Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Subcutaneous Emphysema: Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body.Mediastinal Emphysema: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 184.108.40.206.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.SmokeSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Matrix Metalloproteinase 12: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.ElastinPulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Coal MiningSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 220.127.116.11.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Pneumopericardium: Presence of air or gas in the space between the heart and the PERICARDIUM. The degree of respiratory distress depends on the amount of trapped air and circulation blocked in the systemic and pulmonary veins.Desmosine: A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Spiritualism: Religious philosophy expressing the fundamental belief that departed spirits may be contacted by the living through a medium.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Serpin E2: A protease nexin and serpin subtype that is specific for several SERINE PROTEASES including UROKINASE; THROMBIN; TRYPSIN; and PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Mice, Inbred C57BLPapain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 18.104.22.168.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Pulmonary interstitial emphysemaSubcutaneous emphysemaAlpha 1-antitrypsin deficiencyElastaseLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Lung cancer surgery: Lung cancer surgery describes the use of surgical operations in the treatment of lung cancer. It involves the surgical excision of cancer tissue from the lung.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Animals and tobacco smoke: Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place.Alveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.Helium-3Spirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Eosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Elastin: Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched.Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema describes a medical syndrome involving both pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The combination is most commonly found in male smokers.BronchographyEndobronchial valve: An endobronchial valve is an implantable medical device—a small, one-way valve, which is implanted in an airway in the pulmonary system to treat one of several lung conditions. The one-way endobronchial valve is typically implanted such that when a patient exhales, air is able to flow through the valve and out of the lung compartment that is fed by that airway, but when the patient inhales, the valve closes and blocks air from entering that lung compartment.Yanzhou Coal Mining CompanyNeutrophil elastase: Neutrophil elastase (, leukocyte elastase, ELANE, ELA2, elastase 2, neutrophil, elaszym, serine elastase) is a serine proteinase in the same family as chymotrypsin and has broad substrate specificity. Secreted by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation, it destroys bacteria and host tissue.EprozinolChronic lung diseaseCheyne–Stokes respirationDiaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.PneumoconiosisDesmosineHospital-acquired pneumonia: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia.Nicotiana glauca: Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco. Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species have sessile leaves), and its leaves and stems are neither [nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum].Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Pulmonary surfactant protein D: In molecular biology, Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a protein domain predominantly found in lung surfactant. This protein plays a special role; its primary task is to act as a defence protein against any pathogens that may invade the lung.Spiritualism: Spiritualism is a belief that spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve.BronchioleAlveolar macrophagePhenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Orbital apex syndrome: Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a collection of cranial nerve deficits associated with a mass lesion near the apex of the orbit of the eye. This syndrome is a separate entity from Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome, which occurs due to a lesion immediately anterior to the orbital apex.Bronchus: A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these bronchi branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles.
(1/417) Effects of depletion of neutrophils or macrophages on development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.
The aim of this study was to ascertain the putative roles of neutrophils or macrophages in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-induced emphysema on the basis of effects of anti-neutrophil (anti-PMN) antibody or anti-monocyte/macrophage (anti-MoMac) antibody on the development of emphysema in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. Rats were treated with rabbit anti-PMN or anti-MoMac antibody and exposed 7 days/wk for 2 mo to cigarette smoke inhalation; rats treated with nonimmunized rabbit IgG (control antibody) and exposed to cigarette smoke or normal room air served as controls. Antibody treatments began 24 h before the start of smoke or air exposure and was continued with 1 treatment/wk. Total and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and collagenase-dissociated lung and determinations of the elastinolytic activity of lung neutrophils or macrophages in [(3)H]elastin-coated wells indicated specific suppression of neutrophil accumulation and neutrophil-related elastinolytic burden in the lungs of the anti-PMN antibody-treated smoke-exposed rats, in contrast to specific suppression of macrophage accumulation and macrophage-related elastinolytic burden in the lungs of the anti-MoMac antibody-treated smoke-exposed rats. Cigarette smoke exposure-induced lung elastin breakdown (quantitated by immunologic assay of levels of elastin-derived peptides and desmosine in lavage fluid) and emphysema in the lungs (based on morphometric analysis of alveolar mean linear intercepts and alveolar tissue density in fixed lungs) were not prevented in the lungs of anti-PMN antibody-treated smoke-exposed rats but was clearly prevented in lungs of the anti-MoMac antibody-treated smoke-exposed rats. These findings implicate macrophages rather than neutrophils as the critical pathogenic factor in cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. (+info)
(2/417) Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with underlying severe emphysema.
BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has recently re-emerged as a surgical option for the treatment of end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to underlying severe emphysema. Advocates of LVRS claim that it represents a significant breakthrough in the management of this challenging group of patients while sceptics point to uncertainty about the effectiveness of the operation. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of the evidence on the effects of LVRS in patients with end stage COPD secondary to severe emphysema. RESULTS: The most rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of LVRS came from case series. Seventy five potentially relevant studies were identified and 19 individual series met the methodological criteria for inclusion. The pattern of results was consistent across individual studies despite a significant degree of clinical heterogeneity. Significant short term benefits occurred across a range of outcomes which appeared to continue into the longer term. Physiological improvements were matched by functional and subjective improvements. Early mortality rates were low and late mortality rates compared favourably with those of the general COPD population. However, the entire research base for the intervention is subject to the limitations of study designs without parallel control groups. CONCLUSIONS: LVRS appears to represent a promising option in the management of patients with severe end stage emphysema. However, until the results of ongoing clinical trials are available, the considerable uncertainty that exists around the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the procedure will remain. (+info)
(3/417) Surgical emphysema and pneumomediastinum in a child following minor blunt injury to the neck.
Largyngotracheal and pharyngoesophageal tears following minor blunt trauma to the neck are uncommon. A child with such an injury is reported and the modes of diagnosis and management are discussed. Patients may initially present with minimal signs and symptoms, but their condition may deteriorate rapidly or insidiously. In the absence of respiratory compromise, conservative management is appropriate, but all patients with significant blunt neck trauma should undergo early direct laryngoscopy under a general anaesthetic. (+info)
(4/417) Emphysematous cholecystitis in a Siberian husky.
A 6-year-old, intact male Siberian husky was evaluated for a 24-hour history of vomiting and lethargy. Diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was achieved based on survey abdominal radiographs, a barium contrast gastrointestinal series, and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis and medical and surgical management of the condition are discussed. (+info)
(5/417) Chemical chaperones mediate increased secretion of mutant alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) Z: A potential pharmacological strategy for prevention of liver injury and emphysema in alpha 1-AT deficiency.
In alpha1-AT deficiency, a misfolded but functionally active mutant alpha1-ATZ (alpha1-ATZ) molecule is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells rather than secreted into the blood and body fluids. Emphysema is thought to be caused by the lack of circulating alpha1-AT to inhibit neutrophil elastase in the lung. Liver injury is thought to be caused by the hepatotoxic effects of the retained alpha1-ATZ. In this study, we show that several "chemical chaperones," which have been shown to reverse the cellular mislocalization or misfolding of other mutant plasma membrane, nuclear, and cytoplasmic proteins, mediate increased secretion of alpha1-ATZ. In particular, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) mediated a marked increase in secretion of functionally active alpha1-ATZ in a model cell culture system. Moreover, oral administration of PBA was well tolerated by PiZ mice (transgenic for the human alpha1-ATZ gene) and consistently mediated an increase in blood levels of human alpha1-AT reaching 20-50% of the levels present in PiM mice and normal humans. Because clinical studies have suggested that only partial correction is needed for prevention of both liver and lung injury in alpha1-AT deficiency and PBA has been used safely in humans, it constitutes an excellent candidate for chemoprophylaxis of target organ injury in alpha1-AT deficiency. (+info)
(6/417) Skeletal muscle weakness is associated with wasting of extremity fat-free mass but not with airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle weakness is a prominent problem in many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relation between skeletal muscle function, body composition, and lung function in COPD (emphysema and chronic bronchitis) patients and healthy volunteers. DESIGN: In 50 patients with chronic bronchitis, 49 patients with emphysema, and 28 healthy volunteers, skeletal muscle function was assessed by handgrip and linear isokinetic dynamometry. Whole-body and subregional fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Whole-body and extremity FFM were significantly lower in patients with emphysema (P < 0.001) and chronic bronchitis (P < 0.05) than in healthy volunteers, but trunk FFM was significantly lower only in patients with emphysema (P < 0.001). Extremity FFM was not significantly different between the COPD subtype groups, despite significantly lower values for whole-body and trunk FFM (P < 0.05) in patients with emphysema. Absolute skeletal muscle function (P < 0. 001) and muscle function per kilogram of whole-body FFM were significantly lower in both COPD subtype groups than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between patients with chronic bronchitis and those with emphysema. Muscle function per kilogram of extremity FFM was not significantly different between the 3 groups and was not associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s. CONCLUSION: Skeletal muscle weakness is associated with wasting of extremity FFM in COPD patients, independent of airflow obstruction and COPD subtype. (+info)
(7/417) Functional, cellular, and biochemical adaptations to elastase-induced emphysema in hamster medial scalene.
The scalene has been reported to be an accessory inspiratory muscle in the hamster. We hypothesize that with the chronic loads and/or dynamic hyperinflation associated with emphysema (Emp), the scalene will be actively recruited, resulting in functional, cellular, and biochemical adaptations. Emp was induced in adult hamsters. Inspiratory electromyogram (EMG) activity was recorded from the medial scalene and costal diaphragm. Isometric contractile and fatigue properties were evaluated in vitro. Muscle fibers were classified histochemically and immunohistochemically. Individual fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities were determined quantitatively. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were identified by SDS-PAGE, and their proportions were determined by scanning densitometry. All Emp animals exhibited spontaneous scalene inspiratory EMG activity during quiet breathing, whereas the scalene muscles of controls (Ctl) were silent. There were no differences in contractile and fatigue properties of the scalene between Ctl and Emp. In Emp, the relative amount of MHC(2A) was 15% higher whereas that of MHC(2X) was 14% lower compared with Ctl. Similarly, the proportion of type IIa fibers increased significantly in Emp animals with a concomitant decrease in IIx fibers. CSA of type IIx fibers were significantly smaller in Emp compared with Ctl. SDH activities of all fiber types were significantly increased by 53 to 63% in Emp. We conclude that with Emp the actively recruited scalene exhibits primary-like inspiratory activity in the hamster. Adaptations of the scalene with Emp likely relate both to increased loads and to factors intrinsic to muscle architecture and chest mechanics. (+info)
(8/417) Retinoic acid treatment partially rescues failed septation in rats and in mice.
Pulmonary alveoli are formed in part by subdivision (septation) of the gas-exchange saccules of the immature lung. Septation results in smaller, more numerous structures (alveoli) and is developmentally regulated in mammals including humans, rats, and mice; if it fails to occur at the appropriate time, there is no spontaneous post hoc septation nor has there been a means of inducing septation after it has failed to occur. We measured lung volume, the volume of individual alveoli, and alveolar surface area and calculated alveolar number in neonatal rats in which septation had been blocked by treatment with a glucocorticosteroid hormone and in adult tight-skin mice that have a genetic failure of septation. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid induces post hoc septation. In both models of failed septation, hence in two species, and in immature and adult animals, treatment with all-trans retinoic acid induced post hoc septation, offering the possibility of a similar effect in premature infants. (+info)
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