Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dopamine beta-HydroxylasePheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Chlorisondamine: A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Protein PrecursorsParaganglioma, Extra-Adrenal: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Adrenal Cortex HormonesMuscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.IodobenzenesPC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Bretylium CompoundsHyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Nerve Tissue ProteinsZona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enkephalin, Leucine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

*  Lipid composition of membranes of aminestorage organelles | Biochemical Journal
... in the membranes of the storage organelles and may thus differ from the mechanism of catecholamine release in adrenal medulla. ... organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and of those from chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla was compared. 2. In ...
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Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by adrenal medulla during stress. This is called as emergency hormone because it initiates ... endocrinediseases.org/adrenal/adrenal_what.shtml. These hormones control the 'fight or flight response' i.e. put your body on ... The adrenal glands are small structures attached to the top of each kidney. The human body has two adrenal glands that release ... What do the adrenal glands do? - EndocrineDiseases.org ... Adrenal glands , You and Your Hormones from the Society for ... ...
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*  adrenal medulla - thebluntdissection
... adrenal medulla, hypertension, hypertensive crisis, metanephrine, neuroendocrine, phaeochromocytoma, phentolamine, ...
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*  Medical Definition of Adrenal medulla
... Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal ... Underfunction of the adrenal medulla is virtually unknown. However, a tumor called a pheochromocytoma produces norepinephrine ... and epinephrine and is equivalent to overfunction of the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas arise within the adrenal medulla or ... The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine is secreted in response to ...
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*  BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) | Abcam
Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal… ... Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble ...
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*  Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla | The BMJ
Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla Br Med J 1954; 1 :1287 ... Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla. Br Med J 1954; 1 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
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*  Category:Adrenal medulla hormones | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Pages in category "Adrenal medulla hormones". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. ...
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*  Adrenal Medulla Tumors
What tumors occur in the adrenal medulla?. Tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands may be hyperplasia (non-cancerous cell ... The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones of several types.. The inner part, or adrenal medulla, originates from the same ... Adrenal Medulla Tumors. These notes are provided to help you understand the diagnosis or possible diagnosis of cancer in your ... Unfortunately, most adrenal medulla tumors are large by the time they are diagnosed because few of them produce hormones and so ...
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*  Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. III. Studies of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase as a Marker for Catecholamine Storage ...
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*  Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. VI. Effect of Reserpine on the Dopamine β-Hydroxylase and Catecholamine ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/7/4/434
*  Ontogeny of enkephalin and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in the primate fetal adrenal medulla.
Adrenal medullary cells in adult primates contain catecholamines and several neuropeptides. Among these peptides are several ... and leu-enkephalin appeared to be colocalized in the same cells of the adrenal medulla. Twenty-six adrenals from fetuses 15-26 ... The adrenal medulla of a 24-week-old human fetus as well as medullas of 11 134- to 172-day-old rhesus fetuses were ... Adrenal Medulla / embryology*, enzymology. Animals. Catecholamines / biosynthesis*. Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ontogeny-enkephalin-catecholamine-synthesizing-enzymes/2427537.html
*  Adrenal medulla - Wikipedia
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism. Recent research indicates that the adrenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_medulla
*  The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy |...
The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy. H ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/2/1/57
*  Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test:...
Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: ... We also observed that DBV injection into an acupoint activates SPNs leading to release of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine ... have also shown that the hyperalgesic action of the vagal nerve is decreased by suppression of adrenal medulla-derived ... Collectively, these results demonstrate that suppression of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine, which acts on β-adrenoceptors ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/809062/
*  Catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal medulla of cattle and rats deficient in copper | Biochemical Society Transactions
Catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal medulla of cattle and rats deficient in copper. J. E. HESKETH ... Catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal medulla of cattle and rats deficient in copper ... Catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal medulla of cattle and rats deficient in copper ... Catecholamine synthesis in the adrenal medulla of cattle and rats deficient in copper ...
  http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/9/1/101
*  THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE BOVINE ADRENAL MEDULLA | Journal of Pharmacology and...
THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE BOVINE ADRENAL MEDULLA. RALF G. RAHWAN, J. L. BOROWITZ ... THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE BOVINE ADRENAL MEDULLA. RALF G. RAHWAN, J. L. BOROWITZ ... THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE BOVINE ADRENAL MEDULLA. RALF G. RAHWAN, J. L. BOROWITZ ... THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE BOVINE ADRENAL MEDULLA ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/184/1/106
*  American Urological Association - Adrenal Gland: Medulla
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
  http://www.auanet.org/education/auauniversity/education-products-and-resources/pathology-for-urologists/normal-histology-and-important-histo-anatomic-structures/adrenal-gland-medulla
*  Physio: Endocrine - Adrenal Medulla and Cortex Flashcards - Cram.com
Adrenal Medulla and Cortex at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the ... Adrenal Medulla and Cortex","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/physio-endocrine-adrenal-medulla-and-cortex-352778","isGuest ... inc synthesis of adrenal androgens; masculinization of females, early hair development, and suppression of gonadal fn in males ... What are the layers of the adrenal cortex (from outside to in), and what hormones do they each primarily secrete? ...
  http://www.cram.com/flashcards/physio-endocrine-adrenal-medulla-and-cortex-352778
*  Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine...
... nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, ... nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla. ... nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla ...
  http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30095187
*  Isolation and characterization of a cytosolic phospholipase a(2) from bovine adrenal-medulla - Institutional Repository...
We have recently demonstrated that bovine adrenal medulla contains a soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), which is localized in ... Isolation and characterization of a cytosolic phospholipase a(2) from bovine adrenal-medulla ...
  https://repository.uantwerpen.be/link/irua/99784
*  Endocrine System - Male View
... the outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla.. Adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produces many cortical hormones in 3 ... Adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine under stimulation by the sympathetic ... Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are a pair of roughly triangular glands found immediately superior to the kidneys. The ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex, the outer part of the adrenal gland, to produce its hormones. ...
  http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/endocrine-male
*  Pituitary Tumors | VCA Animal Hospital
Adrenal Medulla Tumors. Endocrine glands produce specialized chemicals called "hormones". These regulate and integrate many ... Pituitary tumors causing excessive stimulation of the adrenals may be treated by surgical removal of both adrenal glands, but ... excess of which leads to increased size and activity of the adrenal cortex and over-production of adrenal hormones. The second ... Adrenal Cortex Tumors. Endocrine glands produce specialized chemicals called 'hormones'. These regulate and integrate many ...
  https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/pituitary-tumors
*  Lung Tumors | VCA Animal Hospital
Adrenal Medulla Tumors. Endocrine glands produce specialized chemicals called "hormones". These regulate and integrate many ... Adrenal Cortex Tumors. Endocrine glands produce specialized chemicals called 'hormones'. These regulate and integrate many ...
  https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/lung-tumors
*  C74.10 MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OF MEDULLA OF UNSPECIFIED ADRENAL GLAND
ICD-10 C74.10 is malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified adrenal gland (C7410). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes ... Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland (C74) *C74.10 Malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified adrenal gland ... Short Description: Malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified adrenal gland. Long Description: Malignant neoplasm of medulla ... C74.10 MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OF MEDULLA OF UNSPECIFIED ADRENAL GLAND Home > ICD-10 List > Neoplasms > Malignant neoplasms of ...
  https://healthprovidersdata.com/hipaa/codes/ICD10-C74.10
*  Portal - Browse - Keyword - A | amphibian
adrenal gland Modules: 2, Collections: 0 * adrenal medulla Modules: 2, Collections: 0 ...
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Sympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.Absent adrenal glandAdrenal tumorRostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Catecholaminergic cell groups: Catecholaminergic cell groups refers to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain one of the neurotransmitters dopamine or norepinephrine. Thus, it represents the combination of dopaminergic cell groups and noradrenergic cell groups.Renal medullaChromaffin cellDopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency: Dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency is a condition involving inadequate Dopamine beta hydroxylase. It is characterized by increased amounts of serum dopamine and the absence of nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.PheochromocytomaCritical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.GraninPhenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase: Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Adrenalin O.D.Proenkephalin: Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin. Upon cleavage, each proenkephalin peptide results in the generation of four copies of [Met]enkephalin, two extended copies of [Met]enkephalin, and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyAdrenocortical hyperfunctionMorphiceptinAlcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.CorticosteroneGangliocytic paraganglioma: A gangliocytic paraganglioma, abbreviated GP, is a rare tumour that is typically found in the duodenum and consists of three components: (1) ganglion cells, (2) epithelioid cells (paraganglioma-like) and, (3) spindle cells (schwannoma-like).Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.ChlorisondamineNicotine replacement therapyAdrenocortical adenoma: A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex.Zinc carboxypeptidase: A:127-412 A:128-415 E:128-406Endocrine glandMuscarinePositional asphyxia: Positional asphyxia, also known as postural asphyxia, is a form of asphyxia which occurs when someone's position prevents the person from breathing adequately. Positional asphyxia may be a factor in a significant number of people who die suddenly during restraint by police, prison (corrections) officers or health care staff.Cushing reflex: Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and a reduction of the heart rate. It is usually seen in the terminal stages of acute head injury and may indicate imminent brain herniation.Specific granule: Specific granules are secretory vesicles found exclusively in cells of the immune system called granulocytes.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.ExocytosisAldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Geranylhydroquinone 3''-hydroxylase: Geranylhydroquinone 3-hydroxylase (, GHQ 3-hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name geranylhydroquinone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Renal cortexCold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.PC12 cell line: PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Zona glomerulosa: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Neuropeptide S: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.Aldosterone-to-renin ratio: Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity in blood plasma. The aldosterone/renin ratio is recommended as screening tool for primary hyperaldosteronism.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Adrenomedullin: Adrenomedullin (ADM or AM) is a vasodilator peptide hormone of uncertain significance in human health and disease. It was initially isolated in 1993 from pheochromyctoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla: hence the name.Cervical ganglia: The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord.Zona reticularis: The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. The cells are arranged cords that project in different directions giving a net-like appearance (L.Addison's disease in canines: Addison's disease in canines refers to hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison's disease, when it occurs in canines. The first case of Addison's disease in dogs was recorded in 1953, over 100 years after it was described in humans by Thomas Addison.Coles Phillips

(1/1268) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

(2/1268) Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells.

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

(3/1268) L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in adrenal medulla endothelial cells.

We investigated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells with the whole cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Depolarization elicited an inward current that was carried by Ca2+ and was composed of a transient (T) current, present in all the cells tested, and a sustained (L) current, present in 65% of them. We separated these currents and measured their individual kinetic and gating properties. The activation threshold for T current was approximately -50 mV, and its maximum amplitude was -49.8 +/- 4.8 pA (means +/- SE, n = 19) at 0 mV. The time constant was 10.2 +/- 1.5 ms (n = 4) for activation and 18.4 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 4) for inactivation. The L current activated at -40 mV, and it reached a plateau at -20.1 +/- 2.3 pA (n = 6). Its activation time course was a single exponential with an activation time contant of 26.8 +/- 2.3 ms (n = 4). Current-voltage curves, kinetics, gating, response to BAY K 8644, nifedipine, amiloride, and different selectivity for Ba2+ and Ca2+ indicated that the underlying channels for the observed currents are only of the T- and L-types that resemble those of the endocrine secretory cells.  (+info)

(4/1268) Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

(5/1268) Studies on cyclic nucleotides in the adrenal gland. V. Adenylate cyclase in the adrenal medulla.

Effects of various chemical agents eliciting the catecholamine-release on the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP generating system have been studied in the secretory process of the bovine adrenal medulla slices. Cyclic AMP levels were not affected at the interval of the maximal increase of the catecholamine-release by acetylcholine, but increased gradually some time after the end of the release/or at the beginning of the restoration of catecholamine in the medulla tissue. This delayed increase in the medullary cyclic AMP is not attributed to a direct involvement in 'stimulus-secretion coupling process' of the medullary secretion, but rather may be caused by release of intracellular catecholamine.  (+info)

(6/1268) Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP.

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

(7/1268) Electrical excitability of cultured adrenal chromaffin cells.

1. Adult human and gerbil adrenal medullary cells were maintained in dissociated cell culture and studied by micro-electrode penetration. 2. In the best recordings, chromaffin cell transmembrane potentials exceeded -50mV. 3. Chromaffin cells were capable of generating all-or-nothing over-shooting action potentials, similar to those generated by sympathetic neurones. 4. The action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6)g/ml.) but were not blocked by removal of Ca or by CoCl2 (10 mM). We conclude that the action potentials are probably generated by a Na mechanism. 5. Chromaffin cells are depolarized by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). This depolarization was accompanied by an increased membrane conductance and could trigger action potentials. 6. Action potentials were also found in cells in fresh slices of gerbil adrenal medullae.  (+info)

(8/1268) Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats.

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)



  • oblongata
  • When there is a decrease in the blood's pH, a decrease in oxygen (pO2), or an increase in carbon dioxide (pCO2), the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the medulla oblongata (specifically the dorsal inspiratory center in the medulla oblongata) to increase the volume and rate of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C. Oxytocin is known to be metabolized by the oxytocinase, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • and in both sexes in the retina, the adrenal medulla, the thymus and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloride
  • At the same time that Salter unwittingly made use of the adrenal medulla, the French physician Alfred Vulpian found that there was something unique about it: material scraped from it coloured green when ferric chloride was added. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vulpian even came to the insight that the substance entered "le torrent circulatoire" ("the circulatory torrent"), for blood from the adrenal veins did give the ferric chloride reaction. (wikipedia.org)