Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development: Conditions of sexual ambiguity in which the individual possesses gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. There can be a testis on one side and an ovary on the other (lateral), or there may be combined ovarian and testicular tissue (ovotestes) on each side (bilateral). The karyotype may be 46,XX; 46,XY; or a mosaic of 46,XX/46,XY. These disorders have historically been called true hermaphroditism.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sorting Nexins: A large family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding proteins that are involved in mediating intracellular transport and sorting of proteins via a variety of endocytic pathways.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesNerve Tissue ProteinsMetabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein-Losing Enteropathies: Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.Cortactin: A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Wiskott–Aldrich syndromeIMD domain: In molecular biology, the IMD domain (IRSp53 and MIM (missing in metastases) homology Domain) is a BAR-like domain of approximately 250 amino acids found at the N-terminus in the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53/BAIAP2) and in the evolutionarily related IRSp53/MIM (MTSS1) family. In IRSp53, a ubiquitous regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, the IMD domain acts as conserved F-actin bundling domain involved in filopodium formation.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Actin remodeling of neurons: Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines.CD43: Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in humans is encoded by the SPN (sialophorin) gene.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Actin-binding protein: Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or polymers, or both.European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies: The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies (ESID) is a Europe-wide medical association for healthcare professionals and researchers who deal with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID).CytoskeletonSrc homology domain: In biology, a Src homology domain is one of the two small protein binding domains found in the Src oncoprotein. Homologs of both the Src homology 2 and Src homology 3 domains are found in numerous other proteins.Heparin-induced thrombocytopeniaSmith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Coles PhillipsSorting nexinBiopolymer: Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.Breast eczema: Breast eczema (also known as "Nipple eczema") may affect the nipples, areolae, or surrounding skin, with eczema of the nipples being of the moist type with oozing and crusting, in which painful fissuring is frequently seen, especially in nursing mothers.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).National Down Syndrome SocietyPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Signal transducing adaptor protein: Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway. Adaptor proteins contain a variety of protein-binding modules that link protein-binding partners together and facilitate the creation of larger signaling complexes.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Protein losing enteropathyCortactin: Cortactin (from “cortical actin binding protein”) is a monomeric protein located in the cytoplasm of cells that can be activated by external stimuli to promote polymerization and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, especially the actin cortex around the cellular periphery. It is present in all cell types.Skewed X-inactivation: Skewed X chromosome inactivation occurs when the inactivation of one X chromosome is favored over the other, leading to an uneven number of cells with each chromosome inactivated. It is usually defined as one allele being found on the active X chromosome in over 75% of cells, and extreme skewing is when over 90% of cells have inactivated the same X chromosome.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Platelet lysate: Human Platelet Lysate (or hPL) is a substitute supplement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in experimental and clinical cell culture. It corresponds to a turbid, light-yellow liquid that is obtained from human blood platelets after freeze/thaw cycle(s).Haptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.HypogammaglobulinemiaOverwhelming post-splenectomy infection: An overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a rare but rapidly fatal infection occurring in individuals following removal of the spleen. The infections are typically characterized by either meningitis or sepsis, and are caused by encapsulated organisms including Streptococcus pneumoniae.NUT midline carcinoma: NUT midline carcinoma, abbreviated NMC, is a rare genetically defined, very aggressive epithelial cancer that usually arises in the midline of the body and is characterized by a chromosomal rearrangement in the nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene. In approximately 75% of cases, the coding sequence of NUT on chromosome 15q14 is fused to BRD4 or BRD3, which creates a chimeric gene that encodes the BRD-NUT fusion protein.
(1/278) Monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: a clinical test of monocyte function.
The lack of a simple, rapid, and quantitative test of the functional activity of the monocyte has hampered studies of the contribution of this cell type to host defense and human disease. This report describes an assay of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which depends exclusively upon the monocyte as the effector cell and therefore provides a convenient test of monocyte function. In this system, mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque separation of whole blood are cytotoxic for 51Cr-labeled human erythrocyte targets coated with anti-blood group antibody. Removal of phagocytic monocytes from the MNL by iron ingestion, followed by exposure to a magnetic field, completely abolishes all cytotoxic activity from the remaining MNL population. Similarly, in severely mono-cytopenic patients with aplastic anemia, cytotoxic effector activity is absent. In normals and less severely monocytopenic aplastic anemia patients, cytotoxicity correlates significantly (p less than 0.001) with monocyte number. Application of this monocyte-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay to the study of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome has revealed defective monocyte cytotoxic activity in spite of normal monocyte numbers, suggesting that this test may be useful for the assessment of monocyte function in a variety of clinical situations. (+info)
(2/278) Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings.
How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization. (+info)
(3/278) Mutations that cause the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome impair the interaction of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) with WASP interacting protein.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, immune deficiency, and a proclivity toward lymphoid malignancy. Lymphocytes of affected individuals show defects of activation, motility, and cytoskeletal structure. The disease gene encodes a 502-amino acid protein named the WAS protein (WASP). Studies have identified a number of important interactions that place WASP in a role of integrating signaling pathways with cytoskeletal function. We performed a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins interacting with WASP and cloned a proline-rich protein as a specific WASP interactor. Our clone of this protein, termed WASP interacting protein (WIP) by others, shows a difference in seven amino acid residues, compared with the previously published sequence revealing an additional profilin binding motif. Deletion mutant analysis reveals that WASP residues 101-151 are necessary for WASP-WIP interaction. Point mutant analyses in the two-hybrid system and in vitro show impairment of WASP-WIP interaction with three WASP missense mutants known to cause WAS. We conclude that impaired WASP-WIP interaction may contribute to WAS. (+info)
(4/278) The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex.
Actin polymerization at the cell cortex is thought to provide the driving force for aspects of cell-shape change and locomotion. To coordinate cellular movements, the initiation of actin polymerization is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), encoded by the gene that is mutated in the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome , has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells    . The Arp2/3 complex, an actin-nucleating factor that consists of seven polypeptide subunits   , was recently shown to physically interact with WASP . We sought to determine whether WASP is a cellular activator of the Arp2/3 complex and found that WASP stimulates the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. Moreover, WASP-coated microspheres polymerized actin, formed actin tails and exhibited actin-based motility in cell extracts, similar to those behaviors displayed by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In extracts depleted of the Arp2/3 complex, WASP-coated microspheres and L. monocytogenes were non-motile and exhibited only residual actin polymerization. These results demonstrate that WASP is sufficient to direct actin-based motility in cell extracts and that this function is mediated by the Arp2/3 complex. WASP interacts with diverse signaling proteins and may therefore function to couple signal transduction pathways to Arp2/3-complex activation and actin polymerization. (+info)
(5/278) The human WASP-interacting protein, WIP, activates the cell polarity pathway in yeast.
WIP, the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein, is a human protein involved in actin polymerization and redistribution in lymphoid cells. The mechanism by which WIP reorganizes actin cytoskeleton is unknown. WIP is similar to yeast verprolin, an actin- and myosin-interacting protein required for polarized morphogenesis. To determine whether WIP and verprolin are functional homologues, we analyzed the function of WIP in yeast. WIP suppresses the growth defects of VRP1 missense and null mutations as well as the defects in cytoskeletal organization and endocytosis observed in vrp1-1 cells. The ability of WIP to replace verprolin is dependent on its WH2 actin binding domain and a putative profilin binding domain. Immunofluorescence localization of WIP in yeast cells reveals a pattern consistent with its function at the cortical sites of growth. Thus, like verprolin, WIP functions in yeast to link the polarity development pathway and the actin cytoskeleton to generate cytoskeletal asymmetry. A role for WIP in cell polarity provides a framework for unifying, under a common paradigm, distinct molecular defects associated with immunodeficiencies like Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. (+info)
(6/278) The thrombocytopenia of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome is not related to a defect in proplatelet formation.
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked hereditary disease characterized by thrombocytopenia with small platelet size, eczema, and increased susceptibility to infections. The gene responsible for WAS was recently cloned. Although the precise function of WAS protein (WASP) is unknown, it appears to play a critical role in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization. The platelet defect, resulting in thombocytopenia and small platelet size, is a consistent finding in patients with mutations in the WASP gene. However, its exact mechanism is unknown. Regarding WASP function in cytoskeletal organization, we investigated whether these platelet abnormalities could be due to a defect in proplatelet formation or in megakaryocyte (MK) migration. CD34(+) cells were isolated from blood and/or marrow of 14 WAS patients and five patients with hereditary X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) and cultured in serum-free liquid medium containing recombinant human Mpl-L (PEG-rHuMGDF) and stem-cell factor (SCF) to study in vitro megakaryocytopoiesis. In all cases, under an inverted microscope, normal MK differentiation and proplatelet formation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, there was also no abnormality in MK maturation, and normal filamentous MK were present. Moreover, the in vitro produced platelets had a normal size, while peripheral blood platelets of the same patients exhibited an abnormally small size. However, despite this normal platelet production, we observed that F-actin distribution was abnormal in MKs from WAS patients. Indeed, F-actin was regularly and linearly distributed under the cytoplasmic membrane in normal MKs, but it was found concentrated in the center of the WAS MKs. After adhesion, normal MKs extended very long filopodia in which WASP could be detected. In contrast, MKs from WAS patients showed shorter and less numerous filopodia. However, despite this abnormal filopodia formation, MKs from WAS patients normally migrated in response to stroma-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), and actin normally polymerized after SDF-1alpha or thrombin stimulation. These results suggest that the platelet defect in WAS patients is not due to abnormal platelet production, but instead to cytoskeletal changes occuring in platelets during circulation. (+info)
(7/278) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein regulates podosomes in primary human macrophages.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is a hematopoietic-specific, multidomain protein whose mutation is responsible for the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. WASp contains a binding motif for the Rho GTPase CDC42Hs as well as verprolin/cofilin-like actin-regulatory domains, but no specific actin structure regulated by CDC42Hs-WASp has been identified. We found that WASp colocalizes with CDC42Hs and actin in the core of podosomes, a highly dynamic adhesion structure of human blood-derived macrophages. Microinjection of constitutively active V12CDC42Hs or a constitutively active WASp fragment consisting of the verprolin/cofilin-like domains led to the disassemly of podosomes. Conversely, macrophages from patients expressing truncated forms of WASp completely lacked podosomes. These findings indicate that WASp controls podosome assembly and, in cooperation with CDC42Hs, podosome disassembly in primary human macrophages. (+info)
(8/278) Retrovirus-mediated WASP gene transfer corrects defective actin polymerization in B cell lines from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients carrying 'null' mutations.
Boys affected with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) present with variable association of thrombocytopenia, eczema and immune deficiency. If untreated, WAS patients may succumb to intracerebral hemorrhages, severe infections or malignancies. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) can cure all aspects of the disease, but HLA-identical donors are not available to all patients and mismatched BMTs are unfortunately associated with high mortality and morbidity. The good success of HLA-matched BMT, however, makes WAS a potential candidate for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. WAS patients carry mutations of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein gene encoding WASP, a 502-amino acid proline-rich protein with demonstrated involvement in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. To verify the feasibility of genetic correction for this disease, the WASP cDNA was expressed in EBV-immortalized B cell lines obtained from WAS patients using a retroviral vector. Transduced WAS cells showed levels of WASP expression similar to those found in cells from normal donors, without detectable effects on viability or growth characteristics. In addition, retrovirus-mediated expression of WASP led to improvement of cytoplasmic F-actin expression and formation of F-actin-positive microvilli, a process shown to be defective in untransduced WAS cell lines. These preliminary results indicate a potential use for retrovirus-mediated gene transfer as therapy for WAS. (+info)