Zanthoxylum: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Some members of Zanthoxylum are reclassified from ELEUTHEROCOCCUS, Melicope, and EVODIA. The twigs are used as dental brushing sticks (TOOTHBRUSHING). Most plants that are called Fagara have been reclassified as Zanthoxylum, however some Fagara were reclassified to MELICOPE (also in the Rutacea family) or to GLEDITSIA (a genus in the FABACEAE family).Bufotenin: A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.

*  Adrenal Support™ | Herb Pharm

Prickly Ash bark (Zanthoxylum clava-herculis) 2. Additional Ingredients:. Distilled water, certified organic cane alcohol & ...
herb-pharm.com/products/product-detail/adrenal-support?usercpath=59

*  Rare Fruits enthusiast in Portugal : Introductions

Zanthoxylum piperitum Malpighia glabra Prosopis velutina mesquite. Canna 'Tropicanna' Cymbopogon winterianus Top ...
cloudforest.com/cafe/orchard-introductions/rare-fruits-enthusiast-portugal-t3749.html

*  Gaia Herbs, Vitex Elixir, For Women, 4 fl oz (120 ml) - iHerb.com

Zanthoxylum spp.). †. ...
https://iherb.com/pr/gaia-herbs-vitex-elixir-for-women-4-fl-oz-120-ml/11899

*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)

Olila, D., Opuda-Asibo, J. and Odyek-Olwa (2002). Screening of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis for ... Olila, D., Opuda-Asibo, J., Odyek-Olwa (2001b). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum ...
bioline.org.br/request?tc06019

*  Cola acuminata, Kola nut seeds for sale

Zanthoxylum... 10 fresh seeds JAPANESE PEPPER (Zanthoxylum.... 2,99 € * Heliconia... 5 seeds LOBSTER-CLAWS (Heliconia ...
https://ethnoplants.com/gb/african-plants-seeds/101-cola-acuminata-kola-nut-seeds.html

*  Patente US7201926 - Environmentally safe insect repellent composition - Google Patentes

Bowers et al., "Insect Repellents From the Chinese Prickly Ash Zanthoxylum bungeanum," Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia), ...
google.es/patents/US7201926?dq=flatulence

*  Medicinal Plants in Alaknanda Valley

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.. Timru. Bark, Fruit, Seed, Root. Tooth ache, tooth decay, mouth wash. ...
frienvis.nic.in/Database/Medicinal-Plants-in-Alaknanda-Valley_2151.aspx

*  After Sun Repair, Sunburn Relief | Dermalogica®

Zanthoxylum Alatum Extract, Eugenia Caryophyllus (Clove) Flower Extract, Yucca Schidigera Extract, Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) ...
dermalogica.com/after-sun-repair/82,default,pd.html?start=0&limit=8&cgid=toprated

*  Nature's Answer PerioBrite Complete Oral Care - Coolmint 16 fl oz (480 mL) Liquid - Swanson Health Products

Zanthoxylum americanum Bark Extract (Prickly Ask Bark), Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender) Oil, Thymol Eugenia caryophyllus ( ...
https://swansonvitamins.com/natures-answer-periowash-16-fl-oz-liquid

*  Zanthoxylum americanum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

... Zanthoxylum americanum From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search. Zanthoxylum americanum. Zanthoxylum. Z americanum. Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. Zanthoxylum americanum, the common prickly-ash, common pricklyash, common prickly ash or northern prickly-ash also sometimes called toothache tree, yellow wood, or suterberry, is an aromatic shrub or small tree native to central and eastern portions of the United States and Canada. It is the northernmost New World species in the citrus Rutaceae family, and is part of the same genus as sichuan pepper. 1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Distribution and conservation status 4 Medicinal use 4.1 Traditional 4.2 Modern studies and uses. Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceae, which includes many species with aromatic foliage. Zanthoxylum americanum berries. Rare in the South, it is more common in the northern United States. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_americanum

*  Zanthoxylum rhoifolium

... is a species of flowering plant in the citrus family known by the common names mamica de cadela pereira s s et al j ethnopharmacol tambataru begossi a et al j ethnopharmacol and prickly ash duke j a crc press it is native to south america da silva s l et al acta amaz it is a common tree on the cerrado silva i a et al braz j biol this species is a deciduous tree reaching up to meters in height it produces a spherical black capsule about half a centimeter in length and width containing small hard coated seeds the tree is not shade tolerant so it can be found in open areas in and around forests this is a medicinal plant the bark is used to treat toothache and earache it is used as an anti inflammatory it is used to treat malaria jullian v et al j ethnopharmacol bouquet j et al malaria journal it contains nitidine an alkaloid with anti malarial action it is of commercial value as a component of herbal remedies for malaria parts of the plant also have antibacterial and fungicidal prieto j et al chilean ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_rhoifolium

*  Zanthoxylum capense

... the small knobwood zanthoxylum capense is a species of plant in the rutaceae family it occurs in the eastern regions of southern africa from the vicinity of knysna western cape to the zimbabwean granite shield and coastal mozambique it tolerates a range of altitudes from highveld to coastal elevations but is most prevalent in dry thickets or on rocky slopes and outcrops their trunks are bare apart from the numerous conical knobs that each terminate in a spine they bear clusters of compound leaves on the tips of their branches the leaves and fruit are noticeably citrus scented the fruit are round capsules of about mm in diameter fully covered with glands when they ripen they split open to release a single black and oil rich seed it is a host plant for the citrus swallowtail white banded swallowtail and emperor swallowtail butterflies similar species are the larger z davyi which is more limited to the mist belt regions and z leprieurii that occurs in sand forests of subtropical lowlands ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_capense

*  Zanthoxylum gilletii

... {{taxobox image =. image caption =. regnum = Plant ae unranked divisio = Angiosperms. unranked classis = Eudicots. unranked ordo = Rosids. ordo = Sapindales. familia = Rutaceae. genus = ' Zanthoxylum ' species = 'Z. gilletii' binomial = 'Zanthoxylum gilletii' binomial authority = De Wild. subdivision ranks = Subspecies subdivision =. synonyms = }} 'Zanthoxylum gilletii', the East African satin wood, is a tree species in the genus ' Zanthoxylum ' found in Africa. The alkaloid nitidine can be isolated from the plant. Alkaloids of Fagara macrophylla. Torto and I.A. Mensah, Phytochemistry, April 1970, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 911–914,. The amide alkaloids N- 4-hydroxyphenethyl octacosanamide, N- 4-hydroxyphenethyl hexacosanamide, N- 4-hydroxyphenethyl decanamide, N-vanilloyltyramine and N- tyramine can be isolated from the stem bark. Amides from the stem bark of Fagara macrophylla. Wansi JD, Nwozo SO, Mbaze LM, Devkota KP, Donkwe Moladje ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_gilletii

*  Zanthoxylum dipetalum

... is a rare species of tree in the citrus family and in the same genus as szechuan pepper it is known by the common name kawa u and is endemic to the hawaii an archipelago where it grows in forests on or of the islands the nature conservancy there are two varieties z d var dipetalum is present on kauai in the mountains of oahu on hawaii in hawaii volcanoes national park and possibly on molokai z d var tomentosum is known from fewer than individuals on hualālai volcano on hawaii world conservation monitoring centre downloaded on august center for plant conservation this variety is a federally listed endangered species of the united states the roots of z dipetalum have been found to contain several chemical compounds including canthin one chelerythrine nitidine tembetarine avicennol xanthoxyletin lupeol hesperidin sitosterol and magnoflorine fish f et al phytochemistry references external links dipetalum category endemic flora of hawaii
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_dipetalum

*  Zanthoxylum flavum

... is a medium sized tree in the citrus family rutaceae common names include noyer west indian satinwood yellow sanders tembetaria and yellow sandalwood it is found in anguilla antigua and barbuda the bahamas bermuda cuba the dominican republic guadeloupe haiti jamaica puerto rico and the florida keys exclusive of key west where it has been extirpated it is threatened by habitat loss and harvesting for its dense durable wood used in fine woodworking in its native subtropical range z flavum grows in areas with average to high rainfall year round or with defined dry seasons it grows on a variety of soils with different drainage regimes from rapidly draining volcanic derived soils to well draining clay soils the tree can grow on serpentine soil s it grows with a straight bole producing a limited canopy of pinnately compound leaves clusters of small pale yellow to cream coloured flowers and small black seeds pollination is probably from bees and the seeds are thought to be dispersed by birds and bats as with ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_flavum

*  Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum

... 'Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum', known as the 'Thorny Yellowwood' or 'Satinwood', is an Australian rainforest tree. Floyd, A.G., 'Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia', Inkata Press 1989, ISBN 0-909605-57-2 Page 345. This tree is in the family Rutaceae, which is sometimes known as the "citrus family" because this family also contains all of the species such as the orange, lemon, etc. http://www.montosogardens.com/rutaceae.htm http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph6.htm. Young trees are easily identified in the rainforest by the thorny trunk and the dark green glossy leaves. The leaves of 'Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum' serve as a food plant for butterfly larva e including those of the Orchard Swallowtail Butterfly. 3 Description Uses Notes References. External links. Description. The leaves are alternate and pinnate, with five to sixteen shiny leaflets. It later changes color to a wrinkled dark brown, each fruit being 10 mm long. The cocci splits into two valves, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_brachyacanthum

*  Chelerythrine

... chembox verifiedfields changed watchedfields changed verifiedrevid imagefile chelerythrine png imagesize px imagealt skeletal formula of chelerythrine imagefile chelerythrine d ball png imagesize px imagealt ball and stick model of the chelerythrine molecule iupacname dimethoxy methyl benzodioxolo phenanthridin ium othernames section chembox identifiers iuphar ligand inchi c h no c h h h h q inchikey llejiebfsoeyiv uhfffaoyap stdinchi ref stdinchi s c h no c h h h h q stdinchikey ref stdinchicite correct chemspider stdinchikey llejiebfsoeyiv uhfffaoysa n casno ref cascite changed casno chebi ref ebicite changed ebi chebi chembl ref ebicite changed ebi chembl chemspiderid ref chemspidercite correct chemspider chemspiderid pubchem unii ref fdacite correct fda unii e b w x smiles o c c oc cc ccc c c c c c c c c oc c oc cc section chembox properties c h n o appearance density meltingpt boilingpt solubility section chembox hazards mainhazards flashpt autoignitionpt chelerythrine is a benzophenanthridine ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelerythrine

*  Nitidine

... chembox imagefile nitidine png imagesize px imagealt chemical structure of nitidine iupacname dimethoxy methyl benzodioxolo phenanthridin ium othernames section chembox identifiers casno pubchem smiles c cc cc c c c c c c cc c c c c c oco oc oc chemspiderid inchi c h no c h h h h q inchikey kkmpsgjpccjyrv uhfffaoyal stdinchi s c h no c h h h h q stdinchikey kkmpsgjpccjyrv uhfffaoysa n section chembox properties formula c h no molarmass g mol appearance density meltingpt boilingpt solubility section chembox hazards mainhazards flashpt autoignitionpt nitidine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in species of the genus zanthoxylum notably in zanthoxylum nitidum this compound has an anti malarial activity bouquet j et al malaria journal references category alkaloids category alkaloids found in rutaceae category antimalarial agents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitidine

*  Fagaronine

... chembox imagefile fagaronine png imagesize px imagealt chemical structure iupacname hydroxy trimethoxy methylbenzo phenanthridinium othernames section chembox identifiers casno chebi pubchem smiles c cc cc oc c cc c ccc cc o c oc cc c oc section chembox properties formula c h no molarmass g mol appearance density meltingpt boilingpt solubility section chembox hazards mainhazards flashpt autoignitionpt fagaronine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and other species in the zanthoxylum genus references external links category alkaloids
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fagaronine

*  Fatty acid amide

... image oleamide png fatty acid amides faas are amide s formed from a fatty acid and an amine in biochemistry ffas which have ethanolamine as the amine component are known as n acylethanolamines and they play an important role in chemical signalling natural occurrences see also references further reading natural occurrences aliphatic amides can be found in zanthoxylum species found in nigeria the nigerian zanthoxylum chemical and biological values s k adesina afr j trad cam volume issue pages see also fatty acid amide hydrolase fatty acid ester references further reading
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid_amide

*  Burkinabin C

... chembox verifiedrevid name burkinabin c imagefile burkinabin c png imagesize px imagename chemical structure of burkinabin c imagealt chemical structure of burkinabin c iupacname othernames o divanilloylquinic acid section chembox identifiers casno casno ref pubchem chemspiderid ref burkinabin c is a di vanilloyl quinic acid found in the root bark of fagara zanthoxyloides zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides lc ms nmr analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of fagara zanthoxyloides lam badioré ouattara luc angenot pierre guissou pierre fondu jacques dubois michel frédérich olivia jansen jean claude van heugen jean noël wauters and monique tits phytochemistry volume issue april pages it has a type of structure similar to a hydrolysable tannin or to the chlorogenic acid isomers dicaffeoylquinic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acid with a carbohydrate forming the core of the molecule and phenolics attached to it references category hydrolysable tannins category o methylated natural ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burkinabin_C

*  Toothache-tree

toothache tree toothache tree redirect zanthoxylum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toothache-tree

*  (+)-Sabinene 3-hydroxylase

sabinene hydroxylase sabinene hydroxylase sabinene hydroxylase is an enzyme with system name sabinene nadph oxygen oxidoreductase hydroxylating this enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction sabinene nadph h o rightleftharpoons cis sabinol nadp h o sabinene hydroxylase requires cytochrome p references external links category ec
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/( )-Sabinene_3-hydroxylase

(1/36) Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis, Ugandan medicinal plants.

Measles is a killer disease of children in Uganda. The treatment of the disease is mainly directed at the secondary microbial infections. A large proportion of the population in Uganda still relies on the use of herbal remedies, which have been claimed to produce beneficial responses. In this study, the efficacy of Warburgia ugandensis and Zanthoxylum chalybeum against common bacteria and fungi was investigated. Bactericidal and antifungal assays were done using extracts derived from Z. chalybeum and W. ugandensis (agar well diffusion, disc diffusion and colony count assays). All extracts (ethanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous) of Z. chalybeum did not show antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical investigations of Zanthoxylum chalybeum (seed) yielded a pure crystalline alkaloid (27-135 D) which was characterized as skimianine based on (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with spectra of authentic samples. Skimmianine did not have antimicrobial activity in this test system. W. ugandensis water extracts elicited antibacterial activity against both Escherischia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the agar well assay but not in the disc diffusion assay. Warburgia ugandensis water extracts and fraction 27-163 D also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Chromatography of extracts of Warburgia ugandensis stem bark afforded compound 49-169 K, which was characterized as the sesquiterpine muzigadial (by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy), which did not show antibacterial activity but had antifungal activity against C. albicans. Therefore, the claimed efficacy of W. ugandensis could be attributable to antibacterial and antifungal activity of its components. Since Z. chalybeum extracts had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities, its mode of action is unclear from these results.  (+info)

(2/36) Effect of methanol extract of Zanthoxylum piperitum leaves and of its compound, protocatechuic acid, on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats.

The effect of methanol extract and protocatechuic acid from the leaves of Zanthoxylum piperitum on lipid peroxidation and drug metabolizing enzymes were investigated in the liver of bromobenzene-treated rats. The methanol extract and protocatechuic acid reduced the level of lipid peroxide induced by bromobenzene. The methanol extract and protocatechuic acid reduced the activity of aniline hydroxylase that had been increased by bromobenzene, while did not affect the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase. The methanol extract and compound effectively restored the activity of epoxide hydrolase which had been decreased by bromobenzene. These results may suggest that the methanol extract of Z. piperitum and protocatechuic acid prevented lipid peroxidation by reducing the activity of aniline hydroxylase, an epoxide-producing enzyme, and by enhancing the activity of epoxide hydrolase, an epoxide-removing enzyme, in rats that had been intoxicated with bromobenzene.  (+info)

(3/36) Acute toxicity effects of the methanolic extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides (Lam.) root-bark.

BACKGROUND: Fagara zanthoxyloides is a well known medicinal plant in Uganda. It is used extensively in malaria and other infections. However nothing is known about its toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract of the root-bark of F. zanthoxyloides, in mice. METHODS: Methanolic extract of the root-bark of the plant was administered orally to mice at various dose levels to determine the acute toxic effects and the median lethal dose (LD50) in mice. RESULTS: The LD50 of the methanolic extract was found to be 5.0 g/Kg body weight within 95% confidence limits. The mice showed signs of cerebral irritation before dying. Histopathological examinations of the viscera showed congestion and focal necrosis of the liver and renal tubules. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the extract of F. zanthoxyloides is safe, however the cerebral mechanism that lead to the death of the mice need to be investigated further.  (+info)

(4/36) Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.

Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.  (+info)

(5/36) Tyrosinase inhibitor isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum piperitum.

Two flavonols, quercetin (1) and quercitrin (2), were isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum piperitum. Their structures were established by UV, one- and two-dimensional NMR, and mass spectroscopic methods. Quercetin showed significant inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 3.8 microg/ml, and appeared to inhibit the polyphenol oxidase activity of tyrosinase in a competitive manner (Ki = 10 +/- 0.20 microM) when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate, although it did not inhibit the melanin production of Streptomyces bikiniensis.  (+info)

(6/36) The essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarp induce apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatoma cells through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

The volatile extract from dried pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium that was obtained by simultaneous distillation with dichloromethane and water was composed of 29.9% geranyl acetate, 15.8% citronella, 15.4% sabinene and the minor volatile components included beta-myrcene, linalool, (-)-isopulegol, citronellyl acetate, 1,4-dimethyl pyrazole, alpha-terpinene, 3-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclo-hexene-1-o1 and trans-geraniol. The volatile extract decreased the cell viability and induced apoptotic death in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-related manner. In addition, the volatile extract increased the production of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with Trolox, a well-known antioxidant, significantly suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death induced by the extract. However, caspase-3 activity was not changed in the extract-treated cells, suggesting that the extract-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells is caspase-3 independent. Furthermore, in nude mice inoculated with Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, the extract significantly inhibited tumor development. These results suggest that the volatile extract from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarpium is a good candidate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy and that reactive oxygen species are the key signaling molecules in the volatile extract-induced cell death in HepG2 cells.  (+info)

(7/36) Sichuan pepper extracts block the PAK1/cyclin D1 pathway and the growth of NF1-deficient cancer xenograft in mice.

There is increasing evidence that more than 70% of cancers including pancreatic, breast and prostate cancers as well as neurofibromatosis (NF) are highly addicted to abnormal activation of the Ser/Thr kinase PAK1 for their growth. So far FK228 is the most potent among the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitors that block the activation of both PAK1 and another kinase AKT, downstream of PI-3 kinase. However, FK228 is still in clinical trials (phase 2) for a variety of cancers (but not for NF as yet), and not available for most cancer/NF patients. Thus, we have been exploring an alternative which is already in the market, and therefore immediately useful for the treatment of those desperate cancer/NF patients. Here we provide the first evidence that extracts of Chinese/ Japanese peppercorns (Zanthoxyli Fructus) from the plant Zanthoxylum piperitum called "Hua Jiao"/"Sansho", block selectively the key kinase PAK1, leading to the downregulation of cyclin D1. Unlike FK228, these extracts do not inhibit AKT activation at the concentrations that block either cancer growth or PAK1 activation. The Chinese pepper extract selectively inhibits the growth of NF1-deficient malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells, without affecting the growth of normal fibroblasts, and suppresses the growth of NF1-deficient human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenograft in mice. Our data suggest that these peppercorn extracts would be potentially useful for the treatment of PAK1-dependent NF such as MPNST, in addition to a variety of PAK1-dependent cancers including breast cancers.  (+info)

(8/36) Polyphenolic constituent structures of Zanthoxylum piperitum fruit and the antibacterial effects of its polymeric procyanidin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Zanthoxylum piperitum (Rutaceae) is used as a spice and a natural medicine in Japan. Our study found that ZP-CT-A, a polymeric proanthocyanidin purified from the fruit of this species, noticeably decreased the minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The structure of ZP-CT-A was characterized on the basis of (13)C NMR and size exclusion chromatographic data and the results of thiolytic degradation. A mechanistic study of the effects of ZP-CT-A indicated that it suppressed the activity of beta-lactamase and largely decreased the stability of the bacterial cell membrane of MRSA, as shown by a reduction in the tolerance of MRSA to low osmotic pressure and high ionic strength solutions.  (+info)