Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster: Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Lobosea: A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Enterovirus InfectionsVaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CIsaacs Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Hemispherectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic: A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Bites and StingsBrain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.HistoryElectroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.VietnamCoronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Mice, Inbred C57BLVenezuelaMacaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Mice, Inbred ICRIndiaAIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.RussiaEnterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Louping Ill: An acute tick-borne arbovirus infection causing meningoencephalomyelitis of sheep.

*  viral encephalitis

Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors' words.
virologyhighlights.com/tag/viral-encephalitis/

*  AAN Annual Meeting Programs: C237 - Emergency Neurology I: Evaluation of Coma, Meningitis, and Viral Encephalitis in the...

C237 - Emergency Neurology I: Evaluation of Coma, Meningitis, and Viral Encephalitis in the Emergency Room Event Time:. Friday ... Emergency Neurology: Evaluation of Coma, Meningitis, and Viral Encephalitis in the Emergency Room Jose Suarez MD. ... In Part I of this course, faculty will discuss coma and meningitis and encephalitis. This program complements C244: Emergency ... Autoimmune Neurology I Basics and Beyond: Autoimmune Encephalitis and Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes of the CNS and PNS ...
https://tools.aan.com/annualmeeting/search/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.detail&id=5625&keyword=&topic=80,63,50,81,21&type=all

*  Category:Viral encephalitis - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Viral encephalitis". This category contains only the following file. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Viral_encephalitis&oldid=257686792" ...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Viral_encephalitis

*  Encephalitis Claims Over 200 Lives in Gorakhpur

... due to an outbreak of viral encephalitis were confirmed by health officials in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. ... What You Should Know about Japanese Encephalitis. Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne viral disease associated with ... The deaths of over 200 people, mostly children, due to an outbreak of viral encephalitis were confirmed by health officials in ... Encephalitis. Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain, mostly caused by viruses. Though rare, it is a serious condition ...
medindia.net/news/encephalitis-claims-over-200-lives-in-gorakhpur-124904-1.htm

*  Encephalitis For Population Control and Profit: Life and Death in NYC 1999

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Peptide is developing a vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis viral infections ... An exotic new form of natural or man-made viral encephalitis sweeps the world and everyone suddenly has a life-or-death need ... Infectious DNA Clones of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Attenuated Strains Japanese Encephalitis Virus Made from the Clones ... Encephalitis For Population Control and Profit: Life and Death in NYC 1999. The Giuliani administration and the Center for ...
anusha.com/spraynyc.htm

*  iHerb.com - Customer Reviews -MRM, Relax-All, 60 Veggie Caps

Following a severe and repeated viral encephalitis (acute inflammation of the brain) I was left with a nervous system that was ...
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*  Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitis | TriStar Centennial

Learn more about Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitis at TriStar Centennial DefinitionCausesRisk ... The best way to reduce your chances of getting mosquito-borne viral encephalitis is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. Steps ... Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Certain mosquito-borne viruses can lead to encephalitis. Examples of these viruses ... While rare, a small percentage of people develop encephalitis and have serious, life-threatening symptoms, such as:. *High ...
tristarcentennial.com/hl/?/96797/encephalitis&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  Medical Bills for Gem's Viral Encephalitis | Medical Fundraising Page with GoGetFunding

... called Viral Encephalitis (an acute viral infection of the brain). Gem is a 28 year old young lady who has very recently ... called Viral Encephalitis (an acute viral infection of the brain). Gem is a 28 year old young lady who has very recently ... Medical Bills for Gem's Viral Encephalitis by Yvan Marco Tolentino. Hi everyone, My name is Yvan Marco Tolentino and I. . . . . ... Medical Bills for Gem's Viral Encephalitis. by Yvan Marco Tolentino. Hi everyone, My name is Yvan Marco Tolentino and I ...
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*  Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitis | Redmond Regional Medical Center

Learn more about Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitis at Redmond Regional Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk ... The best way to reduce your chances of getting mosquito-borne viral encephalitis is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. Steps ... Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Certain mosquito-borne viruses can lead to encephalitis. Examples of these viruses ... While rare, a small percentage of people develop encephalitis and have serious, life-threatening symptoms, such as:. *High ...
redmondregional.com/hl/?/96797/sp&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  2017/18 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code A83.8: Other mosquito-borne viral encephalitis

Mosquito-borne viral encephalitis. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Includes*mosquito-borne viral ... Unspecified viral encephalitis. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Viral encephalomyelitis NOS ... Other mosquito-borne viral encephalitis. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code *A83.8 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code ... Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis, unspecified. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code Type 1 Excludes*West nile virus with ...
icd10data.com/ICD10CM/Codes/A00-B99/A80-A89/A83-/A83.8

*  Tài liệu Viral Encephalitis chọn lọc - TaiLieu.VN

Xem 1-7 trên 7 kết quả Viral encephalitis. * Báo cáo sinh học: " Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese ... Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis ... Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis ... báo cáo hóa học:" The Israeli strain IS-98-ST1 of West Nile virus as viral model for West Nile encephalitis in the Old World". ...
tailieu.vn/tag/viral-encephalitis.html

*  Background Information on Viral Encephalitis Forum - Wellescent Health Forums

Background Information on Viral Encephalitis Forum to discuss health issues associated with the medical condition ...
wellescent.com/health_forum/forum-2880-background_information_on_viral_encephalitis.html

*  Encephalitis, Viral; Viral Encephalitis; Encephalomyelitis, Infectious, Viral; Infectious Encephalomyelitis, Viral

Viral; Viral Encephalitis; Encephalomyelitis, Infectious, Viral; Infectious Encephalomyelitis, Viral. On-line free medical ... Encephalitis, viral (Viral Encephalitis; Encephalomyelitis, Infectious, Viral; Infectious Encephalomyelitis, Viral). ... viral"Drugs, active principles and "encephalitis, viral"Medicinal plantsQuestions and answers from other usersNewsVideos ... inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary ...
lookfordiagnosis.com/mesh_info.php?term=Encephalitis, Viral&lang=1

*  The CRISIS Prevention Study - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Encephalitis viral † 1 # participants affected / at risk 0/148 (0.00%) 1/139 (0.72%) ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00395161?sect=X3015&view=results

*  How do you make a mustard plaster for a cough? | Reference.com

What are the signs of viral encephalitis in adults?. * Q: What causes painful swollen veins?. ...
https://reference.com/health/make-mustard-plaster-cough-936aecd1019e61cf

*  Acyclovir Renal Failure Acute Side Effects

encephalitis viral. and was treated with Acyclovir. The patient presented the following health conditions: *Nephropathy ... A 23-year-old patient (weight: NA) from GB with the following symptoms: encephalitis,meningitis started Acyclovir treatment ( ... A 11-year-old patient from TURKEY (weight:NA) was diagnosed with the following health condition(s): encephalitis herpes and ... The patient developed the following symptoms/conditions: encephalitis and was treated with Acyclovir (dosage: 10mgk Three Times ...
patientsville.com/acyclovir/renal-failure-acute.htm

*  An Exploratory Study of AVI-4020 in Patients With Possible Acute Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus (WNV) Disease - Full Text View -...

Encephalitis, Arbovirus. Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Encephalitis, Viral. Central Nervous System Viral Diseases. RNA ... Infectious Encephalitis. Encephalitis. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Central ... Documented presence of bacterial or non-WNV viral agents in CSF. *Principal Investigator is of the opinion that the Subject's ... West Nile Fever Encephalitis. West Nile Fever Meningitis. West Nile Fever Meningoencephalitis. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00091845?cond="West Nile Fever"&rank=2

*  A Phase II, Open Label Trial of a Vaccine (FSME-IMMUN 0.5 mL) Against Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) for NIAID Workers...

Encephalitis, Arbovirus. Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Encephalitis, Viral. Central Nervous System Viral Diseases. RNA ... Determine the rate of development of both a level of anti-tick borne encephalitis antibody and viral neutralization titer that ... Tick-Borne Encephalitis Encephalitis, Tick-Borne Tick-Borne Disease Glycoprotein E, Flavivirus NSI Protein, Flavivirus ... Encephalitis. Encephalitis, Tick-Borne. Tick-Borne Diseases. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01031537?term=NIAID&recr=Recruiting&no_unk=Y&rank=1

*  Mosquito bites Tests and diagnosis - Mayo Clinic

Viral encephalitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. ...
mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mosquito-bites/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20032350?footprints=mine

*  Comparison of Three Batches of the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IC51 - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Encephalitis, Arbovirus. Arbovirus Infections. Virus Diseases. Encephalitis, Viral. Central Nervous System Viral Diseases. RNA ... Encephalitis, Japanese. Encephalitis. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... Infectious Encephalitis. Central Nervous System Infections. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Comparison of Three Batches of the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IC51. This study has been completed. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00594958?cond="Encephalitis, Japanese"&rank=18

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...

VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS (10) * VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS (15) * VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER (505) * VIRAL INTERFERENCE (4) ...
https://hygimia69.blogspot.com/2017/02/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8_20.html

*  The Prophylaxis Dilemma - TheBody.com

There are many remaining questions to be answered regarding OI prophylaxis such as the relative value of the viral load in ... Toxoplasmic Encephalitis. Insufficient numbers of patients have been studied to recommend routine discontinuation of ...
thebody.com/content/art13462.html

*  GAD antibodies & HHV-6 limbic encephalitis - a case of molecular mimicry? | HHV-6 Foundation | HHV-6 Disease Information for...

Over a dozen studies have now found HHV-6 to predict aGVHD, but this is the first to correlate viral reactivation with poor ... GAD antibodies & HHV-6 limbic encephalitis - a case of molecular mimicry?. In All, Autoimmune Disease, CNS Disease, CNS ... A fifth case of limbic encephalitis associated with GAD antibodies and HHV-6 infection has been reported, this time in an ... Epilepsy Following HHV-6 Limbic Encephalitis in Pediatric Transplant Patients. *. Three new studies suggest a link between HHV- ...
https://hhv-6foundation.org/encephalitis-encephalopathy/gad-antibodies-hhv-6-limbic-encephalitis-a-case-of-molecular-mimicry

*  Fun With Microbiology (What's Buggin' You?): November 2011

Glucose levels that remain in the normal range with an increase of protein level may suggest a viral encephalitis. In our ... Neutrophils (=PolyMorphoNucleocytes=PMN) are the primary response to bacterial infections while viral agents may stimulate ...
thunderhouse4-yuri.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/

*  Mad Cows and Martyred Horses: April 2010

significant viral disease of pigs. The severity of this disease. varies with the strain of the virus, the age of the pig, and ... EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS - USA (18): (NEW JERSEY) EQUINE - *********************************************************** A ... viral strains. This virus is closely related to the ruminant. pestiviruses that cause bovine virus diarrhea and border disease. ...
madcowhorses.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_archive.html

Rocio viral encephalitis: Rocio viral encephalitis is an epidemic flaviviral disease of man first observed in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975.Carl J.List of mystery diseases: A mystery disease is a disease that has not yet been identified. Reasons for lack of identification of etiology include lack of professional interest, difficult access, and lack of resources, in addition to being unknown to medicine.Limbic encephalitisArbovirus encephalitisAssociation of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers: The Association of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers (APFV) is an industry trade group composed of Venezuelan corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1993 as the Association of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers, and adopted its current name in 1993.Herpesviral encephalitisSaint Louis University School of Public HealthEast St. Louis and Suburban Railway: The East St. Louis and Suburban Railway was an interurban railroad that operated in Illinois.Japanese encephalitis vaccineBiological agentWestern equine encephalitis virusAnti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: Anti-NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor antibody encephalitis, also termed NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, is an acute form of encephalitis which is potentially lethal but has high probability for recovery. It is caused by an autoimmune reaction primarily against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor.Murray Valley encephalitis virusWest Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.List of West Nile virus outbreaks: *United States: From 1999 through 2001, the CDC confirmed 149 West Nile virus infections, including 18 deaths. In 2002, a total of 4,156 cases were reported, including 284 fatalities.Psorophora howardiiGranulomatous amoebic encephalitisCulex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.Depth Charge (horse): Depth Charge (1941–1965) was a Thoroughbred son of Bold Venture who went on to become an outstanding sire of American Quarter Horse racehorses.Simmons Legends: Outstanding Quarter Horse Stallions and Mares p.La Crosse (grape): La Crosse is a modern hybrid cultivar of wine grape, mostly grown in North America. It produces grapes suitable for making fruity white wines similar to Riesling or as a base for blended wines.California encephalitis virusMetastatic carcinoma: Metastatic carcinoma is able to grow at sites distant from the primary site of origin; thus, dissemination to the skin may occur with any malignant neoplasm, and these infiltrates may result from direct invasion of the skin from underlying tumors, may extend by lymphatic or hematogenous spread, or may be introduced by therapeutic procedures.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Pug: The Pug is a breed of dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colours, most often fawn or black, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles.Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus that infects goats.BarmahCognitive effects of HIVPostencephalitic parkinsonismCanadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.Neonatal herpes simplexPseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Sindbis virusGross examinationPlaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Alphavirus infection: Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, 4- to 4-mm papules.NS3 (HCV): Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), also known as p-70, is a viral nonstructural protein that is 70 kDa cleavage product of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein. It acts as a serine protease.Tioman virus: Tioman virus is a paramyxovirus first isolated from the urine of island fruit bats (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, Malaysia in 2000. The virus was discovered during efforts to identify the natural host of Nipah virus which was responsible for a large outbreak of encephalitic illness in humans and pigs in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-99.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Human herpesvirus 7Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Freedom Train (Czechoslovakia): Freedom Train (in Czech: Vlak svobody) is the term commonly used in the Czech Republic to describe the mass escape of opponents of the Czechoslovak communist regime across the West German border on 11 September 1951 involving State Railways train No. 3717.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Keshan diseaseGlobal Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.HyperintensityColes PhillipsSeroconversionAngora goat: The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.Aedes aegyptiBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Human mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Central nervous system viral disease: A central nervous system viral disease is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system.Paraneoplastic syndrome: A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, 2011, Darnell & Posner These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (by hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Acanthamoeba infection: Acanthamoeba infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions. Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing acanthamoebic keratitis.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.

(1/559) Encephalitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 5 and protection by prior vaccination or infection with bovine herpesvirus 1.

Calves were intranasally challenged with bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) and followed for the development of viral infection, clinical encephalitis, histologic lesions in the brain, and viral sequences in the trigeminal ganglia. Calves that were previously vaccinated with bovine herepesvirus 1 (BHV1, n = 4) or previously infected with BHV1 (n = 5) or that had not been exposed to either virus (n = 4) were compared. No calf developed signs of encephalitis, although all calves developed an infection as indicated by nasal secretion of BHV5 and seroconversion to the virus. Histologic lesions of encephalitis consisting of multifocal gliosis and perivascular cuffs of lymphocytes were observed in calves not previously exposed to BHV1. BHV5 sequences were amplified from the trigeminal ganglia of calves previously vaccinated and from calves not previously exposed to BHV1; calves sequentially challenged with BHV1 and later BHV5 had exclusively BHV1 sequences in their trigeminal ganglia. Administration of dexamethasone 28 days after BHV5 challenge did not influence clinical disease or histologic lesions in either previously unexposed calves (n = 2) or previously immunized calves (n = 2), although it did cause recrudescence of BHV5, as detected by nasal virus secretion.  (+info)

(2/559) Role of nitric oxide in pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in rats.

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis was investigated by using an experimental model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in Lewis rats. The expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA determined by Northern blotting was observed first in the olfactory bulb and the brain stem on day 5 after intranasal inoculation of HSV-1, and thereafter iNOS mRNA was detected in other brain regions, i.e., cerebrum and cerebellum. In various parts of the brain, excessive NO production was identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The temporal and spatial patterns of iNOS expression coincided with those of viral propagation, as demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction for HSV-1 gene expression as well as by the plaque-forming assay. Immunohistochemical study determined that iNOS was localized mainly in monocyte-derived macrophages. Treatment of virus-infected animals with the NOS inhibitor Nomega-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), but not Nomega-monomethyl-d-arginine, significantly ameliorated not only clinical symptoms such as paralysis and seizures but also mortality. Virus yield from brain tissue was not affected by l-NMMA treatment. It is of interest that increased expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 was observed in the HSV-1-infected brain; this increased expression was strongly inhibited by l-NMMA treatment. These data suggest that the high level of NO produced by iNOS is a pathogenic factor in HSV-1-induced encephalitis in rats.  (+info)

(3/559) Virus infection induces neuronal apoptosis: A comparison with trophic factor withdrawal.

Multicellular organisms can employ a number of defences to combat viral replication, the most dramatic being implementation of a cell autonomous apoptotic process. The overall cost to the viability of an organism of losing infected cells by apoptosis may be small if the dying cells can be substituted. In contrast, suicide of irreplaceable cells such as highly specialised neurons may have a more dramatic, even fatal consequence. Previous in vitro approaches to understanding whether neurotropic viruses cause neurons to apoptose have utilised transformed cell lines. These are not in the appropriate state of differentiation to provide an accurate indication of events in vivo. We have chosen to characterise the ability of a model CNS disease-causing virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), to infect and trigger apoptosis in primary cultures of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent sensory neurons. These cells are known to die when deprived of NGF and constitute a useful indicator of apoptosis. We observe that infection causes cell death which bears the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, this occurs even in the present of survival promoting NGF and is concomitant with new virus production. Using the TUNEL (transferase dUTP nick end labelling) technique we show that SFV-induced apoptosis involves DNA fragmentation and requires caspase (CED-3/ICE cysteine protease) activation, as does apoptosis induced by NGF-deprivation. Extensive areas of apoptosis, as defined using a combination of ultrastructural analysis and TUNEL occur in infected neonatal mouse brains. The novel evidence that infection of primary neurons with SFV induces apoptosis with activation of one or more caspases defines a system for the further anlaysis of apoptosis regulation in physiologically relevant neurons.  (+info)

(4/559) Ectopic expression of DNA encoding IFN-alpha 1 in the cornea protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced encephalitis.

A novel approach to combat acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has recently been developed by administration with a plasmid DNA construct encoding cytokine genes. Cytokines, especially type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) play an important role in controlling acute HSV-1 infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential efficacy of ectopically expressed IFN-alpha 1 against ocular HSV-1 infection following in situ transfection of mouse cornea with a naked IFN-alpha 1-containing plasmid DNA. Topical administration of the IFN-alpha 1 plasmid DNA exerted protection against ocular HSV-1 challenge in a time- and dose-dependent manner and antagonized HSV-1 reactivation. In addition, IFN-alpha 1-transfected eyes expressed a fivefold increase in MHC class I mRNA over vector-treated controls. The protective efficacy of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene antagonized viral replication, as evidenced by the reduction of the viral gene transcripts (infected cell polypeptide 27, thymidine kinase, and viral protein 16) and viral load in eyes and trigeminal ganglia during acute infection. The administration of neutralizing Ab to IFN-alpha beta antagonized the protective effect of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of using naked plasmid DNA transfection in the eye to achieve ectopic gene expression of therapeutically active agents.  (+info)

(5/559) Laboratory diagnosis of common viral infections of the central nervous system by using a single multiplex PCR screening assay.

A multiplex PCR assay that detects the four commonest causes of viral meningitis and encephalitis in the United Kingdom (herpes simplex virus [HSV] type 1 [HSV-1], HSV type 2 [HSV-2], varicella-zoster virus [VZV], and enteroviruses) was developed, and its sensitivity was compared with those of similar assays described previously for this application. Compared to the previous assays, this single multiplex PCR assay had higher molecular sensitivities for the detection for each of the viruses and improved utility for routine use in a diagnostic laboratory. The assay was used to test a series of 1,683 consecutive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples between June 1997 and March 1998 inclusively. Viral nucleic acid was detected in 138 (8.2%) of the CSF samples, including enteroviruses in 51 samples, HSV-2 in 33 samples, VZV in 28 samples, and HSV-1 in 25 samples. Compared to the accepted relative incidence of viral etiologies, aseptic meningitis due to HSV-2 infection was high, and in adult female patients with symptoms of aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 was the virus most commonly detected in the CSF.  (+info)

(6/559) Outbreak of Hendra-like virus--Malaysia and Singapore, 1998-1999.

During September 29, 1998-April 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH). During March 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in Singapore. Tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these cases, which indicate that a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus related to, but distinct from, the Australian Hendra virus is associated with this outbreak.  (+info)

(7/559) Long term neurological outcome of herpes encephalitis.

Twenty eight children with herpes simplex encephalitis were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years. Two children died and 26 survived, of whom 16 were left with no neurological sequelae and 10 had persistent neurological sequelae. Mean (SD) Glasgow coma score was significantly lower in the patients with neurological sequelae (7.7 (1.5)) and the patients who died (4.5 (0.7)), compared with the patients without neurological sequelae (11 (1.7)).  (+info)

(8/559) Update: outbreak of Nipah virus--Malaysia and Singapore, 1999.

During March 1999, health officials in Malaysia and Singapore, in collaboration with Australian researchers and CDC, investigated reports of febrile encephalitic and respiratory illnesses among workers who had exposure to pigs. A previously unrecognized paramyxovirus (formerly known as Hendra-like virus), now called Nipah virus, was implicated by laboratory testing in many of these cases. Febrile encephalitis continues to be reported in Malaysia but has decreased coincident with mass culling of pigs in outbreak areas. No new cases of febrile illness associated with Nipah virus infection have been identified in Singapore since March 19, 1999, when abattoirs were closed. This report summarizes interim findings from ongoing epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in Malaysia and Singapore.  (+info)



vaccine


  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 has been in use for more more than 20 years in Asia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • History of having received JE vaccine, yellow fever vaccine, tick-borne encephalitis vaccine or experimental flavivirus vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lab workers who may be exposed to Japanese encephalitis should also get the vaccine. (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • The Japanese encephalitis vaccine is given in a series of 2 shots within 28 days. (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • What Are the Risks Associated With the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine? (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • Like any vaccine, the Japanese encephalitis vaccine can cause problems, such as severe allergic reactions. (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • Dubischar-Kastner K, Kaltenboeck A, Klingler A, Jilma B, Schuller E. Safety analysis of a Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IXIARO (IC51), in 6 months of follow-up. (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • Ixiaro (Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed) is a purified, inactivated product for active immunization against viral infections of Japanese Encephalitis. (drugs.com)

observational


  • Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort study. (wikem.org)

Meningitis


bite from an infected mosquito


  • Western equine encephalitis (WEE) is a virus spread by a bite from an infected mosquito. (lakecitymedical.com)
  • Symptoms of Japanese encephalitis usually appear 5-15 days after the bite from an infected mosquito. (blakemedicalcenter.com)

infections


  • Infections leading to overt encephalitis are estimated to be 1 in 1000 cases. (clinicaltrials.gov)

infection


  • A fifth case of limbic encephalitis associated with GAD antibodies and HHV-6 infection has been reported, this time in an immunocompetent woman with chromosomally integrated HHV-6, epilepsy, and psychosis. (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • Because the infection is viral, there is no specific treatment for WEE. (lakecitymedical.com)

vaccination


  • What Other Ways Can Japanese Encephalitis Be Prevented Besides Vaccination? (blakemedicalcenter.com)
  • In the event of a Japanese encephalitis outbreak, people who are eligible for vaccination should receive it. (blakemedicalcenter.com)

Disease


  • Another publication reported two patients who had HHV-6-associated limbic encephalitis, autoimmune thyroid disease, and elevated antibodies to GAD ( Mata 2008 ). (hhv-6foundation.org)

antibodies


  • GAD antibodies & HHV-6 limbic encephalitis - a case of molecular mimicry? (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • High level GAD antibodies define a relevant group of patients with chronic, nonremitting, and nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis ( Malter 2010 ). (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • The authors note that antibodies against NMDAR, the surface protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, have been identified as a cause of encephalopathy post HSV-1 encephalitis, and speculate that HHV-6 may trigger a similar cascade. (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies. (wikem.org)

severe


  • 4.0 4.1 Wandinger K, Saschenbrecker S, Stoecker W, Dalmau J Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: A severe, multistage, treatable disorder presenting with psychosis. (wikem.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis can cause severe complications, like long-term neurological disability and death. (blakemedicalcenter.com)

Japanese


case


  • In our case, the ocular findings were present for 5 weeks before the encephalitis presented. (mja.com.au)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first Australian case of acute retinal necrosis preceding herpes simplex encephalitis. (mja.com.au)

type


  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in an immunocompetent patient. (mja.com.au)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced retinitis following herpes simplex encephalitis: indications for brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1. (mja.com.au)
  • Immunocytologic localization of herpes simplex type 1 viral antigens in herpetic retinitis and encephalitis in an adult. (mja.com.au)
  • Bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome following herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. (mja.com.au)

topics


  • 10/1/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T208130/Encephalitis: Reimer LJ, Thomsen EK, Tisch DJ, et al. (lakecitymedical.com)

usually


  • Acute retinal necrosis usually occurs months to years after herpes simplex encephalitis. (mja.com.au)

risk


  • 8. Vandercam T, Hintzen RQ, de Boer JH, Van der Lelij A. Herpetic encephalitis is a risk factor for acute retinal necrosis. (mja.com.au)

patients


  • Previously, the same neuropathology group in Germany reported two GAD-antibody-positive limbic encephalitis patients with HHV-6 DNA detected in surgically removed hippocampal tissue ( Niehusmann 2010 ). (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. (wikem.org)