Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Decapitation: Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
J B Messickmycoplasma infections*doxycycline*erythrocytes*anaplasmataceae*anaplasmataceae infections*new world camelids*cats*opossums*dog ... Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in a 4-day-old cria: support for in utero transmission by use of a polymerase chain reaction ... Co-infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three cats from Brazil. Helio A de Morais. ... Mycoplasma haemocanis infection--a kennel disease?. Gregor I Kemming. Institute for Surgical Research, Klinikum Grosshadern, ...
索引「A」157ページ目 - Weblio英和和英Anaplasmataceae. *Anaplasmataceae infection. *Ａｎａｐｌａｓｍａゾク. *Anaplasma属. *anaplasmoses. *anaplasmosis. *Anaplasmosis. * ...
Letter a - Medical Dictionary - Medical DictionaryAnaplasmataceae Infections. Anaplasmosis. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y. Anastomosis, Surgical. Anatomy, Comparative. Anatomy, Cross- ...
Human Infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China - Volume 18, Number 10-October 2012 - Emerging Infectious...To identify Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection in northeastern China, we tested blood samples from 622 febrile ... in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54: ... Pekova S, Vydra J, Kabickova H, Frankova S, Haugvicova R, Mazal O, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection identified in 2 ... which suggests that this bacterium was the etiologic agent of the infections. Our findings demonstrated human infections with ...
Guidelines for the diagnosis of tick-borne bacterial diseases in Europe - Brouqui - 2004 - Clinical Microbiology and Infection ...Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP et al. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order ... James AM, Liveris D, Wormser GP et al. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick. J Infect Dis ... Oteo JA, Gil H, Barral M et al. Presence of granulocytic ehrlichia in ticks and serological evidence of human infection in La ... Fournier PE, Gunnenberger F, Jaulhac B et al. Evidence of Rickettsia helvetica infection in humans, Eastern France. Emerg ...
Takahisa MiyatakeNo seasonal trend in infection of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), by Wolbachia Takuto ... Wolbachia belong to taxa of the Anaplasmataceae family, alpha proteobacteria. Because previous studies have shown that ... Wolbachia are Gram-negative bacteria that cause intracellular inherited infections in many invertebrates. They are extremely ...
Eficacia da doxiciclina e do dipropionato de imidocarb no tratamento da ehrlichia...REINE, N. J. Infection and blood transfusion: a guide to donor screening. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract, v.19, n.2, p.68-74, 2004. ... RIKIHISA, Y. New taxonomy of the family Anaplasmataceae and philogram of the family Anaplasmataceae. ht tp://riki-lb1.vet.ohioo ... Amplification of ehrlichial DNA from dogs 34 months after infection with Ehrlichia canis. J Clin Microbiol, v.36, n.1, p.73-76 ... Fifteen dogs suspected of E. canis infection were diagnosed through direct visualization of morulae in blood smear cells. They ...
S. Wesley Long, MD, PhD | Houston MethodistExperimental Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in beagles. Zhang, XF, Zhang, JZ, Long, SW, Ruble, RP & Yu, XJ 2003, Journal of ... Evaluation of Transovarial Transmission and Transmissibility of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in ... Clinical laboratory response to a mock outbreak of invasive bacterial infections: A preparedness study. Olsen, RJ, Fittipaldi, ... Rapidly progressive, fatal, inhalation anthrax-like infection in a human: Case report, pathogen genome sequencing, pathology, ...
ASMscience | Bacterial ZoonosesBrucelloses are either acute or chronic infections of animals and humans caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella ... Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. ... Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some ... In W. M. Scheld,, W. A. Craig,, and J. M. Hughes (ed.), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.. ...
Overview of Tickborne Fever - Generalized Conditions - Merck Veterinary ManualBy Zerai Woldehiwet, DVM, PhD, DAgric, MRCVS, Professor, Institute of Infection and Global Health and School of Veterinary ... The causative agent is now classified as a member of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, as Anaplasma ... Such treatment of lambs in the first 2-3 wk of life can be protective for as long as 3 wk and helps reduce secondary infections ... Secondary infections are usually milder as residual immunity persists. There is a variable degree of cross-protection among ...
Anaplasmataceaein wild rodents and roe deer from Trento Province (northern Italy) | SpringerLinkde la Fuente J, Torina A, Naranjo V, Caracappa S, Di Marco V, Alongi A, Russo M, Maggio AR, Kocan KM (2005) Infection with ... Anaplasmataceae in wild rodents and roe deer from Trento Province (northern Italy). ... Liz JS, Sumner JW, Pfister K, Brossard M (2002) PCR detection and serological evidence of granulocytic ehrlichial infection in ... in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1837-1843 ...
Ehrlichia ewingii - WikiVisuallySymptoms in canine infections are hard to differentiate between E. chaffeensis infection and Ehrlichia canis, which is the ... The current classification is Bacteria, Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia ewingii. ... "Infection and Immunity. 71 (9): 5324-5331. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 187327 . PMID 12933880. doi:10.1128/IAI.71.9.5324-5331.2003.. ... when an infection occurs, mature basophils will be released from the bone marrow and travel to the site of infection ...
Legionella longbeachae - WikipediaIn humans, the infection is sometimes called Pontiac fever. Human infection from L. longbeachae is particularly common in ... Anaplasmataceae. *Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia ... The infection can be very serious, often leading to hospitalisation and sometimes death. ... Korman, TM.; Fuller, A.; Ibrahim, J.; Kaye, D.; Bergin, P. (Jan 1998). "Fatal Legionella longbeachae infection following heart ...
دمياط اليوم: ANIMATION CLOUDbacteria infection (1). bacteria infection cycle (1). bacterial chromosome (1). bacterial flagellem (1). bacterial gene (1). ... Anaplasmataceae (1). Anatomy of Learning (1). Anatomy of the Lens (1). Andrew Endy (1). Anesthesia (1). Aneuploidy (1). ... Intracellular Infection (1). Intracellular Listeria Infection (1). Intramuscular (1). Intravenous catheter (1). Intravenous ... MALARIAL INFECTION (2). MARAVIROC (2). MRI (2). MSH2 gene (2). MSH6 gene (2). MTHFR gene (2). Magnetic resonance imaging (2). ...
কলেরা - উইকিপিডিয়াAnaplasmataceae. Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis) · Ehrlichia ... Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection) ...
Pasteurella multocida - WikiVisually... multocida is the most common cause of infection from wound infections after dog or cat bites. The infection usually shows as ... Anaplasmataceae. *Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia ... 2. Red blood cells on an agar plate are used to diagnose infection. On the left is a positive Staphylococcus infection, on the ... Only inhalant anthrax and pseudomonal infections in cystic fibrosis infections are licensed indications in the UK due to ...
Meningococcal disease - WikiVisuallyInfections à méningocoques Maladies infectieuses et Africa. West Africa. Med. Bull. 2007[unreliable source?] ... Anaplasmataceae. *Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum *Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis. *Ehrlichia ... Infections à méningocoques Maladies infectieuses et Africa. West Africa. Med. Bull. 2008[unreliable source?] ... While best known as a cause of meningitis, widespread blood infection can result in sepsis, which is a more damaging and ...
Bazin disease - wikidocSerratia marcescens (Serratia infection) · Citrobacter. Lac-. Yersinia pestis (Plague/Bubonic plague) · Yersinia enterocolitica ... Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia/Anaplasma: Ehrlichiosis (Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Human monocytic ehrlichiosis). Rhizobiales ...
Biology, Geography & Health Research: Chapter 2419tioconazole in fungal infections of the skin. A multicentre study. Tadera, K.; Naka, Y., 1991: Isocratic paired-ion high- ... Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) from helmeted guineafowls in the Kruger National Park. Hunter, P. R.; Copper Poole, B.; Hornby ... Arakaki, T.; Asato, R.; Ikeshiro, T.; Sakiyama, K.; Iwanaga, M., 1992: Is the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection higher in ... Oyeka, C.A.; Gugnani, H.C., 1992: Isoconazole nitrate versus clotrimazole in foot and nail infections due to Hendersonula ...
Mycoplasma haemomuris: Mycoplasma haemomuris, formerly known as Haemobartonella muris and Bartonella muris, is a Gram-negative bacillus. It is known to cause anemia in rats and mice.DecapitationAnaplasma: Anaplasma is a genus of rickettsiales bacteria.Rickettsiaceae: The Rickettsiaceae are a family of bacteria. The genus Rickettsia is the most prominent genus within the family.Anaplasmosis: Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp. The microorganism is gram-negative and occurs in the red blood cells.Ehrlichia ewingii: Ehrlichia ewingii is a species of rickettsiales bacteria.Human granulocytic anaplasmosisEhrlichiosis ewingii infection
(1/35) Western immunoblot analysis of the antigens of Haemobartonella felis with sera from experimentally infected cats.
Cats were experimentally infected with a Florida isolate of Haemobartonella felis in order to collect organisms and evaluate the immune response to H. felis. Cryopreserved organisms were thawed and injected intravenously into nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats. Splenectomized animals were given 10 mg of methylprednisolone per ml at the time of inoculation. Blood films were evaluated daily for 1 week prior to infection and for up to 60 days postinfection (p. i.). Blood for H. felis purification was repeatedly collected from splenectomized animals at periods of peak parasitemias. Organisms were purified from infected blood by differential centrifugation, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblot analysis. Serum was collected from nonsplenectomized animals prior to and for up to 60 days p.i. and was used on immunoblots to identify antigens. The combination of splenectomy and corticosteroid treatment resulted in marked, cyclic parasitemias without concurrent severe anemia, providing an opportunity to harvest organisms in a manner that was not lethal to the animals. Several antigens (150, 52, 47, 45, and 14 kDa) were identified. An antigen with a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa appeared to be one of the most immunodominant and was consistently recognized by immune sera collected at various times during the course of infection. These data suggest that one or more of these antigens might be useful for the serologic diagnosis of H. felis infections in cats. (+info)
(2/35) Specific in situ hybridization of Haemobartonella felis with a DNA probe and tyramide signal amplification.
Haemobartonella felis is an epierythrocytic bacterium suspected to be the causative agent of feline infectious anemia. Previous studies with a polymerase chain reaction assay have identified a mycoplasmal 16S rRNA gene sequence that coincides with clinical disease and the presence of organisms in the blood. Tissues from a cat experimentally infected with H. felis were used for in situ hybridization studies to physically link this 16S rRNA gene to the organisms on the red cells. A biotin-labeled probe was used in conjunction with tyramide signal amplification to visualize the hybridization signal. This study clearly demonstrates a specific hybridization signal on the red cells in the tissues of the H. felis-infected cat. This in situ hybridization study is the final step in fulfilling the molecular guidelines for disease causation and proves that H. felis, a mycoplasmal organism, is the causative agent of feline infectious anemia. (+info)
(3/35) Mechanisms of variable p44 expression by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
The human intragranulocytic bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum promotes variation of P44s, which are surface-exposed proteins encoded by a p44 multigene family. In the present study, the specific p44 gene expression loci in four strains of A. phagocytophilum were identified and it was determined that each consisted of four tandem genes, tr1, omp-1X, omp-1N, and p44. A putative sigma(70)-type promoter was found upstream of tr1. The p44 genes include a central hypervariable region flanked by conserved regions. The hypervariable region sequence in the p44 expression locus was duplicated and, regardless of the expression status, conserved at another locus in both low- and high-passage cell cultures of strain NY-37. No significant differences in the hypervariable region were found when we compared p44 sequences, at the level of cDNA, within the expression locus and within other loci in the genomes of strains NY-37 and HZ. Similarly, in cDNA isolated from patients and from assorted cultures of strains NY-31, NY-36, and NY-37, hypervariable regions of 450 deduced amino acid sequences of various p44s within each strain were found to be identical, as were those of p44 sequences in the genome of strain HZ. These data suggest that variations in p44 sequences at the level of the p44 expression locus occur through unidirectional conversion of the entire (nonsegmental) p44 hypervariable region including flanking regions with a corresponding sequence copied from one of the conserved donor p44 genomic loci. The data suggest that the P44 antigenic repertoire within the hypervariable region is restricted. (+info)
(4/35) Molecular characterization of Aegyptianella pullorum (Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae).
We sequenced the 16S rRNA and groEL genes of Aegyptianella pullorum, a small bacterium that infects and replicates only in avian red blood cells. A specific PCR test was developed to analyze A. pullorum DNA. Phylogenic analysis revealed A. pullorum is most closely related to Anaplasma spp. (+info)
(5/35) Two cases of Neorickettsia (Ehrlichia) risticii infection in horses from Nova Scotia.
Two horses from Nova Scotia were diagnosed with Potomac horse fever (PHF). Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on formalin-fixed colon tissue or whole blood to show the presence of Neorickettsia risticii DNA, the causative agent of PHF. These are the first reported cases of PHF in the Maritime Provinces. (+info)
(6/35) Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a functional msp2 gene that is distinct from p44.
The msp2 and p44 genes encode polymorphic major outer membrane proteins that are considered unique to the intraerythrocytic agent of Anaplasma marginale and the intragranulocytic agent of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In the present study, however, we found an msp2 gene in A. phagocytophilum that was remarkably conserved among A. phagocytophilum strains from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients, ticks, and a horse from various regions in the United States, but the gene was different in a sheep isolate from the United Kingdom. The msp2 gene in the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genome was a single-copy gene and was located downstream of two Ehrlichia chaffeensis omp-1 homologs and a decarboxylase gene (ubiD). The msp2 gene was expressed by A. phagocytophilum in the blood from HGA patients NY36 and NY37 and by A. phagocytophilum isolates from these patients cultured in HL-60 cells at 37 degrees C. The msp2 gene was also expressed in a DBA/2 mouse infected by attaching ticks infected with strain NTN-1 and in a horse experimentally infected by attaching strain HZ-infected ticks. However, the transcript of the msp2 gene was undetectable in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ in SCID mice and Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with strain NTN-1. These results indicate that msp2 is functional in various strains of A. phagocytophilum, and relative expression ratios of msp2 to p44 vary in different infected hosts. These findings may be important in understanding roles that Msp2 proteins play in granulocytic ehrlichia infection and evolution of the polymorphic major outer membrane protein gene families in Anaplasma species. (+info)
(7/35) Analysis of p51, groESL, and the major antigen P51 in various species of Neorickettsia, an obligatory intracellular bacterium that infects trematodes and mammals.
The p51 gene that encodes the major antigenic 51-kDa protein in Neorickettsia risticii was identified in strains of Neorickettsia sennetsu and the Stellantchasmus falcatus agent but not in Neorickettsia helminthoeca, suggesting that p51-based diagnosis would be useful to distinguish among them. groESL sequencing results delineated the phylogenic relationships among Neorickettsia spp. (+info)
(8/35) Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks.
A novel bacterium that infects laboratory rats was isolated from wild Rattus norvegicus rats in Japan. Transmission electron microscopy of the spleen tissue revealed small cocci surrounded by an inner membrane and a thin, rippled outer membrane in a membrane-bound inclusion within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium found in R. norvegicus rats and Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan revealed that the organism represents a novel clade in the family Anaplasmataceae, which includes the Schotti variant found in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands and the Ehrlichia-like Rattus strain found in R. norvegicus rats from China. The novel clade was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of groESL sequences found in R. norvegicus rats and Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between this bacterium and members of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia or Neorickettsia in the family Anaplasmataceae. It is proposed that this new cluster of bacteria should be designated 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis'. (+info)
- The causative agent is now classified as a member of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, as Anaplasma phagocytophilum , which includes the granulocytic agents formerly known as Ehrlichia phagocytophila , Ehrlichia equi , and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- To identify Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection in northeastern China, we tested blood samples from 622 febrile patients. (cdc.gov)
- Kawahara M, Rikihisa Y, Isogai E, Takahashi M, Misumi H, Suto C, Shibata S, Zhang C, Tsuji M (2004) Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of ' Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in the family Anaplasmataceae , isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. (springer.com)
- de la Fuente J, Torina A, Caracappa S, Tumino G, Furla R, Almazan C, Kocan KM (2005) Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily. (springer.com)
- Species in the Anaplasmataceae family have unique characteristics that can help differentiate them from other families including: sensitivity to mechanical stress, changes in osmolarity , and thawing. (wikivisually.com)
- It was then classified as a new member of family Anaplasmataceae on the basis of ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Liz JS, Sumner JW, Pfister K, Brossard M (2002) PCR detection and serological evidence of granulocytic ehrlichial infection in roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) and chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ). (springer.com)
- Brucelloses are either acute or chronic infections of animals and humans caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella, which may infect one or several organs. (asmscience.org)
- In humans, the infection is sometimes called Pontiac fever . (wikipedia.org)
- It can also cause a zoonotic infection in humans, which typically is a result of bites or scratches from domestic pets. (wikivisually.com)
- In humans, P. multocida is the most common cause of infection from wound infections after dog or cat bites. (wikivisually.com)
- For a broad-range assay, a nested PCR specific for the 16S rRNA gene ( rrs ) was used to detect organisms in the family Anaplasmataceae . (cdc.gov)
- However, the organism is assumed to have a similar metabolism to members of the genus due to the high similarity between functional 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the highly related infections they cause within cells. (wikivisually.com)
- Amplification of ehrlichial DNA from dogs 34 months after infection with Ehrlichia canis. (ebah.com.br)
- It has recently been associated with human infection, and currently has no serological test, the name Ehrlichia ewingii was proposed in 1992. (wikivisually.com)
- A modest neutrophilia develops 2-4 days after natural or experimental infection and is followed by a severe leukopenia due to lymphocytopenia and neutropenia. (merckvetmanual.com)
- an infection of the granulocytes by a member of the Ehrlichia sp. (wikivisually.com)
- REINE, N. J. Infection and blood transfusion: a guide to donor screening. (ebah.com.br)
- The ready transmission of infection by injecting infected blood suggests that the organism could be transmitted mechanically by biting insects. (merckvetmanual.com)
- While best known as a cause of meningitis , widespread blood infection can result in sepsis , which is a more damaging and dangerous condition. (wikivisually.com)
- Meningococcemia, like many other gram-negative blood infections, can cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which is the inappropriate clotting of blood within the vessels. (wikivisually.com)
- To investigate human infections with tick-borne agents in China, we initiated a surveillance study at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital (Mudanjiang, China). (cdc.gov)
- Ehrlichia ewingii is a human pathogen which results in a serious infection if not treated in a timely manner. (wikivisually.com)
- Perhaps the most significant effect of infection is its serious impairment of humoral and cellular defense mechanisms, which results in increased susceptibility to secondary infections such as tick pyemia, pneumonic pasteurellosis, louping ill, and listeriosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The infection can be very serious, often leading to hospitalisation and sometimes death. (wikipedia.org)
- The infection usually shows as soft tissue inflammation within 24 hours. (wikivisually.com)
- Septic arthritis due to N. meningitidis can be seen, usually accompanying disseminated infection. (wikivisually.com)
- During May 2-July 30, 2010, a total of 622 febrile patients, who had histories of recent tick bites and sought treatment at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital ( Figure 1 ) were screened for the infections of tick-borne agents. (cdc.gov)
- Adult ticks infected as larvae or nymphs can transmit the disease as can nymphs infected as larvae, but infections do not appear to pass from the adult female to the larva via the egg. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). (wikivisually.com)
- However, no cases of infection have been identified outside Europe. (cdc.gov)