Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Atherectomy, Coronary: Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Atherectomy: Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Hirudin Therapy: Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cineradiography: Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Radiology, Interventional: Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Diatrizoate Meglumine: A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Ioxaglic Acid: A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Angioscopes: Endoscopes used for viewing the interior of blood vessels.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.
AngioplastyMulti-link suspension: __NOTOC__Intravascular ultrasoundElectrocardiography in myocardial infarctionCommon iliac artery: The common iliac arteries are two large arteries that originate from the aortic bifurcation at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. It ends in front of the sacroiliac joint, bifurcate the external iliac artery and internal iliac artery.Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery: The left anterior descending artery (also LAD, anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch), also known as the "widow maker", is an artery of the heart.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPopliteal artery entrapment syndrome: The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rather uncommon pathology, which results into claudication and chronic leg ischemia. The popliteal artery may be compressed behind the knee, due to congenital deformity of the muscles or tendon insertions of the popliteal fossa.Endoscopic vessel harvestingRotational angiography: Rotational angiography is a medical imaging technique based on x-ray, that allows to acquire CT-like 3D volumes during hybrid surgery or during a catheter intervention using a fixed C-Arm. The fixed C-Arm thereby rotates around the patient and acquires a series of x-ray images that are then reconstructed through software algorithms into a 3D image.Antianginal: An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease.Thrombolytic drug: Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. They limit the damage caused by the blockage or occlusion of a blood vessel.Carotid artery stenosisTunica intimaClarence CrafoordAcute limb ischaemiaEndodontic retreatment: Endodontic retreatment describes a dental root canal procedure that is carried out on a tooth that has previously had root canal treatment. For this reason it is also called "repeat root canal treatment".AtherectomyBalloon catheter: A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.Genous: Genous is an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capture technology manufactured by OrbusNeich that promotes the accelerated natural healing of the vessel wall after stent implantation. The pro-healing technology has an antibody surface coating that captures circulating CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells to the device, forming a functional endothelial layer over the stent to protect against thrombus and minimize restenosis.Intermittent claudicationCoronary perfusion pressure: Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) refers to the pressure gradient that drives coronary blood pressure, meaning the difference between the diastolic aortic pressure and the right atrial diastolic pressure. It is a term used mainly in research concerning cardiac arrest.Antiplatelet drug: An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation. They are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.Cardiac imagingKaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments: The Kaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments measured the dependence of the inertial mass (or momentum) of an object on its velocity. The historical importance of this series of experiments performed by various physicists between 1901 and 1915 is due to the results being used to test the predictions of special relativity.Coronary thrombosisRevascularizationRevision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.Goldblatt kidney: Goldblatt kidney is a condition of the kidney in which a constriction of the renal artery causes renal ischemia and the release of renin which would cause hypertension.Antithrombotic: An antithrombotic agent is a drug that reduces the formation of blood clots (thrombi).http://cancerweb.Fragment antigen-binding: The fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. It is composed of one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and the light chain.CADgene: CADgene is a database of genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) .Amputation: Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene.Automated ECG interpretation: Automated ECG interpretation is the use of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition software and knowledge bases to carry out automatically the interpretation, test reporting, and computer-aided diagnosis of electrocardiogram tracings obtained usually from a patient.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Giacomini vein: The Giacomini vein is a communicant vein between the great saphenous vein (GSV) and the small saphenous vein (SSV). It is named after the Italian anatomist Carlo Giacomini (1840-1898).AngioscopyCarotid ultrasonography: Carotid ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique to reveal structural details of the carotid arteries, so as to look for blood clots, atherosclerotic plaque buildup, and other blood flow problems.MedlinePlus > Carotid duplex Update Date: 5/12/2009.Magnetic shape-memory alloy: Magnetic shape-memory alloys (MSMAs), or ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs), are ferromagnetic materials which exhibit large strains under the influence of an applied magnetic field due to martensitic phase transformation. Magnetic shape-memory alloys, with near-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa being the most studied example, differ from other magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D and Galfenol, as they produce much larger strains by twinning, sometimes as large as 9%, under relatively low bias magnetic fields.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.ThrombusArterial embolismVascular smooth musclePosterior tibial artery: The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery via the tibial-fibular trunk. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the posterior tibial vein, along its course.EndarterectomyAnticoagulant: Anticoagulants are a class of drugs that work to prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood. Such substances occur naturally in leeches and blood-sucking insects.PolytetrafluoroethyleneMedrad Inc.Emergency: An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative care for the aftermath.
(1/1210) The endovascular management of blue finger syndrome.
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience of the endovascular management of upper limb embolisation secondary to an ipsilateral proximal arterial lesion. DESIGN: A retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 3 years, 17 patients presented with blue fingers secondary to an ipsilateral proximal vascular lesion. These have been managed using transluminal angioplasty (14) and arterial stenting (five), combined with embolectomy (two) and anticoagulation (three)/anti-platelet therapy (14). RESULTS: All the patients were treated successfully. There have been no further symptomatic embolic episodes originating from any of the treated lesions, and no surgical amputations. Complications were associated with the use of brachial arteriotomy for vascular access. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular techniques are safe and effective in the management of upper limb embolic phenomena associated with an ipsilateral proximal focal vascular lesion. (+info)
(2/1210) Infrainguinal revascularisation in the era of vein-graft surveillance--do clinical factors influence long-term outcome?
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variables affecting the long-term outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafts that have undergone postoperative surveillance. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Details of 299 consecutive infrainguinal vein grafts performed in 275 patients from a single university hospital were collected and analysed. All grafts underwent postoperative duplex surveillance. Factors affecting patency, limb salvage and survival rates were examined. These factors were gender, diabetes, hypertension, aspirin, warfarin, ischaemic heart disease, run-off, graft type, early thrombectomy, level of anastomoses and indication for surgery. RESULTS: The 6-year primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 23, 47, and 57%, respectively. Six-year limb salvage and patient survival were 68 and 45%, respectively. Primary patency was adversely influenced by the use of composite vein grafts. Early thrombectomy was the only factor that significantly influenced secondary patency. Limb salvage was worse in diabetic limbs, limbs with poor run-off and in grafts that required early thrombectomy. Postoperative survival was better in males, claudicants and in patients who took aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Although co-morbid factors did not influence graft patency rates, diabetes did adversely effect limb salvage. This study, like others before it, confirms that aspirin significantly reduces long-term mortality in patients undergoing infrainguinal revascularisation. (+info)
(3/1210) Endothelial implants inhibit intimal hyperplasia after porcine angioplasty.
The perivascular implantation of tissue-engineered endothelial cells around injured arteries offers an opportunity to study fundamental vascular physiology as well as restore and improve tissue function. Cell source is an important issue because the ability to implant either xenogeneic or allogeneic cells would greatly enhance the clinical applications of tissue-engineered grafts. We investigated the biological and immunological responses to endothelial cell xenografts and allografts in pigs 4 weeks after angioplasty of the carotid arteries. Porcine or bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured within Gelfoam matrices and implanted in the perivascular space of 42 injured arteries. Both porcine and bovine endothelial cell grafts reduced the restenosis index compared with control by 54% and 46%, respectively. Perivascular heparin release devices, formulated to release heparin at twice the rate of release of heparan sulfate proteoglycan from endothelial cell implants, produced no significant reduction in the restenosis index. Endothelial cell implants also reduced occlusive thrombosis compared with control and heparin release devices. Host immune responses to endothelial implants were investigated by immunohistochemical examination of explanted devices and by immunocytochemistry of serum samples. The bovine cell grafts displayed infiltration of leukocytes, consisting primarily of lymphocytes, and caused an increase in antibodies detected in serum samples. Reduced cellular infiltration and no humoral response were detected in animals that received allografts. Despite the difference in immune response, the biological effects of xenografts or allografts did not differ significantly. (+info)
(4/1210) Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status. (+info)
(5/1210) Economics of myocardial perfusion imaging in Europe--the EMPIRE Study.
BACKGROUND: Physicians use myocardial perfusion imaging to a variable extent in patients presenting with possible coronary artery disease. There are few clinical data on the most cost-effective strategy although computer models predict that routine use of myocardial perfusion imaging is cost-effective. OBJECTIVES: To measure the cost-effectiveness of four diagnostic strategies in patients newly presenting with possible coronary artery disease, and to compare cost-effectiveness in centres that routinely use myocardial perfusion imaging with those that do not. METHODS: We have studied 396 patients presenting to eight hospitals for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The hospitals were regular users or non-users of myocardial perfusion imaging with one of each in four countries (France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). Information was gathered retrospectively on presentation, investigations, complications, and clinical management, and patients were followed-up for 2 years in order to assess outcome. Pre- and post-test probabilities of coronary artery disease were computed for diagnostic tests and each test was also assigned as diagnostic or part of management. Diagnostic strategies defined were: 1: Exercise electrocardiogram/coronary angiography, 2: exercise electrocardiogram/myocardial perfusion imaging/coronary angiography, 3: myocardial perfusion imaging/coronary angiography, 4: coronary angiography. Primary outcome measures were the cost and accuracy of diagnosis, the cost of subsequent management, and clinical outcome. Secondary measures included prognostic power, normal angiography rate, and rate of angiography not followed by revascularization. RESULTS: Mean diagnostic costs per patient were: strategy 1: 490 Pounds, 2: 409 Pounds, 3: 460 Pounds, 4: 1253 Pounds (P < 0.0001). Myocardial perfusion imaging users: 529 Pounds, non-users 667 Pounds (P = 0.006). Mean probability of the presence of coronary artery disease when the final clinical diagnosis was coronary artery disease present were, strategy 1: 0.85, 2: 0.82, 3: 0.97, 4: 1.0 (P < 0.0001), users 0.93, non-users 0.88 (P = 0.02), and when coronary artery disease was absent, 1: 0.26, 2: 0.22, 3: 0.16, 4: 0.0 (P < 0.0001), users 0.21, non-users 0.20 (P = ns). Total 2-year costs (coronary artery disease present/absent) were: strategy 1: 4453 Pounds/710 Pounds, 2: 3842 Pounds/478 Pounds, 3: 3768 Pounds/574 Pounds, 4: 5599 Pounds/1475 Pounds (P < 0.05/0.0001), users: 5563 Pounds/623 Pounds, non-users: 5428 Pounds/916 Pounds (P = ns/0.001). Prognostic power at diagnosis was higher (P < 0.0001) and normal coronary angiography rate lower (P = 0.07) in the scintigraphic centres and strategies. Numbers of soft and hard cardiac events over 2 years and final symptomatic status did not differ between strategy or centre. CONCLUSION: Investigative strategies using myocardial perfusion imaging are cheaper and equally effective when compared with strategies that do not use myocardial perfusion imaging, both for cost of diagnosis and for overall 2 year management costs. Two year patient outcome is the same. (+info)
(6/1210) Health-related quality of life after angioplasty and stent placement in patients with iliac artery occlusive disease: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The Dutch Iliac Stent Trial Study Group.
BACKGROUND: To assess the quality of life in patients with iliac artery occlusive disease, we compared primary stent placement versus primary angioplasty followed by selective stent placement in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quality-of-life assessments were completed by 254 patients in a telephone interview. Assessment measures consisted of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0, time tradeoff, standard gamble, rating scale, health utilities index, and EuroQol-5D. The interviews were performed before treatment and after 1, 3, 12, and 24 months. When the 2 treatments were compared, no significant difference was observed (P>0.05). All measurements showed a significant improvement in the quality of life after treatment (P<0.05). The RAND 36-Item Health Survey measures physical functioning, role limitations caused by physical problems, and bodily pain and the EuroQol-5D were the most sensitive to the impact of revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related quality of life improves equally after primary stent placement and primary angioplasty with selective stent placement in the treatment of intermittent claudication caused by iliac artery occlusive disease. (+info)
(7/1210) Isolated inferior mesenteric artery revascularization for chronic visceral ischemia.
PURPOSE: Complete visceral artery revascularization is recommended for the treatment of chronic visceral ischemia. However, in rare cases, it may not be possible to revascularize either the celiac or superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries. We have managed a series of patients with isolated revascularization of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and now report our experience gained over a period of three decades. METHODS: Records were reviewed from 11 patients with chronic visceral ischemia who underwent isolated IMA revascularization (n = 8) or who, because of failure of concomitant celiac or SMA repairs, were functionally left with an isolated IMA revascularization (n = 3). All the patients had symptomatic chronic visceral ischemia documented with arteriography. Five patients had recurrent visceral ischemia after failed visceral revascularization, and two patients had undergone resection of ischemic bowel. The celiac or the SMA was unsuitable for revascularization in five cases, and extensive adhesions precluded safe exposure of the celiac or the SMA in five cases. IMA revascularization techniques included: bypass grafting (n = 4), transaortic endarterectomy (n = 4), reimplantation (n = 2), and patch angioplasty (n = 1). RESULTS: There was one perioperative death, and the remaining 10 patients had cured or improved conditions at discharge. One IMA repair thrombosed acutely but was successfully revascularized at reoperation. The median follow-up period was 6 years (range, 1 month to 13 years). Two patients had recurrent symptoms develop despite patent IMA repairs and required subsequent visceral revascularization; interruption of collateral circulation by prior bowel resection may have contributed to recurrence in both patients. Objective follow-up examination with arteriography or duplex scanning was available for eight patients at least 1 year after IMA revascularization, and all underwent patent IMA repairs. There were no late deaths as a result of bowel infarction. CONCLUSION: Isolated IMA revascularization may be useful when revascularization of other major visceral arteries cannot be performed and a well-developed, intact IMA collateral circulation is present. In this select subset of patients with chronic visceral ischemia, isolated IMA revascularization can achieve relief of symptoms and may be a lifesaving procedure. (+info)
(8/1210) Impact of race on the treatment for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of race on the treatment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and to examine the role of access to care and disease distribution on the observed racial disparity. METHODS: The study was performed as a retrospective analysis of hospital discharge abstracts from 1992 to 1995 in 202 non-federal, acute-care hospitals in the state of Florida. The subjects were patients older than 44 years of age who underwent major lower extremity amputation or revascularization (bypass grafting or angioplasty) for PAOD. The main outcome measures were incidence of intervention, incidence per demographic group, multivariate predictors of amputation versus revascularization, multivariate predictors of amputation versus revascularization among those patients with access to sophisticated care (hospital with arteriographic capabilities), and multivariate predictors of surgical bypass graft type (aortoiliac vs infrainguinal). RESULTS: A total of 51,819 procedures (9.1 per 10,000 population) were performed for PAOD during the study period and included 15,579 major lower extremity amputations (30.1%) and 36,240 revascularizations (69.9%). Although the incidence of a procedure for PAOD was comparable between African Americans and whites (9.0 vs 9.6 per 10, 000 demographic group), the incidence of amputation (5.0 vs 2.5 per 10,000 demographic group) was higher and the incidence of revascularization (4.0 vs 7.1 per 10,000 demographic group) was lower among African Americans. Furthermore, multivariate analysis results showed that African Americans (odds ratio, 3.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.34 to 4.30) were significantly more likely than whites to undergo amputation as opposed to revascularization. The secondary multivariate analyses results revealed that African Americans (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.58 to 3. 33) were more likely to undergo amputation among those patients (n = 9193) who underwent arteriography during the procedural admission and to undergo infrainguinal bypass grafting (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.71) among those patients (n = 27,796) who underwent surgical bypass grafting. CONCLUSION: There is a marked racial disparity in the treatment of patients with PAOD that may be caused in part by differences in the severity of disease or disease distribution. (+info)
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