Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.HandwritingAgraphia: Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Manuscripts, MedicalMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Literature, ModernReadingInkEducation of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Famous PersonsScience: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Paleography: The study of ancient inscriptions and modes of writing. It includes the deciphering of manuscripts and other forms to determine their date, provenance, etc. (Webster's 1st ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.ArtHistory, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Philosophy, MedicalDystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

*  Download Writing On Drawing Essays On Drawing Practice And Research
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*  Successful scientific writing step step guide biological and medical sciences 4th edition | Life science professional...
Written in an accessible and humorous style, drawing on the authors' fifty years of experience of writing and correcting ... It is packed with advice on every aspect of writing the scientific paper. The section on improving 'anyone's scientific writing ... "Successful Scientific Writing is a must-read for all scientists. It will be especially valuable for the first-time author of a ... As a teacher of scientific writing I have used the previous editions of this book for years, and look forward to using the ...
*  Patent US3922457 - Dry wipe writing system and ink therefor - Google Patents
The system comprises a writing surface formed from a polyfluorocarbon polymer laminated to a support, and a resin-bodied ... solvent ink on the writing surface in any desired configuration, the resin-bodied solvent ink comprising a volatile, organic ... This invention provides a dry-wipe writing system, particularly useful in the education field. ... Write-on/wipe-off wall covering. WO1984001328A1 *. Jul 5, 1983. Apr 12, 1984. Sanford Res Co. Writing board and method for ...
*  Patent US7249950 - Display apparatus for teaching writing - Google Patents
In particular, embodiments of the invention can be used to teach the skill of writing and learning letters of the English ... Additionally, embodiments of the invention may be used to teach artistic forms of writing, such as calligraphy, script, or ... Typically, the embodiments are directed toward teaching children the basic skills of writing. However, it may be appreciated ... For example, embodiments may provide instruction in writing Arabic letters, Greek letters, or Chinese or Japanese characters, ...
*  DMOZ - Health: Mental Health: Counseling Services: Expressive Therapies: Creative Writing
... and can be helped to express themselves by asking them to write poetry or do creative writing. All mental health clients can ... Journaling is often done by simply sitting down with a 15 minute timer and writing whatever comes to mind, even if it is just I ... learn to express themselves by journaling, which only requires that the client knows how to write simply. ... Most mental health clients are sufficiently gifted with the ability to write, ...
*  Writing - Wikipedia
... papers Word processing Writer Writer's block Writing bump Writing circle Writing in space Writing slate Writing style Writing ... Origins of writing on AncientScripts.com Museum of Writing: UK Museum of Writing with information on writing history and ... Writing portal Asemic writing Author Boustrophedon text Calligraphy Collaborative writing Communication Composition (language) ... Writing is not a language, but a tool used to make languages be read. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the ...
*  Writing Salon
... this series of workshops uses art as a starting point for writing original pieces at the National Gallery of Art. All skill ... Through conversation and writing exercises, participants explore the elements of writing and experience works of art through a ... Creative Writing Workshops. Come find inspiration in the Gallery's permanent collection. Led by local writers, this series of ... Participants should bring their own writing materials. Ages 18 and over. For more information, email [email protected]. ...
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Please check my writing---ACADEMIC WRITING IELTS TASK 1. By MagicGirl86 in forum Editing & Writing Topics ... General] Writing 'to you' or writing 'you to'. By misiania in forum Ask a Teacher ... Re: writing No. They are not acceptable.. (1) On Amy's ninth birthday, her parents gave her a surprise present in a box.. (2) ... Re: writing A teacher argues two points as following.. 1. A puppy would thrill most children. Being 'pleasantly surprised' is ...
*  Reading Writing - Wikipedia
Reading Writing at the French publisher's website (in French) Reading Writing at the American publisher's website. ... Reading Writing (French: En lisant en écrivant) is a 1980 book by the French writer Julien Gracq. It consists on notes and ... Not only does Gracq refuse to consider writing and reading isolated from each other, but he also does not isolate them from ... Thomas McGonigle reviewed the book in Los Angeles Times in 2006 and wrote about Gracq: "He is singular in his literary ...
*  Aztec writing - Wikipedia
The Aztec writing system is adopted from writing systems used in Central Mexico, such as Zapotec writing. Mixtec writing is ... Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic and ideographic pre-Columbian writing system with a significant number[clarification ... Mesoamerica Writing Systems. pp. 1-46. Thouvenot, Marc (2002). "Nahuatl Script". In Anne-Marie Christin. A History of Writing: ... Logosyllabic writing appears on both painted and carved artifacts, such as the Tizoc Stone. However, instances of phonetic ...
*  Writing implement - Wikipedia
A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing. Most of these items can be also used for other ... Similarly, although very young children may use colorful wax crayons to write words into their pictures, writing is not ... Another writing implement employed by a smaller population, is the stylus used by blind users in conjunction with the slate for ... The original form of "lead pencil" was the leaden stylus used by the ancient Romans, who also used it to write on wood or ...
*  Constrained writing - Wikipedia
Perec also wrote Life A User's Manual using the Knight's Tour method of construction. The book is set in a fictional Parisian ... Seuss, wrote the well-known children's book Green Eggs and Ham using only 50 different words on a 50 dollar bet with Bennett ... Constrained writing is a literary technique in which the writer is bound by some condition that forbids certain things or ... One famous piece of constrained writing in the Chinese language is The Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den which consists of 92 ...
*  Hmong writing - Wikipedia
Hmong writing refers to the various writing systems that have been used for transcribing various Hmongic languages, spoken by ... This was a Romanized style of writing Hmongic languages in Vietnam. It bears resemblance to the Quốc ngữ writing used for ... Allegedly, these writings had been revealed by the Hmong deity La Bi Mi Nu, and the information in these manuscripts was then ... He received a mandate to lead the Hmong people to change their way of life and develop a new writing system, and it is said ...
*  Fiction writing - Wikipedia
Fiction writing is the composition of non-factual prose texts. Fictional writing often is produced as a story meant to ... part self-help writing memoir, On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, he gives readers helpful advice on honing their craft: " ... Top Notch Writing Advice From Famous Masters Hugo and Nebula Award Winning Author Ursula K. Le Guin's writing advice Official ... of fictional writing styles. Different types of authors practice fictional writing, including novelists, playwrights, short ...
*  Structured writing - Wikipedia
Structured writing is a form of technical writing that uses and creates structured documents. The term was coined by Robert E. ... Structured writing has been developed to address common problems in complex writing: Organizing large amounts of material ... Horn, Robert E. (1998). "Structured Writing as a Paradigm" (PDF). rhetcomp.gsu.edu. Educational Technology Publications. ... and obvious experience Ensuring the completeness of documentation Targeting content to varying audiences Coordinating writing ...
*  Scientific writing - Wikipedia
Scientific writing is writing for science. Scientific writing in English started in the 14th century. The Royal Society ... Hoffmann, Roald (2002). "Writing (and Drawing) Chemistry". In Jonathan Monroe. Writing and Revising the Disciplines (PDF). ... Some issues of scientific writing style include: Some style guides for scientific writing recommend against use of the passive ... scientific writing is much more nuanced and shifts of tense and person reflect subtle changes in the development of a written ...
*  Nature writing - Wikipedia
Nature writing is nonfiction or fiction prose or poetry about the natural environment. Nature writing encompasses a wide ... The Norton Book of Nature Writing. New York: Norton, 1990; Nature writing: the tradition in English. edited by Robert Finch and ... Modern nature writing traces its roots to the works of natural history that were popular in the second half of the 18th century ... Nature writing often draws heavily on scientific information and facts about the natural world; at the same time, it is ...
*  Writing War - Wikipedia
Writing War: Fiction, Gender, & Memory is a 1991 text on women authors, war stories, and literary criticism by American ... It is a beautifully written, thoughtful, combination of essays and stories about the effects of war on women and children ... Writing War: Fiction, Gender and Memory. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.. ...
*  Professional writing - Wikipedia
Professional writing differs from technical writing because of the type of content in technical writing. Technical writing ... Professional writing is writing for reward or as a profession, or it is any form of written communication produced in a ... Professional writing is any type of writing that is written with the intention of communicating with others in a professional ... Professional writing differs from other types of writing, such as academic and technical writing, because the term defines a ...
*  Writing Drama - Wikipedia
Writing Drama explores the mechanisms of dramatic story telling. The author makes a clear distinction between what is written ... A play written by Molière, The School for Wives, and a film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, North by Northwest, are analysed in ... To write for children is a wonderful school of narration. Writers of drama will always be indispensable and keep on responding ... To write a good story, three things are needed: conflict, conflict and conflict. The spectacular and the sensational are cheap ...
*  Asemic writing - Wikipedia
True asemic writing occurs when the creator of the asemic piece cannot read their own asemic writing. Relative asemic writing ... Reflecting writing, but not completely existing as a traditional writing system, asemic writing seeks to make the reader hover ... It may be compared to free writing or writing for its own sake, instead of writing to produce verbal context. The open nature ... About Asemic Writing Asemic Writing: Backwards Into The Future by Peter Schwenger Artforum: Creative Writing: Travis Jeppesen ...
*  Distributive writing - Wikipedia
This places emphasis on texts being represented as writings. This could be written words, iconic symbology (e.g., graffiti), ... For computer programming languages, we have a compiler, for writings we have written words interpreted by our mental faculties ... Distributive writing is the collective authorship of texts. This further requires both a definition of collective and texts, ... Distributive writing is not just bound to computing like CSCT. Synchronous - System of authorship where both author's make ...
*  Voice writing - Wikipedia
Voice writing is a method used for court reporting, medical transcription, and closed captioning. Using the voice writing ... which is much shorter with voice writing. The method of court reporting known as voice writing, formerly called "stenomask," ... A voice writing system consists of a stenomask, an external sound digitizer, a laptop, speech recognition software. A foot ... A voice writing student can become real-time certifiable well within the 24-month associate degree window. Paralegals and legal ...
*  Medical writing - Wikipedia
Medical writing for the pharmaceutical industry can be classified as either regulatory medical writing or educational medical ... Educational medical writing means writing documents about drugs, devices and biologics for general audiences, and for specific ... both of which can have a medical writing focus. Regardless of the type of medical writing, companies either assign it to an in- ... Medical writing as a function became established in the pharmaceutical industry because the industry recognized that it ...
*  Writing FAST - Wikipedia
Writing FAST How to Write Anything with Lightning Speed. Embryo Films. ISBN 0-9752139-0-3. Writing FAST: How to Write Anything ... Writing FAST: How to Write Anything with Lightning Speed is a non-fiction book by Jeff Bollow, first published in Australia in ... In the Apply phase, writers speed write to fill pages as quickly as possible. In the Strengthen phase, writers edit and shape ... The book targets new and intermediate writers, and distills the writing process into four parts - Focus, Apply, Strengthen, ...

Life writing: Life writing is the recording of selves, memories, and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, biography, memoir, diaries, letters, testimonies, personal essays and, more recently, digital forms such as blogs and email.Cursive Hebrew: Cursive Hebrew (Hebrew: כתב עברי רהוט, transliterated: ktav 'ivri rahut) is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet. Modern Hebrew, especially in informal use in Israel, is handwritten with the Ashkenazi cursive script that had developed in Central Europe by the 13th century.Agraphia: Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell. The loss of writing ability may present with other language or neurological disorders; disorders appearing commonly with agraphia are alexia, aphasia, dysarthria, agnosia, and apraxia.Brugsch Papyrus: The Brugsch Papyrus (Pap. Berl.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.A Tomb for Boris Davidovich: A Tomb for Boris Davidovich (Serbo-Croatian: Grobnica za Borisa Davidoviča / Гробница за Бориса Давидовича) is a collection of seven short stories by Danilo Kiš written in 1976 (translated into English by Duska Mikic-Mitchell in 1978). The stories are based on historical events and deal with themes of political deception, betrayal, and murder in Eastern Europe during the first half of the 20th century (except for "Dogs and Books" which takes place in 14th century France).Jonathan AllynSpalding MethodSoy ink: Soy ink is a kind of ink made from soybeans. As opposed to traditional petroleum-based ink, soy-based ink is more environmentally friendly, might provide more accurate colors, and makes it easier to recycle paper .International Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.Nicholas II of WerleThe Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchAadum KoothuBritish Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Footprints (poem): "Footprints", also known as "Footprints in the Sand", is a popular allegorical text written in prose.Saint-Florent Cathedral: Saint-Florent Cathedral or Nebbio Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Florent de Saint-Florent, also known as Cathédrale du Nebbio) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica. It is now the church of Santa Maria Assunta.Discoverer 23Timeline of historic inventionsEsther InglisThe Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics: The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics (commonly referred to as The Medical Letter) is a peer-reviewed biweekly medical journal providing evaluations of pharmaceutical drugs. It is published in English, French, and Italian.Daniel Kane (linguist): Daniel Kane is an Australian linguist, one of the world's foremost authorities on the extinct Jurchen and Khitan languages and their scripts.David S. Cafiso: David S. Cafiso (born 18 March 1952) is an American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.JAPE (linguistics): In computational linguistics, JAPE is the Java Annotation Patterns Engine, a component of the open-source General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) platform. JAPE is a finite state transducer that operates over annotations based on regular expressions.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.The Flash ChroniclesNencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Extended peer review: Extended peer review is the process of including people and groups with experience beyond that of working academics in the processes of assuring the quality of research. If conducted systematically, this leads can lead to more [or applicable, results than a peer review] process conducted purely by [[academics.Luigi Frari: Luigi Frari (Lat. Aloysius) (Šibenik, Dalmatia, now Croatia 1813-1898) was the Chief Municipal Physician and the mayor and political and social activist of Šibenik, Dalmatia.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites: "'Indus Civilization"' is an ancient civilization.Yoshiyuki TominoScientific misconduct: Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.Holmes tremor: First identified by Gordon Holmes in 1904, Holmes tremor can be described as a wing-beating movement localized in the upper body that is caused by cerebellar damage. Holmes tremor is a combination of rest, action, and postural tremors.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentWord Juggler: Word Juggler was a word processor application by Quark, Inc. for the Apple IIe, IIc, and III computers.Individual World Poetry Slam: The Individual World Poetry Slam (iWPS) is a yearly Poetry Slam tournament put on by Poetry Slam, Inc. that pits individual slam poets from around the world against one another.Aultman Hospital: Aultman Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in Canton, Ohio, United States. It is the largest hospital and the largest employer, with over 5000 employees, in Stark County.

(1/547) Do studies of the nature of cases mislead about the reality of cases? A response to Pattison et al.

This article questions whether many are misled by current case studies. Three broad types of style of case study are described. A stark style, based on medical case studies, a fictionalised style in reaction, and a personal statement made in discussion groups by an original protagonist. Only the second type fits Pattison's category. Language remains an important issue, but to be examined as the case is lived in discussion rather than as a potentially reductionist study of the case as text.  (+info)

(2/547) Pure apraxic agraphia with abnormal writing stroke sequences: report of a Japanese patient with a left superior parietal haemorrhage.

A 67 year old Japanese male patient had pure agraphia after a haemorrhage in the left superior parietal lobule. He developed difficulty in letter formation but showed no linguistic errors, consistent with the criteria of apraxic agraphia. He manifested a selective disorder of sequencing writing strokes, although he was able to orally state the correct sequences. The patient's complete recovery after 1 month, without new learning, showed that he had manifested a selective disorder of writing stroke sequences. These findings indicate that the final stage of the execution of writing according to acquired sequential memory shown as a stroke sequence can be selectively disturbed, and should be considered to be distinct from the ability of character imagery and the knowledge of the writing stroke sequence itself. This case also indicates that the left superior parietal lobule plays an important part in the execution of writing.  (+info)

(3/547) The limited use of digital ink in the private-sector primary care physician's office.

Two of the greatest obstacles to the implementation of the standardized electronic medical record are physician and staff acceptance and the development of a complete standardized medical vocabulary. Physicians have found the familiar desktop computer environment cumbersome in the examination room and the coding and hierarchic structure of existing vocabulary inadequate. The author recommends the use of digital ink, the graphic form of the pen computer, in telephone messaging and as a supplement in the examination room encounter note. A key concept in this paper is that the development of a standard electronic medical record cannot occur without the thorough evaluation of the office environment and physicians' concerns. This approach reveals a role for digital ink in telephone messaging and as a supplement to the encounter note. It is hoped that the utilization of digital ink will foster greater physician participation in the development of the electronic medical record.  (+info)

(4/547) Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

(5/547) Practical suggestions in the writing of a research paper.

Writing a scientific article requires proper planning and a methodical approach. This article provides practical tips to organize the materials before writing, and discusses how to approach the writing of different parts of an article; that is, introduction, materials and methods, results, and discussion. It also provides guidelines on authorship, citing references, selecting photographs, tables and legends, and finally on style, grammar and syntax.  (+info)

(6/547) Tales from the front lines: the creative essay as a tool for teaching genetics.

In contrast to the more typical mock grant proposals or literature reviews, we describe the use of the creative essay as a novel tool for teaching human genetics at the college level. This method has worked well for both nonmajor and advanced courses for biology majors. The 10- to 15-page essay is written in storylike form and represents a student's response to the choice of 6-8 scenarios describing human beings coping with various genetic dilemmas. We have found this tool to be invaluable both in developing students' ability to express genetic concepts in lay terms and in promoting student awareness of genetic issues outside of the classroom. Examples from student essays are presented to illustrate these points, and guidelines are suggested regarding instructor expectations of student creativity and scientific accuracy. Methods of grading this assignment are also discussed.  (+info)

(7/547) Dear author--advice from a retiring editor.

This commentary, detailing the handling of a manuscript by the editor and guiding authors on preparing manuscripts and responding to reviews, provides parting advice to authors from a retiring editor. A close reading of this commentary will give some insight into the editorial process at the American Journal of Epidemiology through the observations of one of its editors.  (+info)

(8/547) Preparing manuscripts for submission to medical journals: the paper trail.

CONTEXT: Preparing a manuscript for publication in a medical journal is hard work. OBJECTIVE: To make it easier to prepare a readable manuscript. APPROACH: Start early--A substantial portion of the manuscript can be written before the project is completed. Even though you will revise it later, starting early will help document the methods and guide the analysis. Focus on high-visibility components--Pay attention to what readers are most likely to look at: the title, abstract, tables, and figures. Strive to develop a set of tables and figures that convey not only the major results but also the basic methods. Develop a systematic approach to the body of the paper--A standard framework can make it easier to write the introduction, methods, results, and discussion. An obvious organization with frequent subheadings and consistent labels makes the paper easier to read. Finish strong--Improve the paper by sharing it with others and by learning how to elicit and receive their feedback. Take the time to incorporate useful feedback by revising frequently.  (+info)