Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.IowaHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Perimenopause: The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.United StatesIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Feminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Climacteric: Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Great BritainHysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.MichiganMen's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.WashingtonVaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.BaltimoreHealth Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.PennsylvaniaDisabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.

*  period pain - Women's Health - MedHelp

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*  Cancer of the Uterus - Women's Health Issues - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

One in 50 women gets endometrial cancer. This cancer usually develops after menopause, most often in women aged 50 to 60. Over ... They tend to occur in younger or obese women or in women going through perimenopause (the years just before and the year after ... One of three women with vaginal bleeding after menopause has endometrial cancer. Women who have vaginal bleeding after ... Type II cancers are more aggressive and tend to occur in older women. About 10% of endometrial cancers are type II. ...
merckmanuals.com/en-pr/home/women-s-health-issues/cancers-of-the-female-reproductive-system/cancer-of-the-uterus

*  Missoula Women's Health - Comprehensive health care for women of all ages by Cathryn Powell

Women's Health. Welcome to Missoula Women's Health Care, where your needs are met by Cathryn Powell, MSN, FNP, with a personal ... Missoula Women's Health Care. We enable women and the men in their lives to live healthier lives by providing comprehensive and ... Missoula Women's Health Care. We provide comprehensive care for women of all ages. We provide comprehensive physicals, wellness ... Women's Health Care - we provide comprehensive care for women of all ages. ...
missoulawomenshealth.com

*  Our Services - Durham Women's Clinic - Women's Health Alliance

... and we realize that their mental health affects their physical health and vice versa. Therefore, our approach to women's health ... Back in the early 60s when Women's Health Alliance (then Durham Women's Clinic) was on Greene Street in Durham, there was a ... Midwifery at Women's Health Alliance launched in September 2011 to the delight and enthusiastic reception of our current and ... Women's Health Alliance Durham has three obstetric physicians, a physician's assistant, and five midwives. Our midwives are ...
durhamwomensclinic.com/our-services/

*  A-Z | Lifescript.com

LifeScript.com is a women's health information site which addresses important women's health issues and promotes women's health ... America Cooks For Health: Multiple Sclerosis Breast Cancer Physician Consult House Calls With Dr. Geehr Lifescript in Haiti ... Health Channels * Women's Health * Top Conditions * Food * Diet & Fitness * Family * Well-Being ...
lifescript.com/health/a-z.aspx?m=1

*  What are different Women's Health Issues? - Part 4 | Health Tips

What are different Women's Health Issues? - Part 4. • Today, most females are worried about a large number of women's health ... Women today strive to keep themselves healthier and happier.. • Weight is definitely at the top of women's health issues.. • To ... Ovarian and breast cancer are women's health issues that many women are concerned about.. • Improved treatment and early ... Ovarian cancer is always a women's health issue.. • Ovarian cancer is harder to detect in early stages than breast cancer.. • ...
good-health-tips.com/2012/11/08/what-are-different-womens-health-issues-part-4/

*  Women's Prime Multivitamin - Great Reviews - Swanson Health Products

Swanson Women's Prime Multivitamin is formulated specifically to address women's health issues like menopausal concerns, breast ... Swanson Women's Prime Multivitamin is formulated specifically to address women's health issues like menopausal concerns, breast ... We know how important your health is to you and your loved ones. That's why we're focused on delivering only high quality ... Each tablet delivers 20 vitamins and minerals, powerful herbal extracts, cellular health nutrients and more ...
https://swansonvitamins.com/swanson-premium-womens-prime-multi-180-tabs

*  Women's Health Videos | Women Health Issues,Health Problems,TIps for Women| Modasta

... women health issues,women health care,ladies health problems,health tips for women,women health care ... Find information and videos on women's health, ... Common Mental health Issues in women Top hygiene tips during ...
https://modasta.com/doc-speak/category/womens-health/page/2/

*  early, very light period indicate pregnancy?? - Women's Health: Postpartum - MedHelp

Lifesaving Health Tests for Women From STD tests to mammograms, find out which screening tests you need - and when to get them ... 15 Cancer Symptoms Women Ignore From skin changes to weight loss to unusual bleeding, here are 15 cancer warning signs that ... It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, ... Never disregard the medical advice of your physician or health professional, or delay in seeking such advice, because of ...
medhelp.org/posts/Womens-Health-Postpartum/early--very-light-period-indicate-pregnancy/show/158873

*  s ꒲ | [ g: s D ǁF p C v C i ̕

Women's Health). * The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Women Infertility (Women's Health) by companies and ... The Women Infertility (Women's Health) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Women ... Women Infertility (Women's Health) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their ... The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Women Infertility (Women's Health) Reasons to buy. ...
https://gii.co.jp/report/labd264088-women-infertility-pipeline-review-h1.html

*  Women's Health - Cancer in Women | Glens Falls Hospital

The Women's Health Cancer Information page at Glens Falls Hospital details the facts about detecting and treating Cancer in ... Women's Health. Cancer in Women. While the overall odds are that two out of three women will never get cancer, 700,000 women ... Race: White women are more susceptible than African-Americans, although African-American women are more likely to die from ... Risk factors for breast cancer, the most common cancer among women, include:. *Age: Two of three women with invasive breast ...
glensfallshospital.org/services/hospital/cancer-center/womens-healthcare

*  DMOZ - Health: Women's Health: Organizations

... groups that gather and disseminate health information specifically for women; advocacy groups and other relevant bodies. ... Women's health organizations include professional associations for those who work with the health issues of women; ... Jacobs Institute for Women's Health A non-profit organization of providers and consumers for improving health care of women ... California Black Women's Health Project Non-profit organization for improving the health of California's Black women and girls ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Women's_Health/Organizations/

*  Recent Research Findings on Women's Health in Pregnancy and Childbirth: An Updated Annotated Bibliography From the National...

Recent Research Findings on Women's Health in Pregnancy and Childbirth: An Updated Annotated Bibliography From the National ... Previous article in issue: The Loving Support Breastfeeding Campaign: Awareness and Practices of Health Care Providers in ... Previous article in issue: The Loving Support Breastfeeding Campaign: Awareness and Practices of Health Care Providers in ... National Institutes of Health, 31 Center Drive, MSC-2178, Building 31, Room 5B-10, Bethesda, MD 20892-2178. E-mail: E-mail: ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2003.tb00112.x/abstract

*  Harmony Health Plan and Community Partners Unite to Address Women's Health Issues

... EmPowerHer Events... ... Harmony Health Plan and Community Partners Unite to Address Women's Health Issues EmPowerHer Events Will Bring Health ... Harmony Health Plan and Community Partners Unite to Address Women's Health Issues. News provided by ... Women cite lack of time, cost, lack of childcare and no transportation as some of the main reasons they did not get health care ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/harmony-health-plan-and-community-partners-unite-to-address-womens-health-issues-300300580.html

*  Wikipedia:WikiProject Women's Health - Wikipedia

Articles relevant to women's health should also have [[Category:Women's health]] added.. {{Women's health}}. {{Template:Women's ... Hello, WikiProject Women's Health!. We would be delighted if would like to participate in WikiProject Women's Health. This the ... WikiProject Women's Health,class=,importance=}}. Stub template[edit]. Use this template to identify a Women's Health stub ... WikiProject Women's Health. A WikiProject focusing on articles related to women's health, including related social and ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WH

*  Women's Health - healthfinder.gov

A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services healthfinder.gov is sponsored by the ... National Health Information Center 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 Page last updated: Saturday, September ...
https://healthfinder.gov/FindServices/SearchContext.aspx?topic=920&service=148

*  Women's Health | CSUSM

Women's health services are available to all CSUSM female students. Our physicians, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, ... Most of the concerns regarding women's health are done by appointment. To schedule an appointment call (760) 750-4915. ... General health screening. * Pelvic examinations. * Pap Smear (lab fee charged). * STD screening (lab fee charged) ... health educator and support staff are trained in the provision of gynecological care including routine gynecological ...
https://csusm.edu/shcs/medicalservices/women.html

*  Women's Health

... Back Pain (2). Breast Cancer (13). Dysmennorrhea (7). Hormones (12). Osteoporosis (8). Other Topics (25). ...
chiroweb.com/mpacms/chirofind/topic.php?id=19

*  Women's Health

... technique used in yoga-inhaling and exhaling fluidly and calmly through the nose-can improve your cardiovascular health. Try ...
https://womenshealthmag.com/fitness/yoga-for-weight-loss?cm_sp=Hotlist-_-Fitness-_-HeartPumpingYoga

*  Women's Health: Little-Known Facts | HuffPost

Little Known Facts Women & Health Health Of Women Women's Health Health Women ... which occurs in about 40 percent of women, enhances the ability to see a broader spectrum of hues in the red-orange range. The ...
huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/07/womens-health-little-known-facts_n_2253556.html

*  Women's Health: A Winning Issue | HuffPost

Just like in 2012, we made it a top priority to educate women about where the candidates stood on women's health and rights. ... And they rejected Ken Cuccinelli, whose extreme anti-women's health agenda was a defining issue throughout the campaign.. Let's ... In the end, women won this race for Terry McAuliffe. He won women by nine points -- matching Obama's 2012 advantage with ... Planned Parenthood advocacy and political organizations had been fighting Ken Cuccinelli's attacks on women's health for years ...
huffingtonpost.com/dawn-laguens/womens-health-a-winning-issue_b_4225525.html

Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lucretia MottBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.North American Menopause SocietyCharles F. Lynch: Charles F. Lynch has been the Principal Investigator of the Iowa Cancer Registry, a statewide cancer surveillance program that is part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.MenopauseHalfdan T. MahlerSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.EstrogenContraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Ring flash: A ring flash, invented by Lester A. Dine in 1952, originally for use in dental photography, is a circular photographic flash that fits around the lens, especially for use in macro (or close-up) photography.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.John Studd (gynaecologist): John Winston Studd (born 4 March 1940) is a British gynaecologist and an academic and medical historian.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Maternal Health Task ForceEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Elaine ShowalterHealthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Robert Kupperman: Robert Harris Kupperman (May 12, 1935 – November 24, 2006) was an American government official and academic, and a leading expert on terrorism.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Progestin challenge: Progestin challenge, or progesterone withdrawal test is a test used in the field of obstetrics and gynecology in order to evaluate a patient who is experiencing amenorrhea. Due to readily available assays to measure serum estradiol levels, this test is now rarely used.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Mercuriade: Mercuriade was an Italian physician, surgeon and medical author in the 14th century. She is one of the few woman physicians known from the Middle Ages.Minati SenSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.

(1/2389) Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

(2/2389) Effect of vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation on women's health.

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(3/2389) Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women.

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

(4/2389) Body mass index, weight change, and incidence of self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis among women.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI), weight change, and arthritis in women. METHODS: Data were taken from the 1982-1984 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study of 3617 women, aged 25 to 74 years. RESULTS: Women with a BMI greater than 32 at initial interview were at significantly higher risk of developing arthritis than women with a BMI of 19 to 21.9. Compared with stable-weight women with a BMI of less than 25, women who were obese at initial interview (BMI > 29) and who subsequently maintained their weight or gained more than 10% of their body weight were at significantly higher risk of developing arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Attaining and maintaining a healthy weight may reduce the risk of developing arthritis.  (+info)

(5/2389) Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women.  (+info)

(6/2389) Women's dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity.

A study of food insecurity and nutritional adequacy was conducted with a sample of 153 women in families receiving emergency food assistance in Toronto, Canada. Contemporaneous data on dietary intake and household food security over the past 30 d were available for 145 of the women. Analyses of these data revealed that women who reported hunger in their households during the past 30 d also reported systematically lower intakes of energy and a number of nutrients. The effect of household-level hunger on intake persisted even when other economic, socio-cultural, and behavioral influences on reported dietary intake were considered. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy in excess of 15% were noted for Vitamin A, folate, iron, and magnesium in this sample, suggesting that the low levels of intake associated with severe household food insecurity are in a range that could put women at risk of nutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

(7/2389) Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.

We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum.  (+info)

(8/2389) Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics.

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)


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