 145 beats/min among animals. Morphometrics explained most variations in heart rate among animals. These interacted with diving activity and swimming speed to produce a complex relationship between heart rate and activity patterns. Heart rate was also correlated with behavior over time lags of several hours. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among animals in the degree of diving bradycardia. On average, heart rate declined from 100-130 beats/min before the dive to 70-100 beats/min during submersion. On the basis of the relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption, the overall metabolic rate was 5.46 +/- 1.61 W/kg (SD). Energy expenditure appears to be allocated to different activities within the metabolic scope of individual animals. This highlights the possibility that some activities can be mutually exclusive of one another. (+info)
(2/58) Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galapagos fur seals.
In our study of the development of diving in Galapagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability. (+info)
(3/58) Gross and microscopic visceral anatomy of the male Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae), with reference to organ size and growth.
The gross and microscopic anatomy of the Cape fur seal heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine and kidneys (n = 31 seals) is described. Absolute and relative size of organs from 30 male seals are presented, with histological examination conducted on 7 animals. The relationship between log body weight, log organ weight and age was investigated using linear regression. Twenty five animals were of known age, while 6 were aged from counts of incremental lines observed in the dentine of tooth sections. For the range of ages represented in this study, body weight changes were accurately described by the exponential growth equation, weight = w(o)r(t), with body weight increasing by 23 % per annum until at least 9-10 y of age. Organ weight increased at a rate of between 25 % and 33 % per annum until at least 9-10 y of age, with the exception of the intestines, where exponential increase appeared to have ceased by about 7 y. The relationship between body weight and organ weight was investigated using logarithmic transformations of the allometric equation, y = ax(b), where the exponent b is 1 if organ weight is proportional to body weight. Most organs increased in proportion to the body. However, the heart, liver and spleen had exponents b > 1, suggesting that these organs increased at a faster rate than the body. The basic anatomical features of the viscera were similar to those of other pinnipeds, with some exceptions, including the arrangement of the multilobed lung and liver. Apart from the large liver and kidneys, relative size of the organs did not differ greatly from similar sized terrestrial carnivores. The histological features of the organs were generally consistent with those previously described for this species and other otariids. The heart, as in other pinnipeds, was unlike that of cetacea in not having unusually thick endocardium or prominent Purkinje cells. Notable histological features of the lungs included prominent fibrous septa, prominent smooth muscle bundles, cartilage extending to the level of the alveolar sacs and ample lymphoid tissue. The spleen had a thick capsule, well developed trabeculae and plentiful plasma cells. Abundant parietal cells were present in the fundic glands and lymphoid follicles were present in the gastric lamina propria, particularly in the pyloric region. Small intestinal villi were very long but this could have resulted from underlying chronic inflammation. Lymphoid follicles were prominent in the colon. The kidney reniculi each had a complete cortex, medulla and calyx, but a sportaperi medullaris musculosa was not identified. (+info)
(4/58) The ontogeny of metabolic rate and thermoregulatory capabilities of northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, pups in air and water.
Young pinnipeds, born on land, must eventually enter the water to feed independently. The aim of this study was to examine developmental factors that might influence this transition. The ontogeny of metabolic rate and thermoregulation in northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, pups was investigated at two developmental stages in air and water using open-circuit respirometry. Mean in-air resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased significantly from 113+/-5 ml O(2 )min(-)(1) (N=18) pre-molt to 160+/-4 ml O(2 )min(-)(1) (N=16; means +/- s.e.m.) post-molt. In-water, whole-body metabolic rates did not differ pre- and post-molt and were 2.6 and 1.6 times in-air RMRs respectively. Mass-specific metabolic rates of pre-molt pups in water were 2.8 times in-air rates. Mean mass-specific metabolic rates of post-molt pups at 20 degrees C in water and air did not differ (16.1+/-1.7 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10). In-air mass-specific metabolic rates of post-molt pups were significantly lower than in-water rates at 5 degrees C (18.2+/-1.1 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10) and 10 degrees C (19.4+/-1.7 ml O(2 )min(-)(1 )kg(-)(1); N=10; means +/- s.e.m.). Northern fur seal pups have metabolic rates comparable with those of terrestrial mammalian young of similar body size. Thermal conductance was independent of air temperature, but increased with water temperature. In-water thermal conductance of pre-molt pups was approximately twice that of post-molt pups. In-water pre-molt pups matched the energy expenditure of larger post-molt pups while still failing to maintain body temperature. Pre-molt pups experience greater relative costs when entering the water regardless of temperature than do larger post-molt pups. This study demonstrates that the development of thermoregulatory capabilities plays a significant role in determining when northern fur seal pups enter the water. (+info)
(5/58) Skin temperatures during free-ranging swimming and diving in antarctic fur seals.
This study tests the hypothesis that an endothermic homeotherm should minimise heat flux in cold polar waters by minimising skin temperature. Temperature variability was measured at the surface of the skin of three Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at intervals of 2 s over a total of 9.7 days while they were swimming and diving freely in polar waters at temperatures of 1.5-4 degrees C. The temperature difference ( capdelta T) between skin on the dorsal thorax and the water varied from more than 20 degrees C to close to equality over periods of less than 1 h. Shorter-term variations in capdelta T of up to 5 degrees C occurred in association with diving, although these types of variations also occurred without diving. In general, capdelta T began to decline during the descent phase of a dive and began to increase again during the ascent or at the end of the dive. One of the three individuals examined showed little variation in capdelta T, which remained low (approximately 3 degrees C) throughout the experiment. In the other two fur seals, capdelta T tended to decline during periods of sustained diving and usually increased during periods spent at the surface. Mean calculated heat flux varied from 95 to 236 W m(-)(2) depending on the individual. Metabolic rates based on these calculated heat fluxes were towards the lower end of those measured in previous studies using different methodologies. The study has shown that Antarctic fur seal skin temperature is highly dynamic and suggests that the thoracic surface is an organ used for active thermoregulation. (+info)
(6/58) Variation in the mitochondrial control region in the Juan Fernandez fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii).
The Juan Fernandez fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii was allegedly extremely abundant, numbering as many as 4 million prior to sealing which continued from the late 17th to the late 19th century. By the end of the sealing era the species was thought to be extinct until they were rediscovered at Alejandro Selkirk Island in 1965. Historic records would suggest that the species underwent a substantial population bottleneck as a result of commercial sealing, and from population genetic theory we predicted that the genetic variability in the species would be low. We compared the mtDNA control region sequence from 28 Juan Fernandez fur seals from two islands in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (Chile). Contrary to expectation, we found that variation in the Juan Fernandez fur seals is not greatly reduced in comparison to other pinniped taxa, especially given the apparent severity of the bottleneck they underwent. We also determined minor, but significantly different haplotype frequencies among the populations on the two islands (Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands), but no difference in their levels of variability. Such differences may have arisen stochastically via a recent founder event from Alejandro Selkirk to Robinson Crusoe Island or subsequent genetic drift. (+info)
(7/58) How does a fur seal mother recognize the voice of her pup? An experimental study of Arctocephalus tropicalis.
In the subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis, mothers leave their pups during the rearing period to make long and frequent feeding trips to sea. When a female returns from the ocean, she has to find her pup among several hundred others. Taking into account both spectral and temporal domains, we investigated the individual vocal signature occurring in the 'female attraction call' used by pups to attract their mother. We calculated the intra- and inter-individual variability for each measured acoustic cue to isolate those likely to contain information about individual identity. We then tested these cues in playback experiments. Our results show that a female pays particular attention to the lower part of the signal spectrum, the fundamental frequency accompanied by its first two harmonics being sufficient to elicit reliable recognition. The spectral energy distribution is also important for the recognition process. Of the temporal features, frequency modulation appears to be a key component for individual recognition, whereas amplitude modulation is not implicated in the identification of the pup's voice by its mother. We discuss these results with respect to the constraints imposed on fur seals by a colonial way of life. (+info)
(8/58) Ascaridoid nematodes and associated lesions in stomachs of subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: (1987-1999).
Stomachs from subadult male northern fur seals (SAMs) (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 5,950) from St. Paul Island, Alaska, were examined from 1987 to 1999 for lesions and parasites. On gross examination of these stomachs, parasite nodules were evident in 92% of the stomachs and active and healing ulcers were found in 14% and 10%, respectively. Prevalence of nematodes from 1987 to 1997 was 88% for 5,700 SAMs for which numbers of parasites were estimated but not identified to the genus level. All nematodes recovered from 250 SAMs examined in 1998 (n = 124; 99% infected) and in 1999 (n = 126; 91% infected) were identified and counted. Prevalences in 1998 and 1999 were 5% and 0% for Anisakis spp., 52% and 18% for Contracaecum spp., and 96% and 89% for Pseudoterranova spp., respectively. (+info)
- The fur seals leave the Pribilofs in November and December , then will stay 10 -100 miles from shore , rarely touching land again until the next summer . (alaska.edu)
- The Pribilofs are home to the largest breeding colonies (or rookeries) of northern fur seals in the world, representing over half of the world's northern fur seal population. (seattleaquarium.org)
- DeLong R.L., Orr A.J., Jenkinson R.S., Lyons E.T. 2009: Treatment of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups with ivermectin reduces hookworm-induced mortality. (cas.cz)
- In a couple of months, the pups will molt (shed their old fur) and grow new fur that will fill in their haircuts. (seattleaquarium.org)
- A few researchers flew to St. George, another of the Pribilof Islands, to shear and count the northern seal pups that were born there this year, leaving a group of 10 of us on St. Paul to finish the work here. (seattleaquarium.org)
- I had so much fun drawing this cape fur seal that I'll definitely add more species of seals to my list of future tutorials. (dragoart.com)
- Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) feeding on a captured bottom dwelling shark. (oceanwideimages.com)
- Each spring around 1.4 million fur seals , over 2/3 of the population worldwide , come to the Pribilof Islands to give birth and breed . (alaska.edu)
- To learn more about northern fur seals , come visit the Aquarium! (seattleaquarium.org)
- Collaborating on the research and participating in it side-by-side with the field researchers provided Julie with firsthand experience and knowledge about the research techniques and technical challenges involved in working with the wild northern fur seal population-making her uniquely suited to bring a deeper understanding of this work back to the staff and visitors of the Seattle Aquarium. (seattleaquarium.org)
- Through this cooperative relationship, our hope is to continue to educate people about the critical population studies being conducted in these far-off islands and the many issues surrounding the Pribilof fur seals. (seattleaquarium.org)