Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.United StatesCumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.FinlandNurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.SwedenGreat BritainAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.NorwayProfessional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Personnel Loyalty: Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)JapanWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)BrazilNursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.EnglandOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.DenmarkSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Employee Performance Appraisal: The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Time Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Inbred C57BLOrganizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

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*  Montréal Work Equipment

Montreal work equipment.

*  Behance :: Work Experience

Showcase and discover the latest work from top online portfolios by creative professionals across industries. ... Work Experience. K&C Graphics Graphic Designer. Worked at K&C Graphics for my school practicum, After some experience I decided ... All member work copyright of respective owner, otherwise © 2006-2017 Adobe Systems Incorporated. ...

*  Behance :: Work Experience

Showcase and discover the latest work from top online portfolios by creative professionals across industries. ... 10 years' working experiecne on industrial design.. Worked for PHILIPS as leader illustractor.. Now I am building a potential ... Work Experience. Newplan Design Senior Designer. June 2006 - August 2009 Shenzhen, China ... Its group of young designers works hard, putting their talents and skills to the test while realizing their own dreams in the ...

*  Behance :: Work Experience

Showcase and discover the latest work from top online portfolios by creative professionals across industries. ... Work Experience. Pemex Graphic designer. -Diseño editorial para un compendio de 13 libros de 200 páginas cada uno aprox.. - ... Criterion of work:. -The inspiration is not dream, but the result of extensive knowledge about a topic.. -The budgets do not ... Trabajo con PyMES//Work with mexican entrepreneurs:. -Limpieza del Puerto S.A. de C.V. ( -Tamiu ( ...

*  Late For Work - YouTube

Is there any particular reason you scream "Uhh" at the top of your lungs for the duration of your time at work each day? If ... have filed several complaints that you're proving to be a disruption at work. ...

*  Works

The most recent entries are near the top ~ going down the page is going back in time. ...

*  INVO - Work & Results

Work & Results. Nuclear Verification. The Iraq Nuclear Verification Office (INVO) is responsible for the implementation of the ...

*  Blood Work - Wikipedia

Debito di sangue (Blood Work) - romanzo di Michael Connelly del 1998 Debito di sangue (Blood Work) - film di Clint Eastwood del ...

*  Original Work - Google Docs

The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss. ...

*  Work "Luminol" - MusicBrainz

Lyrics Languages: English, Writers: Steven Wilson

*  How Do Vaccines Work?

Vaccines also work on a community level. Some people can't be vaccinated, either because they are too young, or because their ... How Do Vaccines Work?. By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor , June 1, 2010 04:40pm ET. ...

*  Making Peer Review Work

Is your employee handbook keeping up with the changing world of work? With SHRM's Employee Handbook Builder get peace of mind ... Both large and small employers face certain challenges in making the process work. Big operations require significant ...

*  Shift Work Sleep Disorder

... can lead to accidents and... ... also called shift work disorder, is a circadian rhythm sleep ... Shift Work Sleep Disorder. Shift work sleep disorder, also called shift work disorder, is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder ... colorectal and endometrial cancers among employees involved in shift work compared to employees who work regular work hours. ... Shift work sleep disorder can lead to accidents and injuries at work as well as errors in judgment and absenteeism. Unlike ...

*  Gardening Isn't Backbreaking Work

Even someone who doesn't intend to work on a ranch one day could probably get something out of knowing that she could if she ... an hour a day sprinkling water over plants with a water can and the backbreaking work of those who make a meager living working ... if only the chance to break up the monotony of the school day by going outside and working with animals. More than that, I'm ... presumably because they intended to have an adult life working on a ranch. But even kids who looked forward more to ordinary ...

*  ITU-T Work Programme

This Recommendation is designed to provide wide-area communication in support of health-related activities, where the communication can usefully be undertaken as structured messages. It aims to remove the need for medical staff and patients to be co-located, and supports both multi-party (for audit and training purposes) as well as one-to-one interactions. It recognises that in many cases interactions between medical staff and patients need to be supplemented by unstructured voice and/or video communication, which may need synchronization with the structured message flows. There are many standards development groups involved in health-care, including standardization of various aspects of medical and dental and DNA records. This Recommendation recognizes and identifies their defined data formats and interactions using ASN.1 object identifiers (OIDs). It aims to support "world-wide medicines" (plural). This is intended to include not only Western medicine and drugs, but also alternative therapies, ...

*  Work to restore electricity [Video]

Work to restore electricity

*  Does Terrorism Work?

"Does Terrorism Work?," HiCN Working Papers 67, Households in Conflict Network. Find related papers by JEL classification: *D72 ... "The Struggle for Palestinian Hearts and Minds: Violence and Public Opinion in the Second Intifada," NBER Working Papers 13956, ... "The Struggle for Palestinian Hearts and Minds: Violence and Public Opinion in the Second Intifada," HiCN Working Papers 52, ... "The Struggle for Palestinian Hearts and Minds: Violence and Public Opinion in the Second Intifada," Working Papers 72, ...

Shift work: Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (abbreviated as 24/7). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Sick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingColes PhillipsMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Cross-training (business)Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Pocket petAppeal to accomplishment: Appeal to accomplishment is a genetic fallacy wherein Person A challenges a thesis put forward by Person B because Person B has not accomplished similar feats or accomplished as many feats as Person C or Person A.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.MillwrightSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Reaction coordinateQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Richard Wells (nurse): Richard J. Wells CBE, RN, FRCN (1950–1993) was a British nurse, nursing adviser and health care administrator.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.The Flash ChroniclesList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,WorkraveOffice of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney: Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney (ARV) is a not-for-profit public benevolent institution formed in 1959. This inception date places ARV as one of the founding entities of the social service now referred to as retirement or seniors living.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Andrea Arntzen: Carla Andrea Arntzen (29 August 1875 – 13 April 1958) was a Norwegian nursing teacher, and co-founder of the Norwegian Nurses' Union.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Back belt: Back belts, or lumbar support belts, are generally lightweight belts worn around the lower back to provide support to the lumbar. Industrial back belts tend to be similar to weight lifting belts or special belts used in medical rehabilitation therapy.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Hands of a Working Man: "Hands of a Working Man" is a song written by D. Vincent Williams and Jim Collins, and recorded by American country music artist Ty Herndon.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Mac OS X Server 1.0Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Eden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.Low back painDatabase of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.Pensioner: A pensioner is a person who collects a pension, most commonly because of a retirement from the workforce. This is a term typically used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia where someone of pensionable age may also be referred to as an 'old age pensioner', or OAP.Multiple disabilitiesMineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.

(1/595) Evaluating patients for return to work.

The family physician is often instrumental in the process of returning a patient to the workplace after injury or illness. Initially, the physician must gain an understanding of the job's demands through detailed discussions with the patient, the patient's work supervisor or the occupational medicine staff at the patient's place of employment. Other helpful sources of information include job demand analysis evaluations and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. With an adequate knowledge of job requirements and patient limitations, the physician should document specific workplace restrictions, ensuring a safe and progressive reentry to work. Occupational rehabilitation programs such as work hardening may be prescribed, if necessary. If the physician is unsure of the patient's status, a functional capacity evaluation should be considered. The family physician should also be familiar with the Americans with Disabilities Act as it applies to the patient's "fitness" to perform the "essential tasks" of the patient's job.  (+info)

(2/595) One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. METHODS: Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=-0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS. CONCLUSIONS: In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.  (+info)

(3/595) Adrenosympathetic overactivity under conditions of work stress.

Serial measurements of urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion were performed on 32 healthy men under two conditions of work stress; piecework and work on assembly line. A statistically significant increase in adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroids was observed for piecework and assembly line workers compared with salaried and 'ordinary' workers. The results support the assumption that psychosocial factors of an everyday type have significant effects on the sympathoadrenomedullary and adrenocortical function.  (+info)

(4/595) Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running.

Previous studies have suggested that generating vertical force on the ground to support body weight (BWt) is the major determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Because horizontal forces exerted on the ground are often an order of magnitude smaller than vertical forces, some have reasoned that they have negligible cost. Using applied horizontal forces (AHF; negative is impeding, positive is aiding) equal to -6, -3, 0, +3, +6, +9, +12, and +15% of BWt, we estimated the cost of generating horizontal forces while subjects were running at 3.3 m/s. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) for eight subjects. We then used a force-measuring treadmill to measure ground reaction forces from another eight subjects. With an AHF of -6% BWt, VO2 increased 30% compared with normal running, presumably because of the extra work involved. With an AHF of +15% BWt, the subjects exerted approximately 70% less propulsive impulse and exhibited a 33% reduction in VO2. Our data suggest that generating horizontal propulsive forces constitutes more than one-third of the total metabolic cost of normal running.  (+info)

(5/595) Prognostic criteria for work resumption after standard lumbar discectomy.

The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic criteria for return to work 9-12 years after standard nucleotomy for herniated nucleus pulposus confirmed by CT. From 1985 until 1988, 182 patients (102 male, 80 female, mean age 45 years) with a single-level herniated nucleus pulposus were operated on for the first time. In summer 1997, an average of 10.2 years after the operation, 101 of 182 patients (55.5%) returned a standardised questionnaire. Eighteen patients (9.8%) had died during the intervening years, while 63 patients (34.6%) were lost to follow-up because of moving to other cities. Two groups could then be distinguished: group I worked full time in their usual job; group II did not. The influence of the degree of the paresis, time elapsed since the occurrence, intraoperative findings, age, sex, weight, type of work and re-operations were analysed statistically. Group I consisted of 44 patients who still worked full time in their usual job. Group II contained 57 patients, of whom 18 worked only part of the time, 9 had changed to a lighter full-time job, 23 had taken early retirement, and 7 were receiving a pension. Patients in group I were significantly younger (38 vs. 51 years), had a smaller proportion of patients with more than 20% overweight (27% vs. 44%), had a smaller proportion of severe, grade 0 and 1, motor dysfunction (0% vs. 16.3%), had been operated sooner (within 3 days: 52.3% vs. 19.3%), had undergone fewer re-operations for recurrence of the herniation (4.5% vs. 21.1%), and had worked less frequently in physically demanding jobs (6.7% vs. 22.8%). We concluded that when there is a relative indication for herniated nucleus pulposus surgery, it should be limited to patients aged below 40 years, with slight motor dysfunction, who work in physically undemanding jobs, so as to make a satisfactory long-term result more likely.  (+info)

(6/595) Development of a stroke-specific quality of life scale.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical stroke trials are increasingly measuring patient-centered outcomes such as functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). No stroke-specific HRQOL measure is currently available. This study presents the initial development of a valid, reliable, and responsive stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) measure, for use in stroke trials. METHODS: Domains and items for the SS-QOL were developed from patient interviews. The SS-QOL, Short Form 36, Beck Depression Inventory, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Barthel Index were administered to patients 1 and 3 months after ischemic stroke. Items were eliminated with the use of standard psychometric criteria. Construct validity was assessed by comparing domain scores with similar domains of established measures. Domain responsiveness was assessed with standardized effect sizes. RESULTS: All 12 domains of the SS-QOL were unidimensional. In the final 49-item scale, all domains demonstrated excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha values for each domain >/=0.73). Most domains were moderately correlated with similar domains of established outcome measures (r2 range, 0.3 to 0.5). Most domains were responsive to change (standardized effect sizes >0.4). One- and 3-month SS-QOL scores were associated with patients' self-report of HRQOL compared with before their stroke (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The SS-QOL measures HRQOL, its primary underlying construct, in stroke patients. Preliminary results regarding the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SS-QOL are encouraging. Further studies in diverse stroke populations are needed.  (+info)

(7/595) Effects of velocity on upper to lower extremity muscular work and power output ratios of intercollegiate athletes.

OBJECTIVES: Peak torque expresses a point output which may, but does not always, correlate well with full range output measures such as work or power, particularly in a rehabilitating muscle. This study evaluates isokinetic performance variables, particularly (a) flexor to extensor work and power output ratios of upper and lower extremities and (b) overall upper to lower extremity work and power ratios, in intercollegiate athletes. The purpose was to ascertain how speeds of 30 and 180 degrees/s influence agonist to antagonist ratios for torque, work, and power and to determine the effects of these speeds on upper to lower limb flexor (F), extensor (E), and combined (F + E) ratios, as a guide to rehabilitation protocols and outcomes after injury. METHODS: Twenty seven athletic men without upper or lower extremity clinical histories were tested isokinetically at slow and moderately fast speeds likely to be encountered in early stages of rehabilitation after injury. Seated knee extensor and flexor outputs, particularly work and power, were investigated, as were full range elbow extensor and flexor outputs. The subjects were morphologically similar in linearity and muscularity (coefficient of variation 4.17%) so that standardisation of isokinetic outputs to body mass effectively normalised for strength differences due to body size. Peak torque (N.m/kg), total work (J/kg), and average power (W/kg) for elbow and knee flexions and extensions were measured on a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. With respect to the raw data, the four test conditions (F at 30 degrees/s; E at 30 degrees/s; F at 180 degrees/s; E at 180 degrees/s) were analysed by one way analysis of variance. Reciprocal (agonist to antagonist) F to E ratios of the upper and lower extremities were calculated, as were upper to lower extremity flexor, extensor, and combined (F + E) ratios. Speed related differences between the derived ratios were analysed by Student's t tests (related samples). RESULTS: At the speeds tested all torque responses exhibited velocity related decrements at rates that kept flexor to extensor ratios and upper to lower extremity ratios constant (p > 0.05) for work and power. All upper extremity relative torque, work, and power flexion responses were equal to extension responses (p > 0.05) regardless of speed. Conversely, all lower extremity relative measures of torque, work, and power of flexors were significantly lower than extensor responses. In the case of both upper and lower extremities, work and power F to E ratios were unaffected by speed. Moreover, increasing speed from 30 to 180 degrees/s had no effect on upper to lower extremity work and power ratios, whether for flexion, extension, or flexion and extension combined. CONCLUSIONS: Peak torque responses may not adequately reflect tension development through an extensive range of motion. Total work produced and mean power generated, on the other hand, are highly relevant measures of performance, and these, expressed as F to E ratios, are unaffected by speeds of 30 and 180 degrees/s, whether for upper or lower extremities or for upper to lower extremities. In this sample, regardless of speed, the upper extremity produced 55% of the work and 39% of the power of the lower extremity, when flexor and extensor outputs were combined. Injured athletes are, in the early stages of function restoration, often not able to exert tension at fast speeds. An understanding of upper to lower extremity muscular work and power ratios has important implications for muscle strengthening after injury. Knowledge of normal upper to lower extremity work and power output ratios at slow to moderately fast isokinetic speeds is particularly useful in cases of bilateral upper (or lower) extremity rehabilitation, when the performance of a contralateral limb cannot be used as a yardstick.  (+info)

(8/595) Smoking, heavy physical work and low back pain: a four-year prospective study.

Data from a community-based four-year prospective study were used to test the hypothesis that heavy physical work is a stronger predictor of low back pain in smokers than in non-smokers. Of 708 working responders without low back pain during the entire year prior to 1990, 562 (79%) completed a questionnaire four years later in 1994. A job involving heavy lifting and much standing in 1990 was a strong predictor of low back pain in smokers four years later [odds ratio (OR) = 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-15.84, p < 0.01) after having adjusted for other job characteristics, demographic factors, emotional symptoms, physical exercise and musculoskeletal pain elsewhere. In non-smokers, having a job with heavy lifting and much standing was not associated with low back pain. One explanation may be that smoking leads to reduced perfusion and malnutrition of tissues in or around the spine and causes these tissues to respond inefficiently to mechanical stress.  (+info)

NBER Working Papers

  • Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8710. (
  • Inflation and Economic Growth ," NBER Working Papers 5326, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Preference Parameters and Behavioral Heterogeneity: An Experimental Approach in the Health and Retirement Survey ," NBER Working Papers 5213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA ," NBER Working Papers 7487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (


  • The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia ," Working Papers id:2787, eSocialSciences. (
  • Inflation and Economic Growth ," CEMA Working Papers 568, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics. (
  • Disability and the Labour Market: an analysis of British males ," Working Papers 98-10, Department of Economics, University of Aberdeen. (
  • Health, Health Insurance and the Labor Market ," JCPR Working Papers 27, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research. (
  • University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP) Working Papers 20033, University of Western Ontario, Centre for Human Capital and Productivity (CHCP). (

CESifo Group Munich

  • CESifo Working Paper Series 596, CESifo Group Munich. (


  • The trend of declining labour force participation by older working-age men, combined with an ageing population, has led many industrialised nations to develop policies encouraging older male workers to remain in the labour force. (
  • We have identified three ways through which health conditions affect workers' earnings: labor force participation, hourly wages and weekly hours worked. (
  • Despite some progress made over the last few decades in increasing women's labour force participation and narrowing gender gaps in wages, gender equality in the world of work still remains an elusive goal. (

Paper Series

  • Paper provided by Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne in its series Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series with number wp2005n09. (
  • Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 12-09, Monash University, Department of Economics. (
  • ISER Working Paper Series 2001-09, Institute for Social and Economic Research. (


  • The Information Work Productivity Council are an independent group of companies and academics that have joined together to study the issue of information work productivity and profitability. (


  • The Working Paper is a joint undertaking of the Gender, Equality and Diversity Branch (GED) of the Working Conditions and Equality Department, and the Employment and Labour Markets Branch (EMPLAB) of the Employment Policy Department (EMPLOYMENT). (


  • Using an analytical protocol the present study has identified aspects of work related (positively and negatively) to the job satisfaction. (


  • If the substitution effect dominates, people in a large group should work less than average, and if the income effect dominates, they should work more than average. (
  • In particular, in the developing world, women continue to form a large majority of the world's working poor, earn less income, and are more often affected by long-term unemployment than men. (


  • Combined with new information technologies and tools, information work is structurally changing labor markets, business and economies around the globe. (


  • Promoting decent and productive employment and income opportunities equally for women and men is one of the key priorities of the ILO's Decent Work Agenda. (
  • Furthermore, women continue to undertake most of unpaid care work, which has become an increasing challenge in their efforts to engage in productive work, both in subsistence agriculture and market economy, especially in countries which are negatively affected by environmental change and HIV and AIDS. (


  • In order to institutionalize gender mainstreaming in all the areas of ILO's work in employment promotion, a Gender Mainstreaming Strategy has been developed with an aim of ensuring that gender concerns are fully integrated in formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of employment policies, programmes, and other actions. (


  • The data base used in this work were PNAD/1998 (the Brazilian national household survey). (


  • Health status and labour force status of older working-age Australian men ," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE) , Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 10(4), pages 227-252, December. (
  • She has worked in numerous settings, including long term care, acute and sub-acute, home health, and school based settings in addition to outpatient where she has been a Certified Hand Therapist since 2001. (


  • The ILO implements a gender mainstreaming strategy in employment promotion in line with the relevant International Labour Standards 1 and Global Employment Agenda (GEA) , and as called for by 2008 Social Justice Declaration , 2009 ILC Conclusions on Gender Equality at the Heart of Decent Work , and the Global Jobs Pact . (