World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.EuropeReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.IndiaHealth Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.BrazilAfricaVoluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Great BritainWorld War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.

*  GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS: Breaking the chain of transmission - PDF

World Health Organization, Gray A. Drug Pricing. In: South African health review Durban, Health Systems Trust, The world health ... The World Health Report, 2004: Changing History. Geneva, World Health Organization, Hepatitis B. Geneva, World Health ... Geneva, World Health Organization, The public health approach to STD control. Geneva, World Health Organization and Joint ... World Health Organization, 1995 (WHO/FHE/ADH/95.4). 59. Programming for adolescent health and development. Geneva, World Health ...
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*  Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases prevention and management of mental disorders - Funding - Medical Research Council

Mental health is an integral part of health as underlined in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health as a ' ... Committed to improving health gains while reducing health disparities in LMICs.. *Focused on research topics where the need for ... Inform health service providers, policy and decision makers on effective scaling up of mental health interventions at local, ... Programmes that are able to track long-term clinical, public health, policy and/or health system outcomes are strongly ...
https://mrc.ac.uk/funding/browse/gacd-prevention-of-mental-disorders/global-alliance-for-chronic-diseases-prevention-and-management-of-mental-disorders/

*  colorectal cancer | Speaking of Medicine

Africa antimicrobial drugs antiretroviral treatment cardiovascular health child health china clinical trials developing world ... health costs health information health policy health systems HIV HIV/AIDS influenza LMICs malaria maternal and perinatal health ... This Week in PLoS Medicine: Costs & funding for public health; Path to universal health coverage Posted November 23, 2010 by ... This Week in PLOS Medicine: Integrating Mental Health & HIV Care, Colon & Gastric Cancer, & Essential Pediatric Medicines ...
blogs.plos.org/speakingofmedicine/tag/colorectal-cancer/

*  Is a Better World Possible? | HubPages

If we allow women to rule our world, then a loving world is possible. ... Most people now believe that a loving and caring world is impossible. This is only true while it continues to be ruled by men. ... ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPolitics ... Why Do Men Do A Terrible Job Of Ruling Our World?. Today, the world is suffering from a major financial crisis that could be ...
https://hubpages.com/politics/Is-a-Better-World-Possible

*  WHO | Diphtheria

WHO health topic page on diphtheria provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, publications, statistics, news, ... World Immunization Week, 24-30 April 2015 * World Immunization Week 2015: Close the immunization gap Video, YouTube, duration 2 ... Health topics. Diphtheria. This page provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, news and events, as well as ...
who.int/topics/diphtheria/en/

*  WHO | World Malaria Day, 25 April 2017

Campaign page about World Malaria Day, 25 March 2017. The theme 'A push for prevention' ... WHO global health days *World Tuberculosis Day *World Health Day *World Immunization Week ... World Malaria Day, 25 April 2017. Malaria prevention: let's close the gap 24 April 2017 - On World Malaria Day, WHO is calling ... 24 April 2017 -- Energized in 2007 by a call for malaria eradication, the world united around a new agenda to control and ...
who.int/campaigns/malaria-day/2017/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

On the occasion of World Sexual Health Day, WHO and HRP are launching a new WHO framework for operationalizing sexual health ... 4 September 2017: Sexual health is fundamental to all people's health and happiness. When we can enjoy good sexual health, it ... Providers at a community health center in Cambodia counsel clients on family planning and reproductive health. ... as well as the way in which sexual health and reproductive health are at once distinct and inextricably linked. ...
who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/sexual_health/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

World Health Organization Centre for Health Development 1-5-1 Wakinohama-Kaigandori Chou-ku, Kobe 651-0073 Japan Telephone: (+ ... World Health Organization Centre for Health Development. 1-5-1 Wakinohama-Kaigandori. Chuo-ku, Kobe 651-0073. Japan. Telephone ... as well as international organizations such as the OECD and the World Bank.. The conclusions of the meeting will allow WHO and ... views and lessons from key operations and health systems research concerning technological and social innovations for ageing ...
who.int/kobe_centre/ageing/gfia2013/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

Translations mainly initiated by countries for use in health promotion and training activities. ...
who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-hygiene/5keys-poster/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

22-27 January 2018: 142nd session of the Executive Board to further consider and submit GPW13 to the World Health Assembly in ... Article 28(g) of the WHO Constitution provides that the Executive Board will "submit to the Health Assembly for consideration ... with a view to its further consideration and submittal by the Board to the Health Assembly in May 2018 for final consideration ... Board envisioned a timeline such that the Board might submit in January 2018 GPW13 for consideration and approval by the Health ...
who.int/about/gpw-thirteen-consultation/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

One minute of your time to complete this feedback form will enable DCE to monitor and improve the quality of our products, ensuring they contain the appropriate information for healthcare professionals involved in the response to humanitarian emergencies.. ...
who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/feedback/en/

*  PMNCH | World Health Organization

Over three weeks The Lancet Maternal Health Series: Global Research & Evidence course will present a range of maternal health ... exploring the state of the world's maternal health and quality of care as well as examining what the future holds. ... One Young World Global Summit. 2-7 OCTOBER 2017 , BOGOTA, COLUMBIA * 3rd International Conference on Global Food Security. 8-10 ... Online course: The Lancet Maternal Health Series: Global Research and Evidence Pieter ten Hoopen/London School of Hygiene & ...
who.int/pmnch/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

underlying health of the traveller.. Destinations where accommodation, hygiene and sanitation, medical care and water quality ... Understanding the purpose of the visit and the type of travel planned is critical in relation to the associated travel health ... medical services do not exist and clean water is unavailable may pose serious risks for the health of travellers. This applies ... are of a high standard pose relatively few serious risks to the health of travellers, except those with pre-existing illness. ...
who.int/ith/precautions/travel_related/en/

*  WHO | World Health Organization

Key points for policy-makers and health professionals. * Preparing for the introduction of HPV vaccines. Policy and programme ... The case for integrated human papillomavirus vaccine and HIV prevention with broader sexual and reproductive health and rights ...
who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/cancers/en/

*  World Health | Care2 Causes

On October 13, Governor Jerry Brown signed into law AB 485, which requires all pet stores in.... ...
care2.com/causes/tag/world-health

*  World Health Organization : NPR

World Health Organization
npr.org/tags/132050186/world-health-organization/archive?date=5-31-2010

*  World Health Day | Britannica.com

in World Health Organization (WHO) ...as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the ... World Health Day. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ... absence of disease or infirmity." Each year WHO celebrates its date of establishment, April 7, 1948, as World Health Day. ...
https://britannica.com/topic/World-Health-Day

*  World Health Organization

Working as a communications officer in an international organization, i would like to connect with other communications and advocacy partners to exchange and share knowledge. I am also looking into new social media and how this changes the way people engage with each other and where they get there information from.
comminit.com/content/world-health-organization

*  world health organization

HONG KONG - At least 12 people have died from swine flu in Hong Kong in less than a month, the territory's health authority ...
https://rawstory.com/tag/world-health-organization/page/2/

*  WHO | Kids for World Health - KFWH

Kids for World Health - KFWH. KFWH is an organization founded in Larchmont, New York, in 2002. ... The objective of Kids for World Health is to assistin any way actions aimed at or contributing to the Human African ... It is an organization whose motto is "Life is important for all people of the world, rich or poor." ...
who.int/trypanosomiasis_african/partners/kfwh/en/

*  Campaigns for world health · Causes

... and create campaigns about world health on Causes.com, the world's largest community for doing good. ...
https://causes.com/issues/world-health?ctm=issues-parental-alienation

*  Austria - World Health Survey 2003

"A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries." BMC public health 16, no. 1 ... "Journal of epidemiology and community health 69, no. 12 (2015): 1141-1146. ...
apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog/117/related_citations

*  World Health Day 2011

On World Health Day 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) is to issue a call for action to halt the spread of antimicrobial ... World Health Day 2010 - 'Urbanism and Healthy Living'. World Health Day falls on 7th April, 2010. 'Urbanism and Healthy Living ... World Health Day is celebrated each year on 7th April to mark the founding of World Health Organization (WHO). ... www.who.int/world-health-day/2011/world-health-day2011-brochure.pdf Source: Medindia ...
medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/World-Health-Day-2011-83287-1.htm

*  Special Olympics: World Health Day

Message from Special Olympics on World Health Day - April 7th,/p> ... p>Global responsibility to meet health needs of people with ... World Health Day is celebrated on April 7th every year to mark the anniversary of the founding of the World Health Organisation ... Global responsibility to meet health needs of people with intellectual disabilities on World Health Day. It is essential as ... World Health Day is an opportunity for everyone to emphasis the urgency for a much greater understanding and an informed debate ...
specialolympics.org/RegionsPages/content.aspx?id=22302&Region=SONA&RegionName=North America&LangType=1034

*  WHO | Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly: photos

Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly: photos. All images may be downloaded and used, provided credit is given to WHO and ... Dr Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, Deputy Director-General of WHO, who leads the preparations for the World Health Assembly at the plenary. ... Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO speaking at the plenary session of the Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly. ... Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO speaking at the plenary session of the Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly. ...
who.int/mediacentre/multimedia/2013/wha66_photos/en/

European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Minati SenSociety for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Maternal Health Task ForceUniversal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.GA²LENTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityImplementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.DenplanPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Mental disorderPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran: This is the timeline of the nuclear program of Iran.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.University of CampinasMIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009American Lung Association: The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy and research..Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Standard evaluation frameworkNational Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.

(1/3145) Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review.

Mumps is an acute infectious disease caused by a paramyxovirus. Although the disease is usually mild, up to 10% of patients can develop aseptic meningitis; a less common but more serious complication is encephalitis, which can result in death or disability. Permanent deafness, orchitis, and pancreatitis are other untoward effects of mumps. Based on data reported to WHO up to April 1998, mumps vaccine is routinely used by national immunization programmes in 82 countries/areas: 23 (92%) of 25 developed countries, 19 (86%) of 22 countries with economies in transition (mainly the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union), and 40 (24%) of 168 developing countries. Countries that have achieved high coverage have shown a rapid decline in mumps morbidity. Furthermore, in many of these countries, mumps-associated encephalitis and deafness have nearly vanished. This review considers the disease burden due to mumps; summarizes studies on the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of different strains of mumps vaccine; and highlights lessons learned about implementing mumps immunization in different countries. Countries already using mumps vaccine should monitor immunization coverage and establish routine mumps surveillance with investigation of outbreaks. Where mumps is targeted for elimination, countries need to add a second dose of mumps vaccine for children, keeping in mind that the disease may still occur in susceptible adults.  (+info)

(2/3145) Eradication: lessons from the past.

The declaration in 1980 that smallpox had been eradicated reawakened interest in disease eradication as a public health strategy. The smallpox programme's success derived, in part, from lessons learned from the preceding costly failure of the malaria eradication campaign. In turn, the smallpox programme offered important lessons with respect to other prospective disease control programmes, and these have been effectively applied in the two current global eradication initiatives, those against poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis. Taking this theme a step further, there are those who would now focus on the development of an inventory of diseases which might, one by one, be targeted either for eradication or elimination. This approach, while interesting, fails to recognize many of the important lessons learned and their broad implications for contemporary disease control programmes worldwide.  (+info)

(3/3145) The principles of disease elimination and eradication.

The Dahlem Workshop discussed the hierarchy of possible public health interventions in dealing with infectious diseases, which were defined as control, elimination of disease, elimination of infections, eradication, and extinction. The indicators of eradicability were the availability of effective interventions and practical diagnostic tools and the essential need for humans in the life-cycle of the agent. Since health resources are limited, decisions have to be made as to whether their use for an elimination or eradication programme is preferable to their use elsewhere. The costs and benefits of global eradication programmes concern direct effects on morbidity and mortality and consequent effects on the health care system. The success of any disease eradication initiative depends strongly on the level of societal and political commitment, with a key role for the World Health Assembly. Eradication and ongoing programmes constitute potentially complementary approaches to public health. Elimination and eradication are the ultimate goals of public health, evolving naturally from disease control. The basic question is whether these goals are to be achieved in the present or some future generation.  (+info)

(4/3145) Disease eradication and health systems development.

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)

(5/3145) Perspectives from micronutrient malnutrition elimination/eradication programmes.

Micronutrient malnutrition cannot be eradicated, but the elimination and control of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies and their health-related consequences as public health problems are currently the targets of global programmes. Remarkable progress is occurring in the control of goitre and xerophthalmia, but iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) has been less responsive to prevention and control efforts. Subclinical consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. "hidden hunger", include compromised immune functions that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development and growth, and reduced reproductive and work capacity and performance. The implications are obvious for human health and national and global economic and social development. Mixes of affordable interventions are available which, when appropriately adapted to resource availability and context, are proven to be effective. These include both food-based interventions, particularly fortification programmes, such as salt iodization, and use of concentrated micronutrient supplements. A mix of accompanying programmes for infection control, community participation, including education, communication and information exchange, and private sector involvement are lessons learned for overcoming deterrents and sustaining progress towards elimination.  (+info)

(6/3145) Perspectives from the dracunculiasis eradication programme.

After a slow beginning in association with the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990), the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Programme has reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis by nearly 97%, from an estimated 3.2 million cases in 1986 to less than 100,000 cases in 1997. Over half of the remaining cases are in Sudan. In addition, the programme has already produced many indirect benefits such as improved agricultural production and school attendance, extensive provision of clean drinking-water, mobilization of endemic communities, and improved care of infants. Most workers in the campaign have other responsibilities in their communities or ministries of health besides dracunculiasis eradication.  (+info)

(7/3145) Perspectives from the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative.

Ten years after the year 2000 target was set by the World Health Assembly, the global poliomyelitis eradication effort has made significant progress towards that goal. The success of the initiative is built on political commitment within the endemic countries. A partnership of international organizations and donor countries works to support the work of the countries. Interagency coordinating committees are used to ensure that all country needs are met and to avoid duplication of donor effort. Private sector support has greatly expanded the resources available at both the national and international level. At the programmatic level, rapid implementation of surveillance is the key to success, but the difficulty of building effective surveillance programmes is often underestimated. Mass immunization campaigns must be carefully planned with resources mobilized well in advance. Programme strategies should be simple, clear and concise. While improvements in strategy and technology should be continuously sought, changes should be introduced only after careful consideration. Careful consideration should be given in the planning phases of a disease control initiative on how the initiative can be used to support other health initiatives.  (+info)

(8/3145) Candidate noninfectious disease conditions.

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)



Centre


  • Please consult the Centre for Nursing and Health Studies website for the most recent information relating to clinical course registration and start dates. (athabascau.ca)

Historically


  • Historically, mental health services in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) had been centred on a few large mental hospitals and stand-alone clinics. (scielo.org.za)
  • Global Perspectives on Health Promotion Effectiveness questions the authoritative knowledge and evidence that have historically guided evaluation of health promotion endeavors. (cdc.gov)

interventions


  • Taken together, the contributors call for attention to the complexity of communities and settings where health interventions are staged (Dooris et al, Chapter 19), a more meaningful implementation of informed stakeholder input, and an expansion of the definition of legitimate evidence and measurement tools (Campostrini, Chapter 18). (cdc.gov)
  • Though a solid understanding of past efforts and mistakes in health promotion is essential to future successful interventions and evaluations, the volume falls short of providing the kind of ethnographic detail that would aid the larger community of health promotion in building on past collective experiences. (cdc.gov)

consideration


  • However, even if therapy is not necessary to optimize maternal health, they recommend consideration of a perinatal antiretroviral regimen to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. (thebody.com)
  • Consideration will be given to mental health promotion with vulnerable aggregates and recognition of psychiatric mental health disorders that emerge across the lifespan. (athabascau.ca)

care


  • If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, consult your health care provider. (thebody.com)
  • If you have professional expertise (in such fields as business, health care, civil service, engineering or information technology) and you are capable of educational writing, please consider placing your lecture notes or professional writings on PEOI as a free on-line course for the benefit of disadvantaged students all over the world. (volunteermatch.org)
  • 1996 Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform - Oxford University Press. (slideserve.com)
  • The South African Mental Health Care Act (the Act) No. 17 of 2002 stipulated that regional and district hospitals be designated to admit, observe and treat mental health care users (MHCUs) for 72 hours before they are transferred to a psychiatric hospital. (scielo.org.za)
  • Medical managers in 49 'designated' hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) were surveyed on infrastructure, staffing, administrative requirements and mental health care user case load pertaining to the Act for the month of July 2009. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 Neuropsychiatric disorders contribute significantly to disability and health care cost in society, 2 and rank third in their contribution to burden of disease in SA. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3 To ensure adequate access and treatment for mental health care users (MHCUs), human, social and financial resources are necessary. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 (the Act) 8 introduced radical changes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Petersen expressed concern that de-institutionalisation and comprehensive integrated mental health care in South Africa were hampered by a lack of resources for mental health care as well as the inefficient use of existing mental health resources. (scielo.org.za)

consult


  • If you have or suspect you may have a medical, mental health, legal or other problem that requires advice, consult your own caregiver, attorney or other qualified professional. (thebody.com)

Explore


  • it seems that the authors of these essays also fail to stick their necks out and explore the specific challenges faced by global health promotion practitioners, either in their exchanges and collaborations with one another or in the field. (cdc.gov)

Theory


  • However, researchers at the University of Victoria in British Columbia reviewed 54 studies and found that only seven of those studies corrected their non-drinking population for people who had been told to stop drinking for health reasons ( Addiction Research and Theory , April 2006). (drmirkin.com)
  • Nursing 435: Professional Practice in Mental Health Promotion This 16-week paced online course provides opportunities to integrate theory and develop further skills related to mental health promotion with a focus on individuals, families and groups experiencing mental health alterations. (athabascau.ca)

Promotion


  • A major focus of the course is a mental health promotion project. (athabascau.ca)
  • Biruk C. Global perspectives on health promotion effectiveness [book review]. (cdc.gov)
  • Targeted at a broad audience concerned with health promotion programs, Global Perspectives on Health Promotion Effectiveness includes contributions from a wide range of health promotion professionals involved in the Global Programme on Health Promotion Effectiveness of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE). (cdc.gov)
  • The volume is divided into 4 sections, each unified by a common theme concerning evaluation and effectiveness in health promotion. (cdc.gov)
  • In this way, the human faces are lost in health promotion models and discourse. (cdc.gov)
  • Some essays seem to valorize or romanticize civil society organizations (community-based organizations, nongovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations) as potentially more attuned to local realities, more democratic, less capital-centered, or more participatory (and thereby essential partners in health promotion activities). (cdc.gov)

public health


  • 1 Mental health was a low priority on South Africa's public health agenda, the lack of an action plan being one of the shortcomings. (scielo.org.za)

social


  • First, much less is known about the health, social and economic impacts of alcohol use in older people compared to younger adults. (scielosp.org)

problems


  • However, many people do not drink because their doctors have told them they have liver, heart or kidney disease, high blood pressure, alcoholism, stomach ulcers, or other major health problems. (drmirkin.com)

evidence


  • As part of the European project VINTAGE, a systematic review of scientific literature was undertaken to document the evidence base on the impact of alcohol on the health and well-being of older people, and on effective policies and preventive approaches to face the problem in this steadily increasing segment of the population. (scielosp.org)
  • I appreciate the editors' early admission that the volume fails to include contributions from the developing world and fails to do justice to the complexity of the debate on evidence and effectiveness in the developing world. (cdc.gov)

Research


  • Research suggests that older people might be more sensitive to alcohol's negative health effects compared to younger adults, which could mean that more harm results from equivalent amounts of consumption by older people. (scielosp.org)

essential


  • Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. (scielo.org.za)

countries


  • 4 Internationally, 32% of 191 countries surveyed did not have a specified budget for mental health, 5 and 36% of countries spent less than 1% of their total health budgets on mental health. (scielo.org.za)
  • 6 Scarce resources, inequity of distribution and inefficiency of resource use characterise mental health services in low- and middle-income countries. (scielo.org.za)

second


  • Due largely to the ageing baby boomer generation of the post second world war years, the number of people aged 65 years and older is estimated to increase from 86.8 million in 2010 to 122.5 million in 2030. (scielosp.org)

studies


  • When the studies were corrected to remove the people who had been ordered to stop drinking for health reasons, they found no difference in death rate between moderate drinkers and those who do not drink at all. (drmirkin.com)

reasons


  • As the 2009 council of the European Union conclusions on Alcohol and Health noted , there are a number of reasons to consider reviewing the impact of alcohol on older people in the European Union (EU) and what can be done about it [4, (scielosp.org)

services


  • This forum is designed for educational purposes only, and experts are not rendering medical, mental health, legal or other professional advice or services. (thebody.com)
  • 50 (70.4%) of the district and regional hospitals have been designated to provide mental health services and admit involuntary and assisted MHCUs for 72-hour observations. (scielo.org.za)

disease


  • The information provided through The Body should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. (thebody.com)

personal


  • 10 In KZN, 0.03% of the total health budget is spent on mental health, a figure that has not increased in the last decade (personal communication, KZN Department of Health). (scielo.org.za)