Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Criminology: The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Yugoslavia at the 1972 Summer Paralympics: The Republic of Yugoslavia sent a delegation to compete at the 1972 Summer Paralympics in Heidelberg, West Germany. They sent twenty two competitors, fifteen male and seven female.Ramush HaradinajChristian tattooing in Bosnia and HerzegovinaList of military conflicts spanning multiple wars: Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader conflict or strategic campaign.List of law enforcement agencies in MontanaAl-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.
(1/192) General practice in Croatia, Yugoslavia.
The position and importance of general practice in the Yugoslavian Health Service is being reviewed in a study of the working conditions, the composition and relationship of the primary health care team, the workload, and the opinions of the patients in Croatia, Yugoslavia.We found that many practices had barely half the recommended equipment, that the average workload was 40 patients a day, and that many general practitioners expected others to improve their organisation rather than undertaking it themselves.Those general-practitioner teams which we rated highly were also the most popular with patients. The job satisfaction of nurses varied and was highest when the doctors in the team did not have a high need for status for themselves.We consider general practice to be of crucial importance in the total system of health care in our country and believe that general practitioners should have the same status as specialists. (+info)
(2/192) Malignant tumors of the liver and lungs in an area with a PVC industry.
The incidence of malignant tumors of the lung and bronchus and of cytologically confirmed primary malignant tumor of the liver was analyzed for a 4-yr period in a city with several factories, including a PVC industry. Prior to the study two cases of angio-sarcoma of the liver were diagnosed in workers employed in PVC production. The total incidence of analyzed tumors was only slightly higher than predicted. The tumors of the liver recorded did not show any dependence on place of work or residence. During the period of observation, malignant tumors of the bronchus (lung) were not recorded in the PVC industry. Their rate in the area in which the PVC industry is situated was approximately the same as that for the entire city area. The study does not indicate that the occurrence of malignant tumors other than angiosarcoma is associated with exposure to vinyl chloride. (+info)
(3/192) Health status of and intervention for U.S.-bound Kosovar refugees--Fort Dix, New Jersey, May-July 1999.
In March 1999, as a result of armed conflict in the Kosovo province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, approximately 860,000 ethnic Albanians sought refuge in neighboring Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), the Republic of Montenegro--Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result of massive refugee movement into FYROM, many nations, including the United States, accepted refugees for resettlement. Refugee processing centers were established in FYROM and the United States. In the United States, the Migration Health Assessment (MHA) of refugees was undertaken at Fort Dix, New Jersey (i.e., Operation Provide Refuge), in collaboration with the Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP), Public Health Service, under the direction of the Office of Refugee Resettlement, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Assessments in Skopje, FYROM, were conducted by the International Organization for Migration. This report summarizes the results of collaboration between OEP and CDC to provide preventive health programs for 4045 Kosovar refugees at Fort Dix during a 10-week period, which found that the refugees were in good health and underscores the need for a tailored intervention program targeted at the health conditions of the specific population. (+info)
(4/192) Role of radiation therapy in the combined-modality treatment of patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: A randomized study.
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin/etoposide (PE) chemotherapy (CHT) with or without accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (ACC HFX RT) and concurrent daily carboplatin/etoposide (CE) in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 210 patients were treated with three cycles of standard PE. Patients with a complete response (CR) at both the local and distant levels (CR/CR) or a partial response (PR) at the local level and CR at the distant level (PR/CR) received either thoracic ACC HFX RT with 54 Gy in 36 fractions over 18 treatment days in combination with CE followed by two cycles of PE (group 1, n = 55) or an additional four cycles of PE (group 2, n = 54). Patients who experienced less response were treated nonrandomly (groups 3, 4, and 5). All patients with a CR at the distant level received prophylactic cranial irradiation. RESULTS: For 206 assessable patients, the median survival time (MST) was 9 months and the 5-year survival rate was 3.4%. Patients in group 1 had significantly better survival rates than those in group 2 (MST, 17 v 11 months; 5-year survival rate, 9.1% v 3.7%, respectively; P =.041). Local control was also better in group 1, but the difference was only marginally not significant (P =.062). There was no difference in distant metastasis-free survival between groups 1 and 2. Acute high-grade toxicity was higher in group 2 than in group 1. CONCLUSION: The addition of ACC HFX RT to the treatment of the most favorable subset of patients led to improved survival over that obtained with CHT alone. (+info)
(5/192) Instability of the hip in neonates. An ethnic and geographical study in 24,101 newborn infants in Malmo.
In a prospective study conducted between 1990 and 1997, 24 101 newborn infants were examined for neonatal instability of the hip and classified by the ethnic origin of their parents. In 63% their mother and father were of Swedish extraction and in 24% they were born in a foreign country. Those of foreign extraction were split into ethnic and geographical subgroups. Although the incidence of treated (dislocatable-unstable) hips was greater in Swedes (7.6/thousand), than in other geographical groups (5.8/thousand) it was not significantly different (p = 0.065). A total of 12.7/thousand were referred from the neonatal ward to the orthopaedic clinic with suspected dislocatable or unstable hips; 6.8/thousand were treated (5.4/thousand dislocatable, 1.4/thousand unstable), but 5.9/thousand were not treated since their ultrasound examination was normal. Two hips were diagnosed late and one case of mild avascular necrosis was found. Examination by dynamic ultrasound decreased the number of treated cases by 5.9/thousand but was not an absolute guarantee of diagnosis. (+info)
(6/192) Coronary heart disease incidence in northern and southern European populations: a reanalysis of the seven countries study for a European coronary risk chart.
OBJECTIVE: A systematic reanalysis of 10 year coronary heart disease incidence data from the northern and the southern European cohorts of the seven countries study, to contribute indirectly to the production of a European coronary risk chart. DESIGN AND SETTING: Men aged 40-59 years at entry were studied in three northern European cohorts based in Finland and Netherlands (n = 2213); and in 10 southern European cohorts based in Italy, former Yugoslavia, and Greece (n = 5897). Multiple logistic models for the prediction of coronary deaths, coronary incidence (hard criteria), and coronary incidence (any criterion) were solved for the two geographical groups and their pool. Risk factors fed into the models were age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and cigarette smoking. RESULTS: 10 year coronary heart disease mortality and incidence were higher in northern than in southern Europe, with ratios around 2.65. Ratios among the three coronary heart disease manifestations were identical in the two cultural groupings. Coefficients of the multiple logistic models were similar and not significantly different between the two groupings. When applying the coefficients back to the same or the opposite population, the relative risk was large and similar in the different cultures. Relative risk was larger for more severe coronary heart disease manifestations. The absolute risk was overestimated when applying the northern European model to southern European populations and vice versa, with ratios of about 1.5 and 0.5, respectively. Coronary risk charts created to reproduce the shape of those incorporated in recent European guidelines confirmed the excess of absolute risk in the northern compared with the southern European cohorts, all else being equal. CONCLUSIONS: In theory, a more appropriate European coronary risk chart could be produced by adopting coefficients to correct for different background incidence rates in different cultures. Other coefficients could appropriately be used to transform mortality risk into incidence risk. (+info)
(7/192) Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-52)-producing strains of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium with diverse resistance phenotypes.
Two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains from different clonal origins, both producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (TEM-52), were isolated from a patient. This enzyme was encoded on a single plasmid and was found at very low levels in one strain, while being encoded on multiple plasmids and in multiple different EcoRI fragments in the other strain. (+info)
(8/192) Mass identification of persons missing from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia: structure, function, and role of the International Commission on Missing Persons.
The staff of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP) is attempting to undertake the largest mass human identification effort in history. Through the generosity of numerous governmental and private corporations the ICMP has established or is currently establishing a strong network of political allies, family outreach centers, and DNA laboratories throughout the former Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the ICMP is currently working to streamline current technology as well as employ new technology in its efforts to assist in identifying missing individuals. ICMP will continue to act as a link between the family associations in the region and will synchronize the work of the DNA identification process in the countries affected by the war in the regions of the former Yugoslavia. In the longer term, ICMP seeks to contribute to the closure of the missing persons issue, to raise awareness of the human dimension of the missing persons tragedy, and to preserve a shared and common memory of the missing in the former Yugoslavia. (+info)