Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).IllinoisBlastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.MichiganNebraskaDeer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Trimetazidine: A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.United StatesIndianaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.New HampshireQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.KansasUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Wasting Disease, Chronic: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.USSRPhotography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.DairyingEncephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Coyotes: The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.Professional Impairment: The inability of a health professional to provide proper professional care of patients due to his or her physical and/or mental disability.Avulavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE, causing disease in domestic fowl. There are many species, the most well-known being avian paramyxovirus 1 (NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS).Rats, Inbred LewLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.OhioPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.MaineDiabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.LaosEducation: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.New JerseyDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.MassachusettsFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.MissouriCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.IowaUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

*  Taking it personally - Isthmus | Madison, Wisconsin

Percentage of Wisconsin made up by minorities in general: 12% * Increase in HIV diagnosis in young African American men who ... She is a juris doctor, admitted to the State Bar of Wisconsin. She is the founder of Madison's only AIDS legal services program ... Nass attended a training retreat in San Francisco for HIV-positive women, and brought the model back to Wisconsin. She began ... "How can a married woman in Madison, Wisconsin, have HIV?" he recalls thinking. "The best lesson Heidi taught me is, don't ...

*  Jewish Community Center Milwaukee - Harry & Rose Samson Family

6255 N Santa Monica Blvd., Whitefish Bay, WI 53217. 414-967-8200 · Fax 414-964-0922· info@jccmilwaukee.org Site By: Boom ...

*  News: Pain Relievers: Group Wages a Global Battle to Help Desperate Cancer Patients, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine...

This article appeared in the Winter 2010 issue of On Wisconsin.. The article was written by Jenny Price '96 is senior writer ... In the most recent report, forty-four states received grades above a C. Five states, including Wisconsin, each received an A. ... Website Feedback Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Use of this site signifies your ... David Joranson '68, MS'70, the group's founder and retired director, calls its work "the Wisconsin Idea gone global." In his ...

*  02/06/2015, The Potential of Social Innovation to Address Racism and Discrimination in Milwaukee - Rid Racism Milwaukee

ACLU of WI speaker discusses civil rights issues, challenges and options for support ... The YWCA of Southeast Wisconsin will sponsor its annual "Stand Against Racism" campaign April 27-28 ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Medicine: Facilities: Hospitals: North America: United States: Wisconsin

The Wisconsin Department of Health and Human Services defines a hospital as A place that provides 24-hour nursing/medical care ... Hospitals across the state of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Department of Health and Human Services defines a hospital as "A place ... University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics Medical center and health system that includes the UW Hospital, American Family ... Located in Medford, Wisconsin it is a 60-bed, non-profit, primary care hospital, providing quality health care services for all ...

*  Events, UWCCC Grand Rounds - KLF6 Tumor Suppressor Gene and HCC, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 AMA ... The University of Wisconsin Medical School and Public Health is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical ... Website Feedback Copyright © 2017 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Use of this site signifies your ...

*  Board of Regents, Academic Administration and Faculty - Milwaukee School of Engineering - Acalog ACMS™

Milwaukee, Wis.. B.S. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay '84. M.S. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee '87. Ph.D. University of ... Milwaukee, Wis. MSOE President. John Y. Walz, Ph.D.. Milwaukee School of Engineering. Milwaukee, Wis.. B.S. Tulane University ' ... University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; MS, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Registered ... Jay V. Loewi; President and Owner, QTI Group; Madison, Wis.. Paul B. Luber; CEO and Co-owner, Jor-Mac Co.; Grafton, Wis.; CEO, ...

*  Lead Poisoning Data | Wisconsin Department of Health Services

Wisconsin Tracking hosts childhood lead poisoning data to the census tract level. The section below presents answers to ... Wisconsin Department of Health Services - Lead-Safe Wisconsin. *Wisconsin Department of Health Services - Occupational Lead ... The website provides data from the Wisconsin Childhood Lead Poisoning Preventing Program at the Wisconsin Department of Health ... The results are measured in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). Wisconsin statute (Wis. Stats 254.11[9]) defines lead poisoning ...

*  Representative Warren Petryk

Rep.Petryk@legis.wisconsin.gov Voting Address:. S 9840 Hwy 93. Eleva, WI 54738 Staff:. Logan Heuer Logan.Heuer@legis.wisconsin. ... Recipient: Wisconsin Veterans of Foreign Wars Legislator of the Year 2013; Wisconsin AMVETS Veteran's Advocate of the Year 2014 ... Wisconsin Manufacturers and Commerce Working for Wisconsin Award (every term); Dairy Business Association Award (every term). ... attended University of Wisconsin-Stout; earned B.A. with highest honors University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 1978. ...

*  Wisconsin Legislature: 46.023

46.001 46.001 Purposes of chapter. The purposes of this chapter are to conserve human resources in Wisconsin; to provide a just ... This is an archival version of the Wis. Stats. database for 2001. See Are the Statutes on this Website Official? ... the Wisconsin Constitution or any other statute that prohibits or restricts the expenditure of federal or state funds in or by ... section 18 of the Wisconsin Constitution. Except as provided in sub. (10), the department may not discriminate against an ...

*  University of Wisconsin System

... the University of Wisconsin System is one of the largest systems of public higher education in the country. ... University of Wisconsin System. Menu * What is the UW System The UW System includes 26 campuses that enroll about 180,000 ... The University of Wisconsin System has been engaged in these discussions from early in the process. We have appreciated the ... Menomonie, Wis. - Two projects with very different research goals - one to inhibit mold growth on packaged cheese and the other ...

*  BBB Wisconsin

... to Hold Bi-Annual Free Shredding Event to Help Fight Identity Theft ...

*  Charlie Bluff, Wisconsin - Wikipedia

This article about a location in Rock County, Wisconsin is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... Charlie Bluff is an unincorporated community located in the town of Milton, Rock County, Wisconsin, United States.[1] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charlie_Bluff,_Wisconsin&oldid=770395864" ...

*  Buffalo (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Buffalo es el nombre de dos pueblos en Wisconsin: Buffalo (condado de Buffalo, Wisconsin) Buffalo (condado de Marquette, ...

*  Freedom (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Freedom es el nombre de 3 pueblos: Freedom (condado de Forest, Wisconsin) Freedom (condado de Outagamie, Wisconsin) Freedom ( ...

*  Glendale (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 43° 7' 48" N 87° 55' 39" O Glendale é uma cidade localizada no estado norte-americano do Wisconsin, no Condado de ... Estimativa da população (julho de 2006) O Commons possui imagens e outras mídias sobre Glendale (Wisconsin) O Commons possui ... uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Glendale (Wisconsin) Portal da geografia Portal dos Estados Unidos. ...

*  Darien (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 42° 36' 2" N 88° 42' 30" O Darien é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de ...

*  Amherst (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 44° 27' 1" N 89° 17' 8" O Amherst é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de ...

*  Ontario (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 43° 43' 24" N 90° 35' 31" O Ontario é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de ...

*  Roberts (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 44° 59' 1" N 92° 33' 13" O Roberts é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de St ...

*  Appleton (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 44° 15' 56" N 88° 24' 6" O Appleton é uma cidade localizada no estado americano do Wisconsin, nos condados de ... Census 2010 O Commons possui imagens e outras mídias sobre Appleton (Wisconsin) O Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens ... e outros ficheiros sobre Appleton (Wisconsin) Portal da geografia Portal dos Estados Unidos. ...

*  Rome (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Coordenadas: 42° 58' 50" N 88° 37' 53" O Rome é uma Região censo-designada localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, ...

*  Wisconsin's Chuckwagon

Return to Wisconsin's Chuckwagon. 2010 - Present Compilation Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Not for commercial use without ...

*  Wisconsin Fishing Lunar Tables

Wisconsin area. Site includes Wisconsin fishing reports, weather reports, articles, tactics, boating info, stories, and much ...

*  Deer Creek (Wisconsin) - Wikipedia

Deer Creek es el nombre de dos pueblos en Wisconsin: Deer Creek (condado de Outagamie, Wisconsin) Deer Creek (condado de Taylor ...

RaffinoseAllopurinolSouthern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine: Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine is an academic unit of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) located in Alton, Illinois, USA, in the Greater St. Louis area.BlastomycosisProcaineGreat Lakes BasinProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Mannitol motility medium: Mannitol motility medium is a bacterial growth medium used to detect the ability of bacteria to ferment mannite and produce nitrogen gas; and to indicate the motility of the organism.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Adenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Ehrlichiosis ewingii infectionTask switching (psychology): Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function and a kind of cognitive flexibility that involves the ability to shift attention between one task and another. This ability allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations.Ehrlichia ewingii: Ehrlichia ewingii is a species of rickettsiales bacteria.Michigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry: The University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry is located on the East Campus of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. The College offers degrees in Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) and Registered Dental Hygienist (RDH).Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), developed by Gerard Gioia, Ph.D.TrimetazidineElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.La Crosse (grape): La Crosse is a modern hybrid cultivar of wine grape, mostly grown in North America. It produces grapes suitable for making fruity white wines similar to Riesling or as a base for blended wines.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Microhyla berdmoreiList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Transport in Somalia: Transport in Somalia refers to the transportation networks and modes of transport in effect in Somalia. They include highways, airports and seaports, in addition to various forms of public and private vehicular, maritime and aerial transportation.Spermophilus brevicauda: Brandt’s ground squirrel, (Spermophilus brevicauda), is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is found in eastern Kazakhstan and the northern half of the Xinjiang region of China.Process analytical chemistry: Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), is similar to Process Analytical Technology (PAT) (for example used for the pharmaceutical industry) has its origins as a specialized form of analytical chemistry used for process manufacturing. Process analytical chemistry is the application of analytical chemistry with specialized techniques, algorithms, and sampling equipment for solving problems related to chemical processes.Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.New Hampshire Route 102: in HudsonClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Jean Emond: Jean C. Emond is the current Thomas S.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.MonkeypoxSAFE FOODSPostoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.John Martin (Governor of Kansas): John Alexander Martin (March 10, 1839 – October 2, 1889) was the 10th Governor of Kansas.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityLyme disease microbiology: Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has at least 37 known species, 12 of which are Lyme related, and an unknown number of genomic strains. Borrelia species known to cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.List of medical schools in the United KingdomProtein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually like PCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.Saborio,G.Telegraphy: Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε ["at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein], "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus [[flag semaphore|semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.CryptosporidiosisCognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Homicide: Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another human being. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death.Yevgeny Vesnik: Yevgeny Yakovlevich Vesnik (; January 15, 1923 — April 10, 2009) was a Russian and Soviet stage and a film actor. The son of Yakov Vesnik, the first director of the Kryvorizhstal plant, he fought the Germans in the Second World War.Outline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Bill Rice Ranch: The Bill Rice Ranch is a Christian Summer Camp in Murfreesboro Tennessee that was founded by Bill Rice to provide a place for preaching the gospel to teens, especially the deaf.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Yugoslavia at the 1972 Summer Paralympics: The Republic of Yugoslavia sent a delegation to compete at the 1972 Summer Paralympics in Heidelberg, West Germany. They sent twenty two competitors, fifteen male and seven female.Christian tattooing in Bosnia and HerzegovinaFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Supercow (dairy): Supercow (or super cow) is a term used in the dairy industry to denote lines or individual animals that have superior milk production: that is, which produce more milk per day, or in some cases produce more fat per gallon of milk. Biology of the super cow.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Urban coyote: Urban coyotes are coyotes living in metropolitan areas such as cities and suburbs. Coyotes thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones, because of the availability of food and the lack of predators.Avian paramyxovirus: Avian paramyxoviruses are viruses in the genera Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus is another well characterized species within the same genus and is named APMV-1.Age-Related Eye Disease Study: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States.A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.

(1/1261) Prevalence and correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome among Native Americans. The Inter-Tribal Heart Project.

OBJECTIVE: The clustering of factors characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome has not been assessed among Native Americans, a population at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the distribution and correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome among individuals in three Chippewa and Menominee communities in Wisconsin and Minnesota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 488 men and 822 women ages > or = 25 years in the Inter-Tribal Heart Project (1992-1994) were included. The clustering of each individual trait (hypertension, diabetes, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol) with the other traits and the association of the number of traits with measures of adiposity and insulin levels were examined. RESULTS: Among the men, 40.4, 32.6, 17.4, and 9.6% had none, one, two, or at least three of the four traits, respectively; among the women, the respective percentages were 53.2, 25.6, 15.3, and 6.0%. The percentage of individuals with each particular trait significantly increased (P < 0.01) among those with none, one, or at least two other syndrome traits. Having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < 0.001) to higher BMI, conicity index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratios. Among individuals with normal glucose levels, having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < or = 0.05) to higher fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age and measures of adiposity, although associations were attenuated with adjustment for either BMI or waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Traits characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome were found to be clustered to a significant degree among Native Americans in this study. Comprehensive public health efforts are needed to reduce adverse levels of these risk factors in this high-risk population.  (+info)

(2/1261) Prognosis of gastric ulcer: twenty-five year followup.

Four hundred twenty-two patients with gastric ulcer treated during 1950-1960 were followed up to 25 years with a mean followup of 9 years. Nonoperative treatment was used in 59% with a hospital mortality of 35%, one-third of these deaths being directly due to gastric ulcer perforation or hemorrhage. Operative treatment was used in 41% of patients. The most common operation (86%) was gastric resection without vagotomy. Overall operative mortality was 16%; 34% for emergency procedures and 6% for elective procedures. Cachexia seemed to be the most important factor related to operative mortality. Nonoperative treatment resulted in more than twice the hospital mortality compared to operative treatment. Approximately one-half of all patients treated non-operatively had a recurrent gastric ulcer at some time during this study. The recurrence rate following definitive gastric resection was 1.3% compared with 16% during nonoperative therapy. Three-fourths of recurrences occurred later than two years and nearly half of recurrences after more than 5 years of followup. Patients with a prior history of overt bleeding from gastric ulcer disease particularly were at risk for further bleeding. There were coincidental duodenal ulcers in 10% of our patients and a 0.8% incidence of gastric cancer during followup. Long term followup demonstrates the superiority of operative treatment of gastric ulcer and also reveals the continuous propensity of such ulcers to recurrence following nonoperative treatment. Earlier elective operation in patients with overt bleeding, recurrence or persisting symptoms should decrease overall mortality and result in a lower overall long-term risk of ulcer complications.  (+info)

(3/1261) Implications of managed care denials for pediatric inpatient care.

With the growing penetration of managed care into the healthcare market, providers continue to experience increasing cost constraints. In this environment, it is important to track reimbursement denials and understand the managed care organization's rationale for refusal of payment. This is especially critical for providers of pediatric care, as children justifiably have unique healthcare needs and utilization patterns. We developed a system for tracking and documenting denials in our institution and found that health maintenance organizations denied claims primarily for one of three reasons: medically unnecessary care, care provided as a response to social (rather than medical) need, and provider inefficiencies. Health maintenance organization denials are also growing annually at our institutions. This knowledge can not only help providers of pediatric care more effectively negotiate future contracts, but provides an opportunity to differentiate the health needs of the pediatric patient from those of the adult. This information can be used as a basis for education, pediatric outcome studies, and guideline development--all tools that can help providers receive reasonable reimbursement for pediatric services and enable them to meet the complex health needs of children. Recommendations for action are discussed.  (+info)

(4/1261) AIDS information needs: conceptual and content analyses of questions asked of AIDS information hotlines.

Dissemination of accurate information about HIV is an essential element of national AIDS prevention strategies and AIDS telephone hotlines serve a vital function in providing such information. In this study, questions asked of two AIDS information hotlines were collected and examined to determine the AIDS information needs of the general public. Questions asked of local AIDS lines in Houston and Milwaukee (N = 1611) were independently classified into 30 content areas, with two independent raters achieving 94% agreement. The content areas were organized for analysis into 11 broader information domains. Questions about HIV antibody testing were the most frequently asked (27%), followed by questions about sexual transmission of HIV (16%), HIV-related symptoms (16%) and situations that do not confer risk for HIV infection (14%). Content analyses suggested that individuals were motivated to call hotlines by fears of contracting HIV from actual risk behaviors or to dismiss concerns about contracting HIV through casual modes. Many individuals had information needs related to their own personal experiences that could not be addressed through media campaigns or other means of mass public health education. Results suggest that HIV information dissemination to the public through hotlines and other means of direct health education serves both preventive and destigmatizing functions.  (+info)

(5/1261) The 10-year incidence of renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the 10-year decrease in estimated creatinine clearance and the incidence of renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease in a cohort of people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of individuals with younger-onset diabetes (diagnosed at < 30 years old and taking insulin) participated in an examination during 1984-1986 (n = 891), a 6-year follow-up examination during 1990-1992 (n = 765), and a 10-year follow-up examination during 1995-1996 (n = 634). Serum creatinine and risk factors were measured during standardized protocols at each examination. Estimated adjusted creatinine clearance was computed by a modification of the Cockroft-Gault formula. A clinically meaningful change was defined as a decrease in the estimated annual creatinine clearance of > or = 3 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2.year-1. Renal insufficiency was defined by the development of a serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dl or greater after the 1984-1986 examination. RESULTS: The 10-year estimated incidence of an annual decrease in the creatinine clearance of > or = 3 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 for the cohort was 52.5%, and the cumulative 10-year incidence of renal insufficiency and end-stage renal failure was 14.4%. In univariate analyses, incidence of a decrease in the estimated creatinine clearance of > or = 3 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2.year-1 and the incidence of renal insufficiency were both related to higher glycosylated hemoglobin; higher diastolic blood pressure; the presence of microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria; more severe retinopathy; and a history of loss of tactile sensation or temperature sensitivity at baseline. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for the presence of microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria at baseline, higher glycosylated hemoglobin and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with decreasing estimated creatinine clearance. In logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for the presence of microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria at baseline, the incidence of renal insufficiency was independently associated with age, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, and serum HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a public health approach aimed at controlling glycemia, blood pressure, and serum lipids might result in reducing the rate of decline in renal function and development of renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

(6/1261) Mortality and hormone-related exposures in women with diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: Hormone-related events and exposures are related to mortality and especially to cardiovascular disease in women. We evaluated whether such exposures influenced risk in a well-defined group of women with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Women with younger- and older-onset diabetes who were identified during a population-based study were queried about number of pregnancies, age at menarche, use of oral contraceptives, use of estrogen replacement therapy, and menopausal status at examinations in 1984-1986. Analyses are limited to women aged > or = 18 years (n = 398 and 542 in those with younger- and older-onset diabetes, respectively). Cohort mortality was monitored carefully, and causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. RESULTS: There were 58 deaths in the first group and 338 deaths in the second group since the 1984-1986 examination. The number of pregnancies was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI 0.92-1.00]) in older-onset women only. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest and are compatible with the notion that the hormone exposures examined are unrelated to cardiovascular mortality in women with diabetes, with the exception of a minimal effect of the number of pregnancies in older-onset women. Whether there is a difference in these exposure-outcome relationships between women with diabetes and those without diabetes is uncertain and requires further investigation.  (+info)

(7/1261) The 14-year incidence of lower-extremity amputations in a diabetic population. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative 14-year incidence of lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) and evaluate risk factors for LEA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Study subjects consisted of population-based cohorts of younger-onset (diagnosed before age 30 years and taking insulin, n = 906) and older-onset (diagnosed after age 30 years, n = 984) individuals with diabetes. Subjects participated in baseline (1980-1982), 4-year, 10-year, and 14-year examinations or interviews. LEAs were determined by history. RESULTS: The cumulative 14-year incidence of LEA was 7.2% in younger- and 9.9% in older-onset patients. In multivariable analyses based on the discrete linear logistic model, LEA in the younger-onset group was more likely for males (odds ratio [OR] 5.21 [95% CI 2.50-10.88]), older age (OR for 10 years 1.71 [1.30-2.24]), higher glycosylated hemoglobin (OR for 1% 1.39 [1.22-1.59]), higher diastolic blood pressure (OR for 10 mmHg 1.58 [1.20-2.07]), history of ulcers of the feet (3.19 [1.71-5.95]), and more severe retinopathy (OR for one step 1.16 [1.08-1.24]). In younger-onset patients aged > or = 18, pack-years smoked (OR for 10 years 1.20 [1.03-1.41]) was also associated with LEAs, and daily aspirin use was inversely associated (OR 0.11 [0.01-0.83]). In the older-onset group, LEA was more likely for men (2.66 [1.49, 4.76]) and if the subject had higher glycosylated hemoglobin (OR for 1% 1.25 [1.09-1.43]), higher pulse pressure (OR for 10 mmHg 1.19 [1.04-1.37]), history of ulcers (3.56 [1.84-6.89]), and more severe retinopathy (OR for one step 1.07 [1.00-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS: There are several risk factors for LEA with potential for modification and preventive strategies.  (+info)

(8/1261) Discontinuation rates of cholesterol-lowering medications: implications for primary care.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term continuation rates for cholesterol-lowering therapy (niacin, sequestrants, statins) in a multidisciplinary lipid clinic and to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 different dosing strategies designed to improve long-term continuation of therapy. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study was done at the Milwaukee Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Lipid Clinic, where healthcare personnel were trained to improve patient tolerance to cholesterol-lowering medications. Primary outcomes were recorded prospectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were 970 consecutive veterans who began therapy with niacin, sequestrants, or statins between March 1988 and December 1995. In 1992, two different dosing strategies were initiated to reduce the discontinuation rates for niacin and sequestrants: (1) the niacin titration schedule was lengthened from 3 to 6 weeks and (2) the initial sequestrant dose was reduced from four to two scoops daily. RESULTS: Discontinuation rates for niacin and sequestrants were both very high. For niacin, 48% and 71% of all patients who began therapy discontinued the drug by 1 and 4 years, respectively. For sequestrants, drug discontinuation rates were 59% and 83% at 1 and 4 years, respectively. On the other hand, statin discontinuation rates at 1 and 4 years were only 10% and 28%, respectively. Neither the longer niacin titration schedule nor the lower sequestrant initiation dose reduced these high discontinuation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite initiation of niacin and sequestrant therapy in the setting of a multidisciplinary lipid clinic, drug discontinuation rates were high and were similar to rates observed in primary-care settings. Neither the specialized resources available in a lipid clinic nor protocols designed to improve tolerance to therapy reduced the high drug discontinuation rate. Unless more tolerable niacin and sequestrant formulations become available, reliance on statins as the preferred cholesterol-lowering agents will continue because they have fewer side effects and lower discontinuation rates.  (+info)


  • Coordenadas: 43° 7' 48" N 87° 55' 39" O Glendale é uma cidade localizada no estado norte-americano do Wisconsin, no Condado de Milwaukee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 42° 36' 2" N 88° 42' 30" O Darien é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de Walworth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 44° 27' 1" N 89° 17' 8" O Amherst é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de Portage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 43° 43' 24" N 90° 35' 31" O Ontario é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de Vernon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 44° 59' 1" N 92° 33' 13" O Roberts é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de St. Croix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 42° 58' 50" N 88° 37' 53" O Rome é uma Região censo-designada localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de Jefferson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 45° 11' 18" N 92° 23' 20" O Deer Park é uma vila localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de St. Croix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coordenadas: 44° 55' 43" N 89° 39' 57" O Rib Mountain é uma Região censo-designada localizada no estado norte-americano de Wisconsin, no Condado de Marathon. (wikipedia.org)


  • Coordenadas: 44° 15' 56" N 88° 24' 6" O Appleton é uma cidade localizada no estado americano do Wisconsin, nos condados de Outagamie, Calumet e Winnebago. (wikipedia.org)


  • Two projects with very different research goals - one to inhibit mold growth on packaged cheese and the other to create a virtual reality experience with art - have brought state recognition to University of Wisconsin-Stout students. (wisconsin.edu)


  • This article about a location in Rock County, Wisconsin is a stub . (wikipedia.org)