Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Surgical Wound Dehiscence: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy: The application of a vacuum across the surface of a wound through a foam dressing cut to fit the wound. This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Mice, Inbred C57BLSkin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Occlusive Dressings: Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.AccidentsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Skin UlcerRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bites and StingsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Accidents, HomeCornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Re-Epithelialization: Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Burns, ChemicalNeutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.DislocationsRupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.

*  Electrical Burns and Injuries | Chippenham Hospital

Learn more about Electrical Burns and Injuries at Chippenham Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk ... Surgery may also be needed to care for deeper burns or repair some wounds. ... Electrical burns and injuries are the result electrical currents passing through the body. Temporary or permanent damage can ... Electrical burns and injuries will be diagnosed based on events and symptoms. A physical exam will be done. ...

*  Injuries and Wounds: MedlinePlus

Accidents see First Aid; Wounds and Injuries * Achilles Tendon Injuries see Heel Injuries and Disorders ... Thoracic Injuries see Chest Injuries and Disorders * Thumb Injuries see Finger Injuries and Disorders ... Tennis Elbow see Elbow Injuries and Disorders * ... Cranial Injuries see Head Injuries * Craniofacial Injuries see ...

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Tragic Accident Yesterday Causes First Death In 13 Member Cook Family," Fort William Daily Times Journal, 10 Dec 1955 Railway Accidents ; Motor Vehicle Accidents ; Car-Train Collision ; James Stadey ; Stanley area ; Family Portrait ; Melville Cook ; Lena Nordstrom ; Doris Cook ; Bernard Cook ; Leonard Cook ; Clifton Cook ; Stanley Cook ; Myrtle Stadey ; Marjorie Stewardson ; Georgina McFarlane ; Ervin Cook ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dy=1955&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  The Invisible War Wound: Traumatic Brain Injuries

But because traumatic brain injuries leave no visible wounds, historically they have been difficult for medical personnel to ... How Traumatic Brain Injuries Happen. Mild traumatic brain injuries are generally caused by either a direct blunt force to the ... People with these injuries can experience a range of symptoms that affect quality of life, from headaches and mood changes to ... Mild traumatic brain injuries due to explosive blasts also can cause hearing loss and other auditory impairments. When exposed ...

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Crafty Oshawa man wounds self while making bullet necklace. "Crafty Oshawa man wounds self while making bullet necklace," ... "Man with gunshot wound found in area of Oshawa residents say is notorious for drugs, illegal activity," Oshawa This Week ( ... Man with gunshot wound found in area of Oshawa residents say is notorious for drugs, illegal activity ... SIU clears Peel Officers after man complains of injuries after arrest. Clay, Chris, "SIU clears Peel Officers after man ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dy=2017&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Results: Fighting; Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Man in hospital with stab wounds. "Man in hospital with stab wounds," Chronicle-Journal, 19 Jan 1976, p. 1 Stabbings ; Royalton ... Club Injuries ; Knife Wounds ; No Knife Produced ; Mike Roman (Charged) ; Peter Hanchar (Charged) ; Mike Hanchar (Charged) ; ... "Man sentenced to 2 years for knife attack : Mike Stowoski given penitentiary term for wounding Tom Durnoski," Fort William ... Man sentenced to 2 years for knife attack : Mike Stowoski given penitentiary term for wounding Tom Durnoski ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?fsu=Fighting&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Fire At Rainy River," The Daily Journal (Thunder Bay District), 6 Sep 1894 Long Sault Rapids ; Rainy River ; Gainsby Family ; Clara Gainsby ; Thomas Weston Full text available on microfilm ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dy=1894&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Fatal Injuries When Jack Falls. "Fatal Injuries When Jack Falls," Chronicle-Journal, 25 Apr 1989 Reino Wiitala ; Port Arthur ... Spinal cord injuries ; Photo Full text available in Newspaper clipping file File subject LF - Thunder Bay - Accidents Full text ... Spinal cord injuries ; Tube racing Full text available in Newspaper clipping file File subject LF - Thunder Bay - Accidents ... Spinal cord injuries ; Ontario Supreme Court ; Tubing ; Tube racing Full text available in Newspaper clipping file File subject ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dd=1980&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Boy Dies Of Injuries. "Boy Dies Of Injuries," Fort William Daily Times Journal, 19 Aug 1961, p. 1 Trolleys ; Street Railways ; ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dy=1961&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Results: Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

"Girl died from skull fracture," Port Arthur News Chronicle, 5 Apr 1966, p. 1 Girl found ; Severe head injuries ; Paquette Road ... Severe head injuries ; West of Port Arthur ; Police seeking help ; Lorraine Rivers (Victim) Full text available on microfilm ... Severe head injuries ; Condition worsening ; Police seeking help ; Dorothy Lorraine Rivers (Victim) Full text available on ... Severe head injuries ; Remains in critical condition ; Police seeking help ; Dorothy Lorraine Rivers (Victim) Full text ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?dy=1966&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Wounded Topeka Soldier Dies Of Injuries

A soldier who was left mostly paralyzed by a sniper's bullet in Afghanistan has died of his wounds, less than five weeks after ... Wounded Topeka Soldier Dies Of Injuries By CNN (Posted by Kion Hudson) , ... CNN)-- A soldier who was left mostly paralyzed by a sniper's bullet in Afghanistan has died of his wounds, less than five weeks ...

*  Results: Motorcycles; Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Two Injured When Car Hits Studio," Chronicle-Journal, 24 Sep 1976 Sharon Gagnon ; Joanne Morissette ; Diane Hill ; Michael Kuper ; Ralph Halverson ; Blake McCandles ; Motor Vehicle accidents ; Property damage ; DMG Sound Studio Full text available in Newspaper Clipping File File subject: LF - Thunder Bay - Accidents - Roads Full text available on microfilm ...
news.ourontario.ca/results?fsu=Motorcycles&fsu=Wounds & injuries&fz=0&rows=20&sort=score desc&v=t

*  Boston Doctors Compare Marathon Bomb Injuries To War Wounds | WYSO

Boston Doctors Compare Marathon Bomb Injuries To War Wounds By Richard Knox • Apr 16, 2013 ... And like those wounded troops, doctors say, many of those injured in the blasts Monday will require a lot of rehabilitation - ... A lot of very horrific injuries that we saw here today." He said some patients near the blasts had soot around their mouths and ... A lot of very horrific injuries that we saw here today. KNOX: He says some patients near the blasts had soot around their ...

*  Results: Military officers; Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Bingay Wounded In Chest. "Capt. Bingay Wounded In Chest," Fort William Daily Times Journal, 17 Jan 1916 Great War ; World War I ... Captain Bingay Is Wounded In Action. "Captain Bingay Is Wounded In Action," Port Arthur News Chronicle, 17 Jan 1916 Great War ... Bingay Was Wounded. "Walter Gordon Tells How Capt. Bingay Was Wounded," Port Arthur News Chronicle, 31 Jan 1916 Great War ; ... L.S. Dear (wounded) ; Lionel S. Dear ; Fort William resident ; 8th Battalion ; Eighth Battalion ; First contingent ; 1st ...
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*  Wounded Topeka soldier dies of injuries / LJWorld.com

Jamie Jarboe died Wednesday of his injuries.. The death was announced on Facebook shortly after his wife, Melissa, wrote that ...

*  Abdomen--Wounds and injuries

... Information about the Resource. Schema.org Name(s): Controlled Heading Identifier: * http://id. ...

*  Results: Juvenile delinquents; Theft; Wounds & injuries : Ontario Community News

Subject: Juvenile delinquents; Theft; Wounds & injuries Sort by: Relevance. Try this search again with relaxed constraints!. ...
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*  Head--Wounds and injuries--Treatment

... Information about the Resource. Schema.org Name(s): Controlled Heading Identifier: * http ...

*  Bones--Wounds and injuries--Complications

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*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries

... spinal cord injuries, sprains, wound infections and related conditions. ... athletic injuries, back, dislocation, burns, contusions, frostbite, heat stroke, motion sickness, shock, ... "Health ... Wounds and Injuries" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ... spinal cord injuries, sprains, wound infections and related conditions. ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries: Burns

International Society for Burn Injuries The Society was founded to 'disseminate knowledge and stimulate prevention in the field ... Provides information on these injuries with details of symptoms, treatment, complications and recovery. ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries: Ulcers

Arterial and venous wounds differ from each other and require different approaches. These sites address one or both types of ... Circulatory diseases, both arterial and venous, frequently lead to wounds. Arterial and venous wounds differ from each other ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries: Hypothermia

Outdoor Action Guide to Hypothermia and Cold Weather Injuries Traveling in cold weather conditions can be life threatening. ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries: Sunburn

Sunburn is an inflammation of the skin that develops in response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or from tanning beds and booths that emit UV radiation. Sunburn is manifested by reddened, painful skin that may develop blisters.

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Wounds and Injuries: Heat Related

Heat exhaustion, heatstroke and sunstroke.

Wound healing: Wound healing is an intricate process where the skin or other body tissue repairs itself after injury. In normal skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external environment.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Millennium PeopleEye injuryStab wound: Stab}}Abdominal traumaBlast injury: A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion. Blast injuries occur with the detonation of high-order explosives as well as the deflagration of low order explosives.Wound dehiscence: Wound dehiscence is a surgical complication in which a wound ruptures along a surgical suture. Risk factors are age, diabetes, obesity, poor knotting or grabbing of stitches, and trauma to the wound after surgery.Hand injury: The hand is a very complex organ with multiple joints, different types of ligament, tendons and nerves. With constant use, it is no wonder that hand disease injuries are common in society.BurnPeripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Ottawa knee rules: The Ottawa Knee Rules are a set of rules used to help physicians determine whether an x-ray of the knee is needed.http://www.Granulation tissue: Granulation tissue is new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process. Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size.Boehringer Laboratories: Boehringer Laboratories, LLC. is a Family owned American medical technology company with headquarters in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania.Traumatic cardiac arrest: Traumatic cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart has ceased to beat due to blunt or penetrating trauma, such as a stab wound to the thoracic area. It is a medical emergency which will always result in death without prompt advanced medical care.Soft tissue injuryDermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Blunt splenic trauma: Blunt splenic trauma occurs when a significant impact to the spleen from some outside source (i.e.Strike Bowling Bar: Strike Bowling Bar is an Australian-based company that owns and operates a portfolio of twelve bowling alleys along the Eastern Seaboard of Australia. Strike Bowling is currently Australia's largest privately owned bowling chain.Elastic bandage: An elastic bandage is a "stretchable bandage used to create localized pressure". Elastic bandages are commonly used to treat muscle sprains and strains by reducing the flow of blood to a particular area by the application of even stable pressure which can restrict swelling at the place of injury.Closed head injury: Closed Head are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed-head injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Diffuse axonal injury: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a brain injury in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury,Iwata A.Dag Vidar Kristoffersen: Dag Vidar Kristoffersen (born 1957 in Drammen) is a Norwegian football coach, best known for his time in Strømsgodset where he led the team to two silver medals in the Norwegian Football Cup and bronze medals in the Tippeligaen. Kristoffersen is a former football and bandy player, having represented Drafn in both sports.Neurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.SprainTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Sharps containerPenetrating head injuryBaux score: The Baux score is a system used to predict the chance of mortality due to severe burns. The score is an index which takes into account the correlative and causal relationship between mortality and factors including advancing age, burn size, the presence of inhalational injury.Cerebral contusionChicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute: The Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute(CETRI) |url=http://www.cetri.Ballistic traumaHaptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.List of film accidents: This is intended to be a list of notable accidents which occurred during the shooting of films and television, such as cast or crew fatalities or serious accidents which plagued production. It is not intended to be a list of every minor injury an actor or stuntman suffered during filming.Biceps femoris tendon avulsion: The biceps femoris is commonly injured in sports that require explosive bending of the knee as seen in sprinting. If the athlete is fatigued or has not warmed up properly he/she may suffer a hamstring strain/rupture, which is the tearing of the hamstring muscle.Dental subluxation: Dental subluxation is a traumatic injury in which the tooth has increased mobility (i.e.Anthem (The 2002 FIFA World Cup Official Anthem): Anthem (The 2002 FIFA World Cup Official Anthem) by Vangelis and produced and mixed by Takkyu Ishino is the theme song for 2002 FIFA World Cup held in South Korea and Japan. The single was commercially successful in Japan, being certified platinum for 100,000 copies shipped to stores.Regeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.Ulcerative dermatitis: Ulcerative dermatitis is a skin disorder in rodents associated with bacterial growth often initiated by self-trauma due to a possible allergic response. Although other organisms can be involved, bacteria culture frequently shows Staphylococcus aureus.Sting (fixture): In experimental fluid mechanics, a sting is a test fixture on which models are mounted for testing, e.g.Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk: The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk, is a tool that was developed in 1987 by Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Barbed suture: A barbed suture is a type of knotless surgical suture that has barbs on its surface. While suturing tissue, these barbs penetrate inside the tissue and lock them into place, eliminating the need for knots to tie the suture.John Mackey (American football)Mahmood HaiderDermal fibroblast: Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury. Using organelles (particularly the rough endoplasmic reticulum), dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Acute limb ischaemiaKilled or Seriously Injured: Killed or Seriously Injured (KSI) is a standard metric for safety policy, particularly in transportation and road safety.

(1/5118) Non-fatal injuries sustained by seatbelt wearers: a comparative study.

The injuries sustained by 969 drivers and front-seat passengers in road-traffic accidents were studied. Altogether 196 (20-2%) of the drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts and 773 (79-8%) were not. The injuries among the two groups differed greatly in both severity and distribution. A total of 54 (27-6%) of the seatbelt wearers sustained one or more fractures compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers, and 18 (9-2%) of the seatbelt wearers were severely injured compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers. Soft-tissue injuries to the face were sustained by only 29 (14-8%) of the seatbelt wearers compared with 425 (55%) of the non-wearers. Since wearing seatbelts may become compulsory, the type and pattern of injuries to be expected in wearers should be appreciated.  (+info)

(2/5118) HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia.  (+info)

(3/5118) Bioelectrical impedance plethysmographic analysis of body composition in critically injured and healthy subjects.

BACKGROUND: Determination of body composition during critical illness is complex because of various patient-related and technical factors. Bioelectrical impedance is a promising technique for the analysis of body composition; however, its clinical utility in critically injured patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare bioelectrical impedance with metabolic activity in healthy and critically injured patients. If bioelectrical impedance accurately determines body composition during critical illness, the slope between body-composition variables and oxygen consumption would be the same in critically injured and healthy subjects. DESIGN: There is a strong linear relation between body composition and metabolic activity. In the present study, body composition (fat-free mass and body cell mass) was determined by using bioelectrical impedance and resting metabolic activity (metabolic rate and oxygen consumption) by using gas exchange analysis in a group of healthy and critically injured subjects. The relation between these variables was compared by using linear regression to a similar relation established by hydrostatic weighing in a large historical control group. RESULTS: The slope of the line relating fat-free mass to resting metabolic rate was the same in the healthy and critically ill groups (P = 0.62) and each was similar to the slope of the line for the control group. However, in 37% of the critically injured group, overhydration contributed to an increase in fat-free mass, disturbing the relation with resting metabolic rate. The slope of the line relating body cell mass to oxygen consumption in our healthy and critically ill groups was almost identical. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of bioelectrical impedance to determine body cell mass in healthy and critically ill subjects.  (+info)

(4/5118) Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers.  (+info)

(5/5118) Dependence of explicit and implicit memory on hypnotic state in trauma patients.

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation. First, these indicators served as predictors of the memory performance in a postoperative word stem completion test. Second, general memory performance observed in the first part was separated into explicit and implicit memory using the process dissociation procedure, and then two models of memory were compared: One model assumed that the probability of explicit and implicit memory decreases with increasing depth of hypnotic state (individual differences model), whereas the other assumed equal memory performance for all patients regardless of their level of hypnotic state. RESULTS: General memory performance declined with decreasing bispectral index values. None of the other indicators of hypnotic state were related to general memory performance. Memory was still significant at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. A comparison of the two models of memory resulted in a better fit of the individual differences model, thus providing evidence of a dependence of explicit and implicit memory on the hypnotic state. Quantification of explicit and implicit memory revealed a significant implicit but no reliable explicit memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly indicates that memory is related to the depth of hypnosis. The observed memory performance should be interpreted in terms of implicit memory. Auditory information processing occurred at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40.  (+info)

(6/5118) Early growth response factor-1 induction by injury is triggered by release and paracrine activation by fibroblast growth factor-2.

Cell migration and proliferation that follows injury to the artery wall is preceded by signaling and transcriptional events that converge at the promoters of multiple genes whose products can influence formation of the neointima. Transcription factors, such as early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1), with nucleotide recognition elements in the promoters of many pathophysiologically relevant genes, are expressed at the endothelial wound edge within minutes of injury. The mechanisms underlying the inducible expression of Egr-1 in this setting are not clear. Understanding this process would provide important mechanistic insights into the earliest events in the response to injury. In this report, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is released by injury and that antibodies to FGF-2 almost completely abrogate the activation and nuclear accumulation of Egr-1. FGF-2-inducible egr-1-promoter-dependent expression is blocked by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 (MEK-1/2), as well as by dominant negative mutants of ERK-1/2. Inducible ERK phosphorylation after injury is dependent on release and stimulation by endogenous FGF-2. Antisense oligonucleotides directed at egr-1 mRNA suggest that Egr-1 plays a necessary role in endothelial repair after denudation of the monolayer. These findings demonstrate that inducible Egr-1 expression after injury is contingent on the release and paracrine action of FGF-2.  (+info)

(7/5118) Evaluation of the quality of an injury surveillance system.

The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and representativeness of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were assessed. Sensitivity was estimated at four centers in June through August 1992, by matching independently identified injuries with those in the CHIRPP database. The positive predictive value was determined by reviewing all "injuries" in the database (at Montreal Children's Hospital) that could not be matched. Representativeness was assessed by comparing missed with captured injuries (at Montreal Children's Hospital) on demographic, social, and clinical factors. Sensitivity ranged from 30% to 91%, and the positive predictive value was 99.9% (i.e., the frequency of false-positive capture was negligible). The representativeness study compared 277 missed injuries with 2,746 captured injuries. The groups were similar on age, sex, socioeconomic status, delay before presentation, month, and day of presentation. Injuries resulting in admissions, poisonings, and those presenting overnight were, however, more likely to be missed. The adjusted odds ratio of being missed by CHIRPP for admitted injuries (compared with those treated and released) was 13.07 (95% confidence interval 7.82-21.82); for poisonings (compared with all other injuries), it was 9.91 (95% confidence interval 5.39-18.20); and for injuries presenting overnight (compared with those presenting during the day or evening), it was 4.11 (95% confidence interval 3.11-5.44). These injuries were probably missed because of inadequate education of participants in the system. The authors conclude that CHIRPP data are of relatively high quality and may be used, with caution, for research and public health policy.  (+info)

(8/5118) Particle-mediated gene transfer of PDGF isoforms promotes wound repair.

Several techniques for cutaneous gene transfer have been investigated for either in vitro or in vivo applications. In the present study, we investigated whether the direct delivery of platelet-derived growth factor cDNA into skin results in improvement in tissue repair. Cutaneous transfections were carried out in rats using a particle-bombardment device (Accell). As revealed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, transgene expression in vivo was transient, with low level expression by day 5. When compared with wounds transfected with a control cytomegalovirus-luciferase plasmid, wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor A or B in the MFG vector showed a significant increase in wound tensile strength 7 and 14 d after transfection. At both time points platelet-derived growth factor A transfected wounds exhibited the highest increase in tensile strength over controls, resulting in a 3.5-fold increase at day 7 and a 1.5-fold increase at day 14. The degree of stimulation was not remarkably different between wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor B, which is predominantly cell associated, or a truncation mutant, platelet-derived growth factor B211, which is predominantly secreted. These findings demonstrate that in vivo gene transfer by particle bombardment can be used to improve the tissue repair response. This approach provides a robust tool to assess the biologic activity of various proteins and will aid in the development of therapeutic cutaneous gene delivery.  (+info)


  • Mild traumatic brain injuries are generally caused by either a direct blunt force to the skull or by shock waves from explosive blasts, potentially damaging brain cells and circuits. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Helmets offer some level of protection, but they are usually designed to protect the skull from blunt force trauma and penetrating head injuries, not shock waves. (everydayhealth.com)


  • CNN)-- A soldier who was left mostly paralyzed by a sniper's bullet in Afghanistan has died of his wounds, less than five weeks after he arrived home in Topeka. (wibw.com)
  • At area hospitals, doctors say they were confronted with the kinds of injuries U.S. troops get in Iraq and Afghanistan. (wyso.org)


  • People with these injuries can experience a range of symptoms that affect quality of life, from headaches and mood changes to cognitive impairment such as difficulty with memory, reasoning, and concentration. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Provides information on these injuries with details of symptoms, treatment, complications and recovery. (dmoztools.net)


  • But Monday, those hospitals suddenly found themselves with more than 100 traumatized patients - many of them with the kinds of injuries seen more often on a battlefield than a marathon. (wyso.org)


  • These were very disabling injuries in that the blast caused a lot of soft tissue injury. (wyso.org)


  • Mild traumatic brain injuries can leave lasting mental and physical problems that require clinical treatment and cognitive rehabilitation. (everydayhealth.com)
  • With mild traumatic brain injuries, early diagnosis and cognitive rehabilitation is crucial. (everydayhealth.com)
  • And like those wounded troops, doctors say, many of those injured in the blasts Monday will require a lot of rehabilitation - both physical and mental. (wyso.org)


  • Consumer health resource center providing information on the treatment of puncture wounds. (dmoztools.net)


  • Certifying board for physicians, nurses, physical therapists and other health professionals in wound care. (dmoztools.net)