XYY Karyotype: Abnormal genetic constitution in males characterized by an extra Y chromosome.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
(1/26) Evaluation of antecedent stimulus parameters for the treatment of escape-maintained aberrant behavior.
We evaluated a methodology for identifying the range of stimulus features of antecedent stimuli associated with aberrant behavior in demand contexts in natural settings. For each participant, an experimental analysis of antecedents (Phase 1) was conducted to confirm the hypothesis that task instructions occasioned increases in aberrant behavior. During Phase 2, specific stimulus features associated with the presentation of task instructions were assessed by evaluating the child's behavior across two distinct settings, therapists, and types of tasks in a sequential fashion. Aberrant behavior occurred immediately across settings and therapists, presumably because the presence of a discriminative stimulus for escape-maintained behavior (the delivery of a task instruction) occasioned aberrant behavior. However, aberrant behavior decreased initially across tasks, suggesting that familiarity with the task might be a variable. During Phase 3, an experimental (functional) analysis of consequences was conducted with 2 participants to verify that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement. During Phase 4, a treatment package that interspersed play with task instructions was conducted to disrupt the ongoing occurrence of aberrant behavior. Immediate and durable treatment effects occurred for 2 of the 3 participants. (+info)
(2/26) Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis of chromosomal constitution in spermatozoa from a mosaic 47,XYY/46,XY male.
Sex-chromosome mosaicism in spermatozoa from a mosaic 47,XYY[20%]/46, XY[80%] male with fertility problems was assessed using triple-probe fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Chromosome-specific probes for X, Y and 18 were used, and the possible outcomes were deduced. In normal haploid spermatozoa of the patient and a normal 46,XY male control, the X:Y ratio was close to 1:1. There was a significant difference in the total incidence of karyotypically abnormal spermatozoa between the patient and the 46, XY male control (2.31% versus 1.46%, P < 0.0001). The incidence of some types of disomic spermatozoa X+Y+18 (24,XY) and X+18+18 (24,X, +18), or diploid X+Y+18+18 (46,XY) spermatozoa was significantly increased in the patient's semen sample. There was, however, no significant difference in the incidence of disomic Y+Y+18 (24,YY) spermatozoa. Because the majority of the patient's spermatozoa was karyotypically normal, the aetiology of his fertility problems was unclear. These results add to the growing body of information regarding chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa from men who are mosaic for sex chromosome abnormalities. In these men, FISH analysis of spermatozoa may be warranted to determine the relative percentages of abnormal cells, and to determine if in-vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis may increase the likelihood of a successful pregnancy. (+info)
(3/26) Abnormal children of a 47,XYY father.
Abnormal children of two 47,XYY men were studied. One of these men had 2 normal daughters and a child, 45,X/46,XY, with gonadal dysgenesis. The other man had 2 normal sons and a child with Down's syndrome. The extra chromosome 21 of this child came from the mother. Another 47,XYY man had 4 normal children. (+info)
(4/26) Chromosome constitution and apoptosis of immature germ cells present in sperm of two 47,XYY infertile males.
BACKGROUND: In order to assess sperm alterations observed in some XYY males, we analysed the chromosome constitution as well as apoptosis expression in germ cells from two oligozoospermic males with high count of immature germ cells in their semen. METHODS: Sex chromosome number and distribution were assessed at pachytene stage by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immature germ cells and spermatozoa were examined by FISH and TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end (TUNEL) assay, combined with immunocytochemistry using the proacrosin-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 4D4). RESULTS: For patients 1 and 2, two Y chromosomes were present in respectively 60.0 and 39.6% of pachytenes. The three sex chromosomes were always in close proximity and partially or totally condensed in a sex body. XYY spermatocytes I escape the pachytene checkpoint and achieve meiosis. Nevertheless, nuclear division and/or cytokinesis were often impaired during meiosis leading to diploid (mainly 47,XYY cells) and tetraploid (94,XXYYYY) meiocytes. The presence of binucleated (23,Y)(24,XY) immature germ cells resulting from cytokinesis failure agree with a preferential segregation of the two Y chromosomes during meiosis I. In addition, 69.6% (patient 1) and 53.12% (patient 2) of post-reductional round germ cells were XY. However, high level of apoptotic round germ cells (94.9% for patient 1 and 93.3% for patient 2) was detected and may explain the moderate increase of hyperhaploid XY spermatozoa. Segregation errors also occurred in the XY cell line responsible for disomic 18 and X, as well as 46,XY diploid spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in agreement with the persistence of the extra Y chromosome during meiosis in XYY oligozoospermic males responsible for spermatogenesis impairment and a probable elimination via apoptosis of most XYY germ cells not solely during but also after meiosis. (+info)
(5/26) Pachytene asynapsis drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids.
Transcriptional silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (MSCI) is conserved among organisms with limited sex chromosome synapsis, including mammals. Since the 1990s the prevailing view has been that MSCI in mammals is transient, with sex chromosome reactivation occurring as cells exit meiosis. Recently, we found that any chromosome region unsynapsed during pachytene of male and female mouse meiosis is subject to transcriptional silencing (MSUC), and we hypothesized that MSCI is an inevitable consequence of this more general meiotic silencing mechanism. Here, we provide direct evidence that asynapsis does indeed drive MSCI. We also show that a substantial degree of transcriptional repression of the sex chromosomes is retained postmeiotically, and we provide evidence that this postmeiotic repression is a downstream consequence of MSCI/MSUC. While this postmeiotic repression occurs after the loss of MSUC-related proteins at the end of prophase, other histone modifications associated with transcriptional repression have by then become established. (+info)
(6/26) Genetic and epigenetic risks of intracytoplasmic sperm injection method.
Pregnancies achieved by assisted reproduction technologies, particularly by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures, are susceptible to genetic risks inherent to the male population treated with ICSI and additional risks inherent to this innovative procedure. The documented, as well as the theoretical, risks are discussed in the present review study. These risks mainly represent that consequences of the genetic abnormalities underlying male subfertility (or infertility) and might become stimulators for the development of novel approaches and applications in the treatment of infertility. In addition, risks with a polygenic background appearing at birth as congenital anomalies and other theoretical or stochastic risks are discussed. Recent data suggest that assisted reproductive technology might also affect epigenetic characteristics of the male gamete, the female gamete, or might have an impact on early embryogenesis. It might be also associated with an increased risk for genomic imprinting abnormalities. (+info)
(7/26) Frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile Thai men with oligozoospermia and azoospermia.
AIM: To investigate the possible causes of oligozoospermia and azoospermia in infertile Thai men, and to find the frequencies of Y chromosome microdeletions and cytogenetic abnormalities in this group. METHODS: From June 2003 to November 2005, 50 azoospermic and 80 oligozoospermic men were enrolled in the study. A detailed history was taken for each man, followed by general and genital examinations. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 11 gene-specific primers that covered all three regions of the azoospermic factor (AZFa, AZFb and AZFc). Fifty men with normal semen analysis were also studied. Karyotyping was done with the standard G- and Q-banding. Serum concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECLIA). RESULTS: Azoospermia and oligozoospermia could be explained by previous orchitis in 22.3%, former bilateral cryptorchidism in 19.2%, abnormal karyotypes in 4.6% and Y chromosome microdeletions in 3.8% of the subjects. The most frequent deletions were in the AZFc region (50%), followed by AZFb (33%) and AZFbc (17%). No significant difference was detected in hormonal profiles of infertile men, with or without microdeletions. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of Y chromosome microdeletions and cytogenetic abnormalities in oligozoospermic and azoospermic Thai men are comparable with similarly infertile men from other Asian and Western countries. (+info)
(8/26) A dispermic chimera with mixed field blood group B and mosaic 46,XY/47,XYY karyotype.
Chimerism in humans is a rare phenomenon often initially identified in the resolution of an ABO blood type discrepancy. We report a dispermic chimera who presented with mixed field in his B antigen typing that might have been mistaken for the B3 subtype. The propositus is a healthy Korean male blood donor. Neither his clinical history nor initial molecular investigation of his ABO gene explained his mixed field agglutination with murine anti-B. Chimerism was suspected, and 9 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed on DNA extracted from blood, buccal swabs, and hair from this donor and on DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes from his parents. The propositus' red blood cells demonstrated mixed field agglutination with anti-B. Exon 6 and 7 and flanking intronic regions of his ABO gene were sequenced and revealed an O01/O02 genotype. B allele haplotype-specific PCR, along with exon 6 and 7 cloning and sequencing demonstrated a third ABO allele, B101. Four STR loci demonstrated a pattern consistent with a double paternal chromosome contribution in the propositus, thus confirming chimerism. His karyotype revealed a mosaic pattern: 32/50 metaphases were 46,XY and 18/50 metaphases demonstrated 47,XYY. (+info)
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