Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Enterocolitis, Neutropenic: A syndrome characterized by inflammation in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the ASCENDING COLON. It is observed in cancer patients with CHEMOTHERAPY-induced NEUTROPENIA or in other immunocompromised individuals (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST).Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Hirschsprung Disease: Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Enterostomy: Creation of an artificial external opening or fistula in the intestines.Milk, HumanColitis, Lymphocytic: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).Cronobacter: A genus of gram-negative opportunistic foodborne pathogens.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Dysbiosis: Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Milk Banks: Centers for acquiring, storing, and distributing human milk.Mucin-3: A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Butyrivibrio: A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).

*  Lola's FPIES: 2010
FPIES : We'll challenge you! (Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome) Hey FPIES, Thanks for the adrenaline flu you just ...
*  Lola's FPIES: My Little Lady is 18 months!!
FPIES : We'll challenge you! (Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome) Hey FPIES, Thanks for the adrenaline flu you just ...
*  KAYNAKLAR (III. BÖLÜM) - Prof. Dr. Hülya Uzunismail
Clinical manifestations of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2014;14:217-21. ...
*  List of Enterocolitis Medications (31 Compared) - Drugs.com
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Enterocolitis. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user ... Topics under Enterocolitis. *Proctitis (33 drugs). Legend. Off Label. This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the ... Medications to treat Enterocolitis. The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of ... Looking for answers? Ask a question or go join the enterocolitis support group to connect with others who have similar ...
*  Mastocytic Enterocolitis - A Patient Guide to Mastocytic Inflammatory Bowel Disease (MIBD) | Crohn's Disease Causes
Mastocytic enterocolitis (entero=small intestine, colitis- colon + -itis= inflammation) is a newly discovered disorder defined ... WHAT IS MASTOCYTIC ENTEROCOLITIS?. Mastocytic enterocolitis (entero=small intestine, colitis- colon + -itis= inflammation) is a ... Mastocytic Enterocolitis - A Patient Guide to Mastocytic Inflammatory Bowel Disease (MIBD). January 12, 2017 0 Comments ... Mastocytic enterocolitis is diagnosed when excess mast cells are present in the small bowel or the colon. ...
*  Salmonella enterocolitis - Coordinated Health
Salmonella enterocolitis is an infection in the lining of the small intestine caused by Salmonella bacteria. ...
*  "Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome as a Cause for Infant Hypo" by Ryan W. Coates DO, Kevin Weaver DO et al.
Coates, R., Weaver, K., Lloyd, R., Ceccacci, N., & Greenberg, M. (2011). Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome as a cause ...
*  Enterocolitis - Causes, Symptoms, Symptoms and Treatment
The causes of enterocolitis. How does enterocolitis manifest in children and ... The main characteristic of the disease is enterocolitis: types and classification. ... Sharp acute enterocolitis on the infectious and non-infectious. Chronic enterocolitis is caused by the manifestation as a ... The most common enterocolitis in children, but adults also know the symptoms of this ailment, which in the people is called « ...
*  Enterocolitis: Causes, symptoms, and treatment
Enterocolitis is an inflammation in the gut. Learn about the different types, how it develops, the symptoms, how it is ... Common symptoms of enterocolitis. Symptoms of enterocolitis may vary depending on the person and the type of enterocolitis they ... Types of enterocolitis. There are a few different types of enterocolitis, each with their distinct symptoms and causes. ... Antibiotic-associated enterocolitis. It is also possible for symptoms of enterocolitis to show up after antibiotic treatment. ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis
About Necrotizing Enterocolitis. When babies are born prematurely, many of their organs are not fully developed. This puts them ... Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) happens when tissue in the small or large intestine is injured or begins to die off. This ... One of these diseases is necrotizing enterocolitis (nek-roh-TIE-zing en-ter-oh-coh-LIE-tis), the most common and serious ...
*  Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis)
Other terms that have been used to describe this syndrome include necrotizing enterocolitis and ileocecal syndrome. Neutropenic ... Neutropenic enterocolitis is a life-threatening, necrotizing enterocolitis occurring primarily in neutropenic patients. ... Neutropenic enterocolitis is a life-threatening, necrotizing enterocolitis occurring primarily in neutropenic patients [1]. ... Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis). Authors. Louis-Michel Wong Kee Song, MD, FRCP(C). Louis-Michel Wong Kee Song, MD, FRCP(C ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis Differential Diagnoses
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in neonates. An ... Necrotizing Enterocolitis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Dec 27, 2017 * Author: Shelley C Springer, JD, MD, MSc, MBA, FAAP; ... Necrotizing enterocolitis in full-term infants. A case-control study. Am J Dis Child. 1988 May. 142(5):532-5. [Medline]. ... Necrotizing enterocolitis in low-birth-weight infants fed an elemental formula. J Pediatr. 1975 Oct. 87(4):602-5. [Medline]. ...
*  APSA - Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
Necrotizing Enterocolitis Condition: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC). Overview ("What is it?"). *Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC ...
*  Doryx User Reviews for Enterocolitis at Drugs.com
Reviews and ratings for doryx when used in the treatment of enterocolitis. Share your experience with this medication by ... Reviews for Doryx to treat Enterocolitis. No reviews have yet been submitted. Be the first to review this drug. ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis | PeaceHealth
Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Skip to the navigation Topic Overview. What is necrotizing enterocolitis?. Necrotizing enterocolitis ... How is necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosed?. The doctor will ask about your baby's symptoms and past health. The doctor may do ... What causes necrotizing enterocolitis, and can it be prevented?. Doctors aren't sure what causes this condition. It may occur ... Experts don't know if feeding formula to a newborn can lead to necrotizing enterocolitis. They do know that the disease is much ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis
What Is Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)?. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease that develops when the tissue in the ... Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Necrotizing enterocolitis occurs when the intestinal tissue becomes damaged and dies. Learn about ... What Is the Outlook for Children with Necrotizing Enterocolitis?. Necrotizing enterocolitis can be a life-threatening disease, ... What Causes Necrotizing Enterocolitis?. The exact cause of NEC isn't known. However, it's believed that a lack of oxygen during ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis Treatments | Boston Children's Hospital
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis treatments from experts at Boston Children's, ranked best Children's Hospital by US ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis | Doctors Hospital
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk ... Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious condition of the intestine. The intestine digests food as it propels it through ... Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: A 20-year experience. Pediatrics. 2007; 119:164-170. ... Evidence-based care guideline for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among very low birth weight infants. Cincinnati (OH): ...
*  Innate Immune Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis
... David J. Hackam,1 Amin Afrazi,1 Misty Good,2 and ... J. Neu and W. A. Walker, "Necrotizing enterocolitis," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 3, pp. 255-264, 2011. View ... C. L. Leaphart, J. Cavallo, S. C. Gribar et al., "A critical role for TLR4 in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis by ... D. J. Hackam, M. Good, and C. P. Sodhi, "Mechanisms of gut barrier failure in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: ...
*  SimplyThick Necrotizing Enterocolitis Allegations Lawsuits Now Being Investigated by Resource4thePeople Attorneys
... Share ... say may be putting infants at risk of suffering a life-threatening illness called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). ...
*  Search of: necrotizing enterocolitis | NIH - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Role of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in Development of Necrotizing Enterocolitis. *Necrotizing Enterocolitis ... Comparison of Two Surgical Treatments for Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Human Infants. *Necrotizing Enterocolitis ... Study of the Relationship Between Feeding and Late Onset Sepsis and/or Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Low Birth Weight Infants. * ... VLBW infants in the delayed clamped group will have fewer incidences of suspected necrotizing enterocolitis during the NICU ...
*  Necrotizing Enterocolitis Patient Stories | Boston Children's Hospital
Read about the journeys of our patients with Necrotizing Enterocolitis from experts at Boston Children's, ranked best ... Austin had a condition called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). As it was explained to us, it appeared as if cement was poured ...

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a severe systemic response to food protein that typically occurs 1 to 4 hours after the ingestion of the causative food and frequently develops in the first few years of life.Powell GK.Colitis-X: Colitis X, equine colitis X or peracute toxemic colitis is a catchall term for various fatal forms of acute or peracute colitis found in horses, but particularly a fulminant colitis where clinical signs include sudden onset of severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, shock, and dehydration. Death is common, with 90% to 100% mortality, usually in less than 24 hours.Cronobacter sakazakiiWilson–Mikity syndromeHirschsprung's diseaseGastrointestinal perforationFormula: π r3}}. On the right is the compound isobutane, which has chemical formula (CH3)3CH.Mutaflor: Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.Mutaflor Information page "The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917-designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Braunschweig is one of the best-examined and therapeutically relevant bacterial strains worldwide" as claimed by the manufacturerManufacturers WebsiteCholineLymphocytic colitis: Lymphocytic colitis, a subtype of microscopic colitis, is a rare condition characterized by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhea. The colonoscopy is normal but the mucosal biopsy reveals an accumulation of lymphocytes in the colonic epithelium and connective tissue (lamina propria).Staphylococcus condimenti: Staphylococcus condimenti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of single, paired, and clustered cocci. Strains of this species were originally isolated from fermenting soy sauce mash and are positive for catalase, urease, arginine dihydrolase, nitrate reductase, beta-galactosidase, and phosphatase activity.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Bifidobacterium longum: Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium. It is a micro-aerotolerant anaerobe and considered to be one of the earliest colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract of infants.CecectomyPositional asphyxia: Positional asphyxia, also known as postural asphyxia, is a form of asphyxia which occurs when someone's position prevents the person from breathing adequately. Positional asphyxia may be a factor in a significant number of people who die suddenly during restraint by police, prison (corrections) officers or health care staff.Ductus arteriosus: In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, is a blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs.Short bowel syndromeGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.ReuterinCryptdin: Cryptdin is mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily that are produced within the mouse small bowel. The word is a portmanteau that combines the terms 'crypt' and 'defensin'.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Low birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Butyrivibrio: Butyrivibrio is a genus of bacteria in Class Clostridia. Bacteria of this genus are common in the gastrointestinal systems of many animals.Ewingella americana: Ewingella americana is a Gram-negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Clostridium phytofermentans: Clostridium phytofermentans is an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. It forms spherical spores.Antihypotensive agent: An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood pressure. Some antihypotensive drugs act as vasoconstrictors to increase total peripheral resistance, others sensitize adrenoreceptors to catecholamines - glucocorticoids, and the third class increase cardiac output - dopamine, dobutamine.Lung microbiome: The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). These microbes include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and bacteriophages.

(1/181) Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils.

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

(2/181) Early detection by ultrasound scan of severe post-chemotherapy gut complications in patients with acute leukemia.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute leukemia patients may develop life-threatening gut complications after intensive chemotherapy. We evaluated the role of abdominal and pelvic ultrasound (US) examination in early detection of these complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of twenty adult acute leukemia patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for remission induction entered the study. All chemotherapy regimens included cytarabine by continuous i.v. infusion for several days. RESULTS: Three patients had severe gut complications: 2 cases of enterocolitis and 1 case of gall bladder overdistension in the absence of calculi. In all cases the abnormality was documented by US examination: US scan showed thickening of the intestinal wall (two cases), and gall bladder overdistension with biliary sludge (one case). Immediate medical care included bowel rest, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, antimycotic treatment, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. All patients recovered from the complication. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the favorable outcome obtained in our small series can be attributed to early diagnosis followed by appropriate treatment. Early recognition by US and immediate medical management can lead to complete recovery of severe intestinal complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy.  (+info)

(3/181) Ischaemic enterocolitis complicating idiopathic dysautonomia.

A previously fit 23 year old adult male who presented with a sudden onset of profound autonomic neuropathy, for which no cause could be found, is described. The patient subsequently developed ischaemic enterocolitis that ultimately necessitated colectomy and subtotal enterectomy. Potential neural and humoral mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

(4/181) Integration of neuro-endocrine immune responses in defense of mucosal surfaces.

Neuro-endocrine immunology, a field arising from curiosity about the mind-body connection, is evolving rapidly. From intriguing, but seemingly unexplainable observations with human infections and disease, experimental systems have been developed that provide a solid scientific basis for new understanding. There have been major efforts to understand influences of the nervous system on immune and inflammatory responses, e.g., innervation of the immune system, molecular communication pathways, and complex phenomena such as conditioning of immune responses and mechanisms of host defenses. In turn, the immune system communicates with the neuro-endocrine systems. Imbalances in the neuro-endocrine-immunologic circuitry are relevant in host defenses and in injury and repair. Examples of these themes in neuro-endocrine-immunology arise in several host-parasite models of neurogenic inflammation, immediate hypersensitivity responses, and granuloma formation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland axis provide important models to enhance understanding of this poorly known component of the host-parasite relationship.  (+info)

(5/181) Eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis in iron lactate-overloaded rats.

Eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis with peripheral eosinophilia was induced in rats fed a diet containing 2.5% or 5.0% iron lactate for 3 mo. Additional findings consistent with iron overload were also observed. Microscopically, the lesions consisted of eosinophilic infiltrations in the mucosa and submucosa along the whole length of the gastrointestinal tracts, increased surface area of the gastric mucosal propria covered with mucous cells, and increased apoptotic bodies in the gastric glandular neck of rats in the 2.5% and 5.0% groups. An increased number of intraepithelial globule leukocytes in the gastric and intestinal lamina propria was also observed in the 5.0% group. Globule leukocytes in the gastric mucosa contained obviously enlarged granules in their cytoplasm in these rats. The granules of the globule leukocytes were positive for rat mast cell protease II, suggesting the mastocyte origin of these cells. Although severe infiltration of eosinophils and globule leukocytes suggested a type-1 hypersensitivity reaction, other features such as an increasing vascular permeability were not detected. Serum IgE levels in the 5.0% and control groups were < 3 ng/ml. Final body weights of male and female rats of the 5.0% group were suppressed to 70% and 90%, respectively, of those of the control rats, whereas food consumption was comparable to that of the control group. The morphologic characteristics of the gastrointestinal lesions and peripheral eosinophilia induced in rats fed iron lactate were very similar to those in some cases of eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis in humans and other animals.  (+info)

(6/181) Molecular basis of the interaction of Salmonella with the intestinal mucosa.

Salmonella is one of the most extensively characterized bacterial pathogens and is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Despite this, we are only just beginning to understand at a molecular level how Salmonella interacts with its mammalian hosts to cause disease. Studies during the past decade on the genetic basis of virulence of Salmonella have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interaction, yet many questions remain. In this review, we focus on the interaction of enterocolitis-causing salmonellae with the intestinal mucosa, since this is the initiating step for most infections caused by Salmonella. Animal and in vitro cell culture models for the interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium are reviewed, along with the bacterial genes that are thought to affect this interaction. Lastly, recent studies on the response of epithelial cells to Salmonella infection and how this might promote diarrhea are discussed.  (+info)

(7/181) Reduced oxidative and nitrosative damage in murine experimental colitis in the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

BACKGROUND: Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. AIMS: To study the role of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in an experimental model of murine enterocolitis. METHODS: Trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) was instilled per rectum to induce a lethal colitis in iNOS deficient mice and in wild type controls. The distal colon was evaluated for histological evidence of inflammation, iNOS expression and activity, tyrosine nitration and malondialdehyde formation (as indexes of nitrosative and oxidative stress), myeloperoxidase activity (as index of neutrophil infiltration), and tissue localisation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). RESULTS: TNBS administration induced a high mortality and weight loss associated with a severe colonic mucosal erosion and ulceration, increased myeloperoxidase activity, increased concentrations of malondialdehyde, and an intense staining for nitrotyrosine and ICAM-1 in wild type mice. Genetic ablation of iNOS gene conferred to mice a significant resistance to TNBS induced lethality and colonic damage, and notably reduced nitrotyrosine formation and concentrations of malondialdehyde; it did not, however, affect neutrophil infiltration and intestinal ICAM-1 expression in the injured tissue. CONCLUSION: Data show that activation of iNOS is required for nitrosative and oxidative damage in experimental colitis.  (+info)

(8/181) Bacterial cell wall polymers promote intestinal fibrosis by direct stimulation of myofibroblasts.

Normal luminal bacteria and bacterial cell wall polymers are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. To determine the direct involvement of bacteria and their products on intestinal fibrogenesis, the effects of purified bacterial cell wall polymers on collagen and cytokine synthesis were evaluated in intestinal myofibroblast cultures established from normal fetal and chronically inflamed cecal tissues. In this study, the intestines of Lewis rats were intramurally injected with peptidoglycan-polysaccharide polymers. Collagen and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA levels were measured and correlated with mesenchymal cell accumulation by immunohistochemistry. The direct effects of cell wall polymers on fibrogenic cytokine and collagen alpha1 (type I) expression were evaluated in intestinal myofibroblast cultures. We found that intramural injections of bacterial cell wall polymers induced chronic granulomatous enterocolitis with markedly increased collagen synthesis and concomitant increased TGF-beta1 and interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Intestinal myofibroblast cultures were established, which both phenotypically and functionally resemble the mesenchymal cells that are involved in fibrosis in vivo. Bacterial cell wall polymers directly stimulated collagen alpha1 (I), TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, and IL-6 mRNA expression in the intestinal myofibroblasts derived from both normal and inflamed cecum. Neutralization of endogenous TGF-beta1 inhibited in vitro collagen gene expression. From our results, we conclude that increased exposure to luminal bacterial products can directly activate intestinal mesenchymal cells, which accumulate in areas of chronic intestinal inflammation, thus stimulating intestinal fibrosis in genetically susceptible hosts.  (+info)