Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.United StatesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.SwedenPolycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Great BritainLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.JapanSpouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Perimenopause: The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.CaliforniaAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.IndiaNorwayMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.BrazilCognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Climacteric: Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.FinlandPregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.DenmarkUterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.EuropeAmenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.

*  Past Programs | To The Contrary

Men, Women & Ambition: Carol Evans, CEO and President of Working Mother Magazine, explains how women keep their ambitions in ... Women vs. Women: Congressional races across the country are pitting women against women. ... Will women tune in?. • Women and Taxes: A new report is out telling women why they need to be more involved in the debate on ... Women and Part-time Work: Young women strive for the holy grail: a part- time professional job. ...
pbs.org/to-the-contrary/past-programs/2006

*  What are the worst states for working women? - AOL News

... women make up about half of the workforce in the United States, but they still make, on average, 79 cents for every dollar a ... In New York, woman make 86 cents for every dollar a man does, while in Louisiana, women earn 66 cents for every dollar a man ... According to census.gov, women make up about half of the workforce in the United States, but they still make, on average, 79 ...
https://aol.com/article/2014/11/11/what-are-the-worst-states-for-working-women/20991943/

*  New Exercise Technology May Help Solve Looming Health Care Crisis

... like many working mothers, found the time juggling act a ... and I work full time and have a husband that works crazy hours ... I wanted to slim down, increase my energy level and just feel better again.' So she joined the local 'WOW for Women' club near ... If they have something to work toward that's concrete, they'll work harder to get there.' ... Wilma Bailey of Toronto wanted to get back in shape but, like many working mothers, found the time juggling act a challenge. ' ...
prweb.com/releases/2006/03/prweb356887.htm

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20022342 - Psychological well-being of working women: a cross-cultural perspective.

Although the literature on the relationship between work and the family has grown substantially over the past 20 years, it is ... Semi-structured interviews about work, family, and work-family interactions were tape-recorded with eight minority and 13 white ... and a dichotomous model of work-family interactions among minority workers in which they compartmentalized their work and ... The most distinct findings were a difference between the two groups in their perceptions of work as a "choice" (white workers) ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20022342.html

*  Working women are 'ultimate multi-taskers' - Telegraph

Women really are better multi-taskers than men - according to a study showing that they spend nearly half their time doing at ... Working women are 'ultimate multi-taskers'. Women really are better multi-taskers than men - according to a study showing that ... The most intrepid women of all time To mark International Women's Day, we look at the adventurous females who have travelled ... Working fathers do not typically face these types of pressures, according to Prof Offer. "Although they are also expected to be ...
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*  Kamala Harris comments by Obama, Sheryl Sandberg: Remarks reveal a double bind for working women.

... advice that touched off a significant public debate around women and work. ... As Sandberg describes in Lean In, research shows that women who succeed in traditionally male jobs tend to be viewed as ... Of course, professional women can up their likeability factor by behaving in stereotypically feminine ways. See the problem? ... According to Obama, then, Harris is one of the few women who can overcome the double bind, scoring well on both masculine and ...
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*  Open Collections Program: Women Working, Browse-General

Women's rights. All organizing and social movements. Unemployment. Working Conditions. Child Labor. Gender barriers to work. ... All working conditions. Search Tips: To expand these queries, enter a full-text search of the same term. To narrow results, use ...
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*  Why Aren't There More Women Working in Audio? - The Atlantic

Women in audio deal with unique challenges that come from working within a cross-section of two traditionally male-dominated ... As with other fields, women working in audio in the 1970s and '80s often felt they had to choose between careers and family. ... While the music industry has long ignored how few women work in audio, there are glimmers that things may be starting to change ... "With audio, women started entering the field in the '70s and '80s. Now we're in the 2010s, and there are quite a lot of women." ...
https://theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2017/08/why-arent-there-more-women-working-in-audio/537663/?utm_source=atltw

*  Women's Work Boots & Work Shoes

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*  working women | YourTango

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*  E-News: Economic Security - Building a Strong Future for Working Women

Building a Strong Future for Working Women "America has the most creative, productive and resilient workforce in the world, and ... The Secretary is encouraged by unions that are actively recruiting and engaging women, and as a result, more and more women ... In her address to the Teamsters Women's Conference in the spring, Secretary Chao said, "What better way to celebrate Women's ... "Today's women are moving into positions of influence and leadership faster than ever. It's happening on factory floors and on ...
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*  Women@BCG - Career Development & Mentorship for Women - Working at BCG

Women@BCG is a company-wide networking organization with the strategic goal of increasing the number, success & job ... To Retain Women, BCG Targets Gender Communication Differences, Chicago Tribune. *Chicago Exec, Mom Works to Remove Glass ... BCG and Women in the World. BCG cosponsors Women in the World, which gathers activists, businesspeople, artists, and many ... Women@BCG. BCG provides an unlimited opportunity for growth. There are many models for success and many examples of women at ...
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*  Nancy Pelosi and other Democrats introduce bills for working women - UPI.com

House of Representatives announced legislation Thursday aimed at improving the lives of working women. ... House of Representatives announced legislation Thursday aimed at improving the lives of working women. ... Women, black legislators help child health *Democrats' boycott dooms 132 bills *White House, Baucus may draft health bills ... "When women succeed, America succeeds. This agenda is about the future of America's families and the growth of America's economy ...
upi.com/Top_News/US/2013/07/18/Democrats-introduce-bills-aimed-at-working-women/UPI-89021374206160/

*  Working Pregnant Women Still Face Discrimination | Parenting

Remember that awkward conversation when you broke the big news to your boss? Was her reaction that mix of
parenting.com/blogs/show-and-tell/holly-babytalk/working-pregnant-women-still-face-discrimination?con=blog&loc=bottomprev

*  Working Pregnant Women Still Face Discrimination | Parenting

Plus: The Working Mother List of 100 Best Companies. "Showing increased commitment at your job (arriving on time, never missing ... With more women than ever in the workplace and many as the primary breadwinners, it's seriously problematic if your employer ... How did you break the news to your boss? Have you ever felt discriminated against or left out at work because you were ... New dads are under fire at work as well for asking for leave during the first few weeks after the baby arrives. ...
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*  Does Cannabidiol Oil Really Work? | Women of Grace

Does Cannabidiol Oil Really Work?. Posted on October 5, 2016. by SBrinkmann ...
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*  Women's Wear To Work Clothing | J.Crew

Find work dresses, blazers, skirts, pants, shirts, sweaters, suits, shoes, accessories and more! ... Shop Women's Wear-To-Work Clothing at J.Crew. ... We've got everything you need to make your work outfits work ... Think thoughtfully tailored women's suits that are amazingly flattering and easy to move around in (for those times when you ... Our Wear-to-Work Shop is where you'll find our stylish-yet-professional business clothes, with plenty of options for everyone ...
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*  Women talk about working in white male hedge funds - Business Insider

Women are badly underrepresented in hedge funds. What is it like for those who make it? ... "It's one of those ways for some men to discount women by saying they cannot work hard enough. It's hard to say anything about ... Women have a long way to go on Wall Street, and nowhere is this more true than in the hedge fund industry, where only 15% of ... I've worked in investment banking for several years and done sports, and I wonder why you would think that.' To get that person ...
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*  1412: Storytelling And Women, Social Work Helps To Prevent Premature Births | WAMC

... hear about storytelling and its effect on women, l earn how social workers are helping to prevent premature births, and brush ... 1412: Storytelling And Women, Social Work Helps To Prevent Premature Births By Allison Dunne • Aug 17, 2016 ... And we have a Women in History spotlight on two notorious women. ... 1407: From Sci-Fi To Role-Playing Games, Here Come The Women. ... 1409: The Criminalization Of Black Girls In School And Women In History. By Allison Dunne • Jul 27, 2016 ...
wamc.org/post/1412-storytelling-and-women-social-work-helps-prevent-premature-births

*  2016 WE LEARN (Net)Working Gathering & Conference on Women & Literacy

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*  Dr. Martens Work, Shoes, 14, Women | Shipped Free at Zappos

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*  THE STORY OF ROME FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE END OF THE REPUBLIC, CHAPTER XVII. - All Empires - EBooks

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*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

... women aren't allowed to wear pants in the academy? No I'm not bitching out of some sense of Real Women Never Wear Dresses, but ... Which works, since this is a reboot. But J. J. Abrams, could you at least mention that on screen? * Late in the TNG era ... Real Women Wear Dresses. * About the new film (this is coming from someone who hasn't seen the original ones, but i did greatly ... I find it works better if you substitute "Fate" for "Q." Wouldn't be the first time one of them interfered with the progression ...
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*  Dr. Parikh Shah - Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Fees, Contact Number, Feedbacks | Radiologist in Mumbai

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*  The Awareness Center, Inc. (International Jewish Coaltion Against Sexual Assault): The Cruelest Crime - Sexual Abuse Of...

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Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Lucretia MottAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Mercuriade: Mercuriade was an Italian physician, surgeon and medical author in the 14th century. She is one of the few woman physicians known from the Middle Ages.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.North American Menopause SocietyIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Pap testCancer screeningCervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Shift work: Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (abbreviated as 24/7). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties.Memory clinic: A memory clinic is a dedicated medical clinic specialising in the assessment and diagnosis of memory disorders. Memory clinics were first seen in the UK in the 1980s, mainly in academic research centres.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Unexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.Mammography Quality Standards ActOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Vaginal septumRepeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.Menstruation (mammal): Menstruation in mammals is the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium). It occurs on a regular basis in sexually reproductive-age females of certain mammal species.DenosumabOral contraceptive pill: Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.Niigata UniversityMedical abortion: A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which abortifacient pharmaceutical drugs are used to induce abortion. An oral preparation for medical abortion is commonly referred to as an abortion pill.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.

(1/238) Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior.

BACKGROUND: With more single mothers entering the workforce due to welfare reform efforts, more hospitalized children from single-parent families will have experienced alternate child care arrangements where routine care is provided by adults other than the child's mother. OBJECTIVES: To investigate with secondary analysis of data whether experience with alternate child care has a moderating effect on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families. METHOD: A sample of 60 preterm and 61 full-term children who were 3, 4, or 5 years old was recruited for the larger longitudinal study. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. History of hospitalization and alternate child care arrangements were measured with the Life History Calendar. RESULTS: Preschool children who experienced hospitalization without alternate child care experience had more somatic complaints, but those with both hospital and alternate child care experience had fewer aggressive behaviors than other children. For children with a history of hospitalization, aggressive behaviors decreased as the proportion of the child's life in alternate child care increased. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with alternate child care may ameliorate some of the negative effects of hospitalization, and potentially other novel and negative experiences, for preschool children. This could be due to child care providing positive experiences with separation from the mother, a peer group with which to talk about the novel experience, or actual instruction about the novel experience.  (+info)

(2/238) Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.  (+info)

(3/238) Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce.  (+info)

(4/238) The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.

OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs.  (+info)

(5/238) Psychosomatic symptoms of Japanese working women and their need for stress management.

This study was conducted to clarify Japanese female workers' psychosomatic symptoms including women-specific complaints and their need for stress management as part of occupational health services (OHS). In 1997, a survey was conducted in which a questionnaire was sent to 1108 full-time female workers. The response rate was 92.1%. They classified their own health status excellent (26.0%), good (60.4%), fair (9.6%), or bad (1.6%). They also reported their irritability (25.3%) and depression (15.6%). There were high rates of complaints of eye discomfort (53.6%), fatigue (44.1%), headache (43.0%), and menstrual pain (32.5%). Such symptoms were associated with irritability or depression. Amount of overtime works, marital status in the 30-44 age group, the presence of children were found to be important factors in determining health status. Regarding the needs for occupational health services, 22.2% of respondents answered they needed mental health management (MHM). Compared with other services, such as management of lifestyle diseases, gynecological diseases, cancer screenings and counseling on nutrition and exercise, the need for MHM was low. The preferred personnel were female doctors and nurses. Workers who performed frequent overtime work had a greater need for MHM. The most preferred means of receiving MHM was personal counseling by doctors (not psychologists) and nurses.  (+info)

(6/238) Occupational cancer in the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Precise information on the number of workers currently exposed to carcinogens in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is lacking. However, the large number of workers employed in high-risk industries such as the chemical and metal industries suggests that the number of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens may be large. In the CIS, women account for almost 50% of the industrial work force. Although no precise data are available on the number of cancers caused by occupational exposures, indirect evidence suggests that the magnitude of the problem is comparable to that observed in Western Europe, representing some 20,000 cases per year. The large number of women employed in the past and at present in industries that create potential exposure to carcinogens is a special characteristic of the CIS. In recent years an increasing amount of high-quality research has been conducted on occupational cancer in the CIS; there is, however, room for further improvement. International training programs should be established, and funds from international research and development programs should be devoted to this area. In recent years, following privatization of many large-scale industries, access to employment and exposure data is becoming increasingly difficult.  (+info)

(7/238) Cancer and occupation in women: identifying associations using routinely collected national data.

Some potentially important findings from an analysis of 119,227 cancers registered in women in England over the 7-year period 1981 to 1987 are discussed. Data are presented for four cancer sites with established occupational etiologies (bladder, pleura, lung, larynx), three occupational groups in which women predominate (teachers, nurses, barstaff), and the main female cancers of the reproductive system (breast, uterus, cervix, ovary). Excesses of bladder cancer in female rubber workers (proportional registration ratio [PRR] 350, 95% confidence interval [CI] 141-723), pleural cancer in female carpenters (PRR 1596, 95% CI 329-4665) and lung cancer in female construction workers (PRR 269, 95% CI 154-437) and barstaff (PRR 138, 95%CI 124-156) are noted. It is concluded that analyses of routinely collected data on cancer and occupation in women have the potential to provide valuable pointers for further research.  (+info)

(8/238) High-risk occupations for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. METHODS: Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. RESULTS: Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. CONCLUSIONS: While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention.  (+info)



stressed the equality


  • SOUNDBITE) (English) Dr JALEL EZZINE A UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR, SAYING: "This march as you see with this humongous number of people, be it men or women, here to stress the fact that for the last 50 years Tunisia has really stressed the equality between men and women and today they are afraid that they are maybe slipping backwards. (reuters.com)

women's


  • I looked for justification in a new kind of feminism - a women's right to choose what she does with her days, and a women's right to choose NOT to work out of the home. (blogspot.com)
  • The Government had established a Gender Mainstreaming Working Group, comprised of various stakeholders, to influence the process of gender mainstreaming and the allocation of more resources to gender equality and women's empowerment in both Zanzibar and the mainland. (ohchr.org)

periods


Blog


  • Over at her blog Medelabreastpumpreview.net, Amy Leigh writes about 15 women around the world over the years who have breastfeed all sorts of creatures big and small including cats, dogs, monkey, deer, and even baby tigers. (babble.com)

full


  • It occurs most often in women older than 30 who have had a full-term pregnancy. (whscv.com)
  • The 6,000 demonstrators are pushing to protect a 1956 law granting women full equality. (reuters.com)
  • MODEST J. MERO, Permanent Representative of Tanzania to the United Nations Office at Geneva , presenting the reports, expressed his full support for the work of the Committee and recognized the invaluable contribution of non-governmental organizations. (ohchr.org)

people


  • Most people have an idea of what working for the government is about. (blogspot.com)

make


  • Your Facebook name, profile photo and other personal information you make public on Facebook (e.g., school, work, current city, age) will appear with your comment. (babble.com)

health


  • Women may enjoy an expanded list of preventive services at no cost under the health law if proposed draft recommendations are adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) later this year. (sylviabrowder.com)
  • It had established a Gender Mainstreaming Working Group, which had contributed to the review of cost sharing aspects in maternal health, leading to improved maternal services and an increased budget for combatting gender violence. (ohchr.org)

government


  • Almost two years ago I made the massive shift from my professional work as a science policy/analyst/government/biologist/advisor person to a stay-at-farm mother, farmer and homemaker. (blogspot.com)
  • I have worked for multiple departments, at different levels of government, in various parts of the country, doing a huge variety of jobs and I can tell you that every experience has been vastly different from the last. (blogspot.com)
  • In mainstreaming gender issues into the national development frameworks, the Government was reflecting Goal 5 of the Sustainable Development Agenda, which underscored the importance of achieving the equality and empowerment of all women and girls. (ohchr.org)