X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Abnormalities, MultiplePolymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Fragile X Syndrome: A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseGenome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mental Retardation, X-Linked: A class of genetic disorders resulting in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY that is associated either with mutations of GENES located on the X CHROMOSOME or aberrations in the structure of the X chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS).DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)DNA Replication Timing: The temporal order in which the DNA of the GENOME is replicated.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.

*  Haplotypic structure of the X chromosome in the COGA population sample and the quality of its reconstruction by extant software...
Background: The haplotypes of the X chromosome are accessible to direct count in males, whereas the diplotypes of the females ... Haplotypic structure of the X chromosome in the COGA population sample and the quality of its reconstruction by extant software ... Haplotypic structure of the X chromosome in the COGA population sample and the quality of its reconstruction by extant software ... Here, we investigated: 1) the possible large-scale haplotypic structure of the X chromosome in a Caucasian population sample, ...
  https://arpi.unipi.it/handle/11568/99487
*  Are males just simpler?
... and that a number of these genes are found on the X chromosome (as well as on the autosomes). Now the X chromosome seems to be ... As males have only a single X chromosome there simply is not any dominance due to genetic variation on the X chromosome (at ... I don't recall if birds' Z and W chromosomes contain vastly differing amounts of genes like the X and Y, though. ... I particularly like this idea that trans modifers of gene expression on the X chromosome, makes gene expression simpler to ...
  http://popgen-ramblings.blogspot.com/2007/12/are-males-just-simpler.html
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Traits Question
A gene on the Y chromosome. A Y-linked gene is by necessity passed from father to son, since the Y chromosome can only be ... A mode of inheritance in which a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed in males who are ... UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome).. "Take four red capsules, in ten minutes take two more. Help is on the ... Describes a dominant trait or disorder caused by a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome. The phenotype is expressed in ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-7663.html
*  Gene expression and fast-X in mammals | Biology Letters
... a DoS very close to that of the X chromosome, for example, chromosome 21 (DoS = −0.129) and chromosome 14 (DoS = −0.139). ... We report that the human X chromosome does indeed have a higher DoS than the autosomes (−0.134 versus −0.171 for X chromosome ... Chromosome effect F = 0.35, p = 0.55, figure 1). This result is confirmed by the fact that excluding X chromosomes from the ... Gene expression, chromosome heterogeneity and the fast-X effect in mammals Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
  http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/11/2/20150010
*  PLOS Genetics: Targeting the X Chromosome during Spermatogenesis Induces Y Chromosome Transmission Ratio Distortion and Early...
... carried the chromosome X cutting enzyme that could attack the maternally inherited X chromosome of the embryo. Furthermore, ... an enzyme that selectively cuts a DNA sequence present only on a family of essential genes located on the X chromosome. We ... this genetic modification introduced a strong, negative bias toward X chromosome-carrying spermatozoa. These transgenic ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000291&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000291.g003
*  Plus it
In some cases, the active X chromosome was duplicated (12). We plotted the aCGH log ratios and the fraction of the chromosome ... B, fraction of chromosome X lost split by XIST RNA expression groups. 0 indicates 0% of the probes being , −0.1; 1 indicates ... Association of BRCA1 with the inactive X chromosome and XIST RNA. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004;359:123-8. ... Skewed X chromosome inactivation and breast and ovarian cancer status: evidence for X-linked modifiers of BRCA1. J Natl Cancer ...
  http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/15/1/190
*  XWAS: a software toolset for genetic data analysis and association studies of the X chromosome | Haldane's Sieve
... dx.doi.org/10.1101/009795 XWAS is a new software for the analysis of the X chromosome in association studies and similar ... a software toolset for genetic data analysis and association studies of the X chromosome Feng Gao , Diana Chang , Arjun ... XWAS is a new software for the analysis of the X chromosome in association studies and similar studies. The X chromosome plays ... XWAS: a software toolset for genetic data analysis and association studies of the X chromosome. Posted on April 3, 2015. by Joe ...
  https://haldanessieve.org/2015/04/03/xwas-a-software-toolset-for-genetic-data-analysis-and-association-studies-of-the-x-chromosome/
*  X chromosome
Rousing silenced X chromosome may treat Rett syndrome. Drugs that activate the silent copy of the X chromosome in women may be ... The disorder is caused by disruption of the MECP2 gene located on the X chromosome. Girls have two X chromosomes one with the ... One copy of the two X chromosomes women carry is randomly silenced in each cell of the body. This occurs when the chromosome ... A cloud of Xist coats the chromosome and blocks its expression.. Female mice lacking Xist die in utero, so X inactivation was ...
  https://rettsyndrome.wordpress.com/tag/x-chromosome/
*  Biology-Online • View topic - I need some help
Randomly, one of two X/X chromosomes is deactivated {for gene balancing (males have only one X chromosome )}. Because one X ... Thus, a clone of tissue produced from ancestral cell with, say, father's deactivated X chromosome will have different genotype ... than a clone produced from the ancestral cell with deactivated mother's X chromosome. ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/about11400.html?hilit=Har
*  Uncovering the Secrets of the X Chromosome : NPR
New research shows how the X and Y chromosomes evolved from a pair of regular chromosomes 300 million years ago. ... Scientists expose the X chromosome's complete genetic sequence. ... New research shows how the X and Y chromosomes evolved from a ... Uncovering the Secrets of the X Chromosome Scientists expose the X chromosome's complete genetic sequence. ... Scientists expose the X chromosome's complete genetic sequence. New research shows how the X and Y chromosomes evolved from a ...
  http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4538587
*  a3Genealogy: 5 to Follow: Getting Giddy Over the X Chromosome
My X Chromosome Contributors. DNA, The X Chromosome, and Genealogists. If you have attended a recent DNA class - Spit or Swab: ... If you didn't know any better, you would think this gender chromosome was new (but you know better!). The X and Y chromosome is ... Roberta Estes' of DNAeXplained post X Marks the Spot patiently leads the reader to using the X chromosome as a genealogical ... Like many, our genealogists are giddy over the X Chromosome. ... to use an ahnentafel numbers table to specify the X-Chromosome ...
  http://blog.a3genealogy.com/2014/03/5-to-follow-getting-giddy-over-x.html
*  Tags on RNA silence X chromosome in females
The addition of a chemical tag on an RNA molecule is the critical switch that inactivates one X chromosome in every cell, ... X chromosome inactivation. August 19, 2015 Each cell in a woman's body contains two X chromosomes. One of these chromosomes is ... Each baby girl starts out with two X chromosomes, but to be healthy she only needs the genes from one. The extra X chromosome ... In many cases, women with these diseases have one normal and one mutated X chromosome, but it is the normal chromosome that has ...
  https://phys.org/news/2016-09-tags-rna-silence-chromosome-females.html
*  The Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Nuclear Histone of the X Chromosome of the Rehnia Spinosus Spermatocyte | Journal of...
This chromosome is typically heterochromatic, and late replicating. After replication the chromosome vesicle fuses with the ... The X chromosome of the Rehnia spinosus (Orthoptera) spermatocyte exists in a vesicle separate from the rest of the nucleus ... However, a lag in amino acid incorporation suggests that DNA replication in the X chromosome, while accompanied, or closely ... The Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Nuclear Histone of the X Chromosome of the Rehnia Spinosus Spermatocyte ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/5/2/321
*  Senescence of nickel-transformed cells by an X chromosome: possible epigenetic control | Science
At early passages of the A9/CX donor cells, the hamster X chromosome was highly active, inducing senescence in 100% of the ... Transfer of a normal Chinese hamster X chromosome (carried in a mouse A9 donor cell line) to a nickel-transformed Chinese ... These results suggest that a senescence gene or genes, which may be located on the Chinese hamster X chromosome, can be ... Full senescing activity of the intact hamster X chromosome was restored by treatment of the donor mouse cells with 5- ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/251/4995/796
*  The region 3′ to Xist mediates X chromosome counting and H3 Lys‐4 dimethylation within the Xist gene | The EMBO Journal
A counting process senses the X chromosome/autosome ratio and ensures that X chromosome inactivation (XCI) initiates in the ... Rastan S, Robertson EJ, Rasmussen TP, Mastrangelo MA, Eden A, Pehrson JR, Jaenisch R (1985) X‐chromosome deletions in embryo‐ ... Panning B, Dausman J, Jaenisch R, Avner P, Brockdorff N, Turner BM (1997) X chromosome inactivation is mediated by Xist RNA ... Penny GD, Kay GF, Sheardown SA, Rastan S, Brockdorff N (1996) Requirement for Xist in X chromosome inactivation. Nature 379: ...
  http://emboj.embopress.org/content/23/3/594
*  Genetic Diversity on the Human X Chromosome does not Support a Strict Pseudoautosomal Boundary | Genetics
Unlike the autosomes, recombination between the X chromosome and Y chromosome is often thought to be constrained to two small ... The PAR1 spans the first 2.7 Mb of the proximal arm of the human sex chromosomes, while the much smaller PAR2 encompasses the ... Genetic Diversity on the Human X Chromosome does not Support a Strict Pseudoautosomal Boundary. Daniel J. Cotter, Sarah M. ... Genetic Diversity on the Human X Chromosome does not Support a Strict Pseudoautosomal Boundary. Daniel J. Cotter, Sarah M. ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/early/2016/03/21/genetics.114.172692
*  Aggressive subtype of breast cancer displays 'misbehavior' of X chromosomes | EurekAlert! Science News
A new study published in the February issue of Cancer Cell provides evidence that X chromosome abnormalities contribute to the ... In mammals, male cells contain an X and a Y chromosome, while female cells contain two X chromosomes. Normally, a process ... A new study published in the February issue of Cancer Cell provides evidence that X chromosome abnormalities contribute to the ... The authors had previously shown that loss of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) occurs in BRCA1 mutation-carrying breast cancers. ...
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-02/cp-aso020706.php
*  HUMARA assay - Wikipedia
... that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells ... The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene ... 1-) The gene is located on X chromosome and it goes through inactivation by methylation in normal embryogenesis of a female ... The fact that most-but not all-genes on X chromosome undergo inactivation, this feature becomes an important one. 2-) Human ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HUMARA_assay
*  Small Chromosome
... Image: Circular representation of the small and large chromosome vibrio cholerae ... are located on the large chromosome. The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that ... The toxin genes, of which there are fifty, reside on the large chromosome. The sequencing data confirm that V. cholerae is a ... The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) ...
  https://www.nsf.gov/news/speeches/colwell/rc04_indian/tsld014.htm
*  chromosome - Wiktionary
"chromosome" at OneLook Dictionary Search. French[edit]. Etymology[edit]. 19th century: chromo- +‎ -some, from German Chromosom ... chromosome (plural chromosomes). *(cytology, genetics) A structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and ... chromosome in Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *chromosome in The Century Dictionary, The ... An illustration of chromosome, with its parts. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. ( ...
  https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/chromosome
*  Chromosome 16 - Wikipedia
Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... "Chromosome 16". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 16". Human Genome Project Information Archive ... "Chromosome 16: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 16. For complete ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_16
*  Philadelphia chromosome - Wikipedia
The Philadelphia chromosome is designated Ph (or Ph') chromosome and designates the shortened chromosome 22. It arises from the ... termed a derivative chromosome, or der 9), and a truncated chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia chromosome, 22q-).[3][4] In ... of chromosome 9 and region (1), band (1), sub-band (2) of the long arm (q) of chromosome 22. Hence the chromosome breakpoints ... or a variant translocation involving another chromosome or chromosomes as well as the long arm of chromosomes 9 and 22). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_chromosome
*  Chromosome abnormality - Wikipedia
It can be from an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. Chromosome mutation ... Acquired chromosome abnormalities[edit]. Most cancers, if not all, could cause chromosome abnormalities,[12] with either the ... A chromosome anomaly may be detected or confirmed in this manner. Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in ... This is called aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes), and occurs when an individual either is missing a chromosome ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_abnormalities
*  Chromosome 20 - Wikipedia
Chromosome 20 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. Chromosome 20 spans around 63 million base pairs (the building ... "Chromosome 20". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 20". Human Genome Project Information Archive ... "Chromosome 20: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 20.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 20. For complete ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_20
*  chromosome duplication - Posts
Find chromosome duplication information, treatments for chromosome duplication and chromosome duplication symptoms. ... MedHelp's chromosome duplication Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for chromosome duplication. ... Posts on chromosome duplication. duplication of7q21.13 {large 1.68 -1.73mb} and deletion of 6p25.1 {large 208.45 - 240.91kb} - ... hi my son has autism and pica, I have just been told he has a duplicate chromosome 3q29 can... ...
  http://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/94456/chromosome-duplication?section=subjects

Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Chromosome regionsSkewed X-inactivation: Skewed X chromosome inactivation occurs when the inactivation of one X chromosome is favored over the other, leading to an uneven number of cells with each chromosome inactivated. It is usually defined as one allele being found on the active X chromosome in over 75% of cells, and extreme skewing is when over 90% of cells have inactivated the same X chromosome.Genetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Transient neonatal diabetes mellitusCP 55,940Long non-coding RNA database: This Long noncoding RNA(lncRNA) (also call lincRNA) database is a compilation of databases used for lncRNAs and their expressions. lncRNAs (lincRNAs) represent the leading edge of biological and medical research.Ring chromosome: A ring chromosome is a chromosome whose arms have fused together to form a ring. Ring chromosomes were first discovered by Lilian Vaughan Morgan in 1926.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Coles PhillipsJohn Payne ToddIndy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.William Lakin Turner: William Lakin Turner (25 February 1867 – 21 October 1936) was an English landscape artist.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Dark matter halo: A dark matter halo is a hypothetical component of a galaxy that envelops the galactic disc and extends well beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass.Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.CentromereSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Nucleotide salvage: A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.Confined placental mosaicism: Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) represents a discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta and the cells in the baby. CPM was first described by Kalousek and Dill in 1983.Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Platypus venomLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.

(1/4068) Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member.

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space.  (+info)

(2/4068) PrKX is a novel catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulated by the regulatory subunit type I.

The human X chromosome-encoded protein kinase X (PrKX) belongs to the family of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. The catalytically active recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells phosphorylates the heptapeptide Kemptide (LRRASLG) with a specific activity of 1.5 micromol/(min.mg). Using surface plasmon resonance, high affinity interactions were demonstrated with the regulatory subunit type I (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (KD = 10 nM) and the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (KD = 15 nM), but not with the type II regulatory subunit (RIIalpha, KD = 2.3 microM) under physiological conditions. Kemptide and autophosphorylation activities of PrKX are strongly inhibited by the RIalpha subunit and by protein kinase inhibitor in vitro, but only weakly by the RIIalpha subunit. The inhibition by the RIalpha subunit is reversed by addition of nanomolar concentrations of cAMP (Ka = 40 nM), thus demonstrating that PrKX is a novel, type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase that is activated at lower cAMP concentrations than the holoenzyme with the Calpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Microinjection data clearly indicate that the type I R subunit but not type II binds to PrKX in vivo, preventing the translocation of PrKX to the nucleus in the absence of cAMP. The RIIalpha subunit is an excellent substrate for PrKX and is phosphorylated in vitro in a cAMP-independent manner. We discuss how PrKX can modulate the cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway by preferential binding to the RIalpha subunit and by phosphorylating the RIIalpha subunit in the absence of cAMP.  (+info)

(3/4068) Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis.

X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) in four unrelated male probands was caused by missense mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS2). All were new mutations: T647C, C1283T, G1395A, and C1406T predicting amino acid substitutions Y199H, R411C, R448Q, and R452C. All probands were clinically pyridoxine-responsive. The mutation Y199H was shown to be the first de novo XLSA mutation and occurred in a gamete of the proband's maternal grandfather. There was a significantly higher frequency of coinheritance of the hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) HFE mutant allele C282Y in 18 unrelated XLSA hemizygotes than found in the normal population, indicating a role for coinheritance of HFE alleles in the expression of this disorder. One proband (Y199H) with severe and early iron loading coinherited HH as a C282Y homozygote. The clinical and hematologic histories of two XLSA probands suggest that iron overload suppresses pyridoxine responsiveness. Notably, reversal of the iron overload in the Y199H proband by phlebotomy resulted in higher hemoglobin concentrations during pyridoxine supplementation. The proband with the R452C mutation was symptom-free on occasional phlebotomy and daily pyridoxine. These studies indicate the value of combined phlebotomy and pyridoxine supplementation in the management of XLSA probands in order to prevent a downward spiral of iron toxicity and refractory anemia.  (+info)

(4/4068) Mitotic recombination in the heterochromatin of the sex chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

The frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mitotic recombination involving the Y chromosome has been studied in individuals with a marked Y chromosome arm and different XY compound chromosomes. The genotypes used include X chromosomes with different amounts of X heterochromatin and either or both arms of the Y chromosome attached to either side of the centromere. Individuals with two Y chromosomes have also been studied. The results show that the bulk of mitotic recombination takes place between homologous regions.  (+info)

(5/4068) Germ cell development in the XXY mouse: evidence that X chromosome reactivation is independent of sexual differentiation.

Prior to entry into meiosis, XX germ cells in the fetal ovary undergo X chromosome reactivation. The signal for reactivation is thought to emanate from the genital ridge, but it is unclear whether it is specific to the developing ovary. To determine whether the signals are present in the developing testis as well as the ovary, we examined the expression of X-linked genes in germ cells from XXY male mice. To facilitate this analysis, we generated XXY and XX fetuses carrying X chromosomes that were differentially marked and subject to nonrandom inactivation. This pattern of nonrandom inactivation was maintained in somatic cells but, in XX as well as XXY fetuses, both parental alleles were expressed in germ cell-enriched cell populations. Because testis differentiation is temporally and morphologically normal in the XXY testis and because all germ cells embark upon a male pathway of development, these results provide compelling evidence that X chromosome reactivation in fetal germ cells is independent of the somatic events of sexual differentiation. Proper X chromosome dosage is essential for the normal fertility of male mammals, and abnormalities in germ cell development are apparent in the XXY testis within several days of X reactivation. Studies of exceptional germ cells that survive in the postnatal XXY testis demonstrated that surviving germ cells are exclusively XY and result from rare nondisjunctional events that give rise to clones of XY cells.  (+info)

(6/4068) A new X linked neurodegenerative syndrome with mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, mild hypomyelination, and early death maps to the pericentromeric region.

We report on a family with an X linked neurodegenerative disorder consisting of mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, and early death. Neuropathological examination showed mild hypomyelination. By linkage analysis, the underlying genetic defect could be assigned to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome with a maximum lod score of 3.30 at theta=0.0 for the DXS1204 locus with DXS337 and PGK1P1 as flanking markers.  (+info)

(7/4068) Evidence that mutations in the X-linked DDP gene cause incompletely penetrant and variable skewed X inactivation.

X chromosome inactivation results in the random transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes early in female development. After random inactivation, certain deleterious X-linked mutations can create a selective disadvantage for cells in which the mutation is on the active X chromosome, leading to X inactivation patterns with the mutation on the inactive X chromosome in nearly 100% of the individual's cells. In contrast to the homogeneous patterns of complete skewed inactivation noted for many X-linked disorders, here we describe a family segregating a mutation in the dystonia-deafness peptide (DDP) gene, in which female carriers show incompletely penetrant and variable X inactivation patterns in peripheral blood leukocytes, ranging between 50:50 and >95:5. To address the genetic basis for the unusual pattern of skewing in this family, we first mapped the locus responsible for the variable skewing to the proximal long arm (Xq12-q22) of the X chromosome (Z=5. 7, P=.002, LOD score 3.57), a region that includes both the DDP and the XIST genes. Examination of multiple cell types from women carrying a DDP mutation and of peripheral blood leukocytes from women from two unrelated families who carry different mutations in the DDP gene suggests that the skewed X inactivation is the result of selection against cells containing the mutant DDP gene on the active X chromosome, although skewing is apparently not as severe as that seen for many other deleterious X-linked mutations. Thus, DDP is an example of an X-linked gene for which mutations cause partial cell selection and thus incompletely skewed X inactivation in peripheral blood leukocytes.  (+info)

(8/4068) Immunodeficiency due to a unique protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage.

A unique immune deficiency in a 24-month-old male characterized by a transient but protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage is reported. Significant deficiencies in the number of B cells in the blood, the concentrations of immunoglobulins in the serum, and the titers of antibodies to T-dependent and T-independent antigens resolved spontaneously by the age of 39 months in a sequence that duplicated the normal development of the B-cell lineage: blood B cells followed by immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and specific IgG antibodies to T-independent antigens (pneumococcal polysaccharides). Because of the sequence of recovery, the disorder could have been confused with other defects in humoral immunity, depending on when in the course of disease immunologic studies were conducted. Investigations of X-chromosome polymorphisms suggested that the disorder was not X linked in that the mother appeared to have identical X chromosomes. An autosomal recessive disorder involving a gene that controls B-cell development and maturation seems more likely. In summary, this case appears to be a novel protracted delay in the development of the B-cell lineage, possibly due to an autosomal recessive genetic defect.  (+info)



  • dosage
  • The dosage compensation machinery of Caenorhabditis elegans is targeted specifically to the X chromosomes of hermaphrodites ( XX ) to reduce gene expression by half. (genetics.org)
  • Many of the trans -acting factors that direct the dosage compensation machinery to X have been identified, but none of the proposed cis -acting X chromosome-recognition elements needed to recruit dosage compensation components have been found. (genetics.org)
  • To study X chromosome recognition, we explored whether portions of an X chromosome attached to an autosome are competent to bind the C. elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC). (genetics.org)
  • DOSAGE compensation is an essential, chromosome-wide regulatory process that equalizes expression of most X -linked genes between males (usually XO or XY ) and females (usually XX ), despite their two-fold difference in X chromosome dose. (genetics.org)
  • These X chromosome changes are mediated by dosage compensation machinery that must recognize and associate specifically with the X chromosome(s) of only the dosage-compensating sex. (genetics.org)
  • Although the identity and properties of proteins and noncoding RNAs that execute dosage compensation are known in detail, much less is known about the cis -acting factors that must reside on the X chromosome to recruit the dosage compensation machinery. (genetics.org)
  • Specifically, we tested Crow's prediction that the magnitude of the brain torque (i.e., a combination of rightward frontal and leftward occipital asymmetry) would, as a function of sex chromosome dosage, be respectively decreased in TS women and increased in KS men, relative to genotypically normal controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • males
  • In particular, females with Turner's syndrome (TS) who have only one X-chromosome exhibit deficits of spatial ability whereas males with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) who possess a supernumerary X-chromosome are delayed in acquiring words. (ox.ac.uk)
  • system
  • In the cichlid genus Tilapia and its close relatives, sex is determined by two pairs of chromosomes, one of which functions as an XY system and the other as ZW . (genetics.org)
  • lack
  • This lack of detailed knowledge about sex chromosome evolution compromises our understanding of fundamental biological questions (e.g. the evolution of sexual conflicts) as well as more practical ones (e.g. about sex-linked genetic diseases). (lu.se)