Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.ThyroglobulinRelative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Off-Road Motor Vehicles: Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.International System of Units: A system of physical units in which the fundamental quantities are length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, and amount of substance, and the corresponding units are the meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole. The system has been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLArtifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.GlycogenRewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Mercury Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Rhenium: Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Holmium: Holmium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ho, atomic number 67, and atomic weight 164.93.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Ethmoid Sinus: The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.TriglyceridesSilicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Neutron Activation Analysis: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Military ScienceLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Keto Acids
Total body irradiation: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. As the name implies, TBI involves irradiation of the entire body, though in modern practice the lungs are often partially shielded to lower the risk of radiation-induced lung injury.Vibration white finger: Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,) is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery. Use of the term "vibration white finger" has generally been superseded in professional usage by broader concept of HAVS, although it is still used by the general public.Avid Radiopharmaceuticals: Avid Radiopharmaceuticals is an American company, founded by Dr. Daniel Skovronsky, and based at the University City Science Center research campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Irradiance: In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre (), while that of spectral irradiance is the watt per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1) or the watt per square metre per metre (W·m−3)—commonly the watt per square metre per nanometre ().Brain positron emission tomography: Positron emission tomography (PET) measures emissions from radioactively labeled metabolically active chemicals that have been injected into the bloodstream. The emission data are computer-processed to produce multi-dimensional images of the distribution of the chemicals throughout the brain.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter: A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter, abbreviated UART , is a computer hardware device that translates data between parallel and serial forms. UARTs are commonly used in conjunction with communication standards such as TIA (formerly EIA) RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.PlethysmographList of camera types: Below are the camera typesFluoroethyl: Fluoroethyl is an organofluorine functional group in chemistry.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Glucose clamp technique: Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. It is used to measure either how well an individual metabolizes glucose or how sensitive an individual is to insulin.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Laser-induced thermotherapy: Laser-induced thermotherapy, also referred to as laser ablation, consists of tissue destruction, induced by a local increase of temperature by means of laser light energy transmission.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Thyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Glucose transporterAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Thyroid cancerHyperintensityList of radioactive isotopes by half-life: This is a list of radioactive isotopes ordered by half-life from shortest to longest.Lutetium(III) oxideLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIImaging phantom: Phantom}}Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThyroidectomyGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Nitrogen deficiencyAngiographyProtein catabolism: Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerisation into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribosomes. Protein catabolism, which is the breakdown of macromolecules, is essentially a digestion process.Doxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Homeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Indium (111In) capromab pendetideImage fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Riding-like sittingShivering: Shivering (also called rigors or shuddering) is a bodily function in response to early hypothermia or just feeling cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant tissue damage, medically called lesions.Technetium(IV) chlorideScintillation proximity assay: Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is an assay development and biochemical screening that permits the rapid and sensitive measurement of a broad range of biological processes in a homogeneous system. The type of beads that are involved in the SPA are microscopic in size and within the beads itself, there is a scintillant which emits light when it is stimulated.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosminHigh-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Breeding for heat stress tolerance: Plant breeding is process of development of new cultivars. Plant breeding involves development of varieties for different environmental conditions – some of them are not favorable.Hypothermia cap: A hypothermia cap (also referred to as "cold cap" or "cooling cap") is a therapeutic device used to cool the human scalp. Its most prominent medical applications are in preventing or reducing alopecia in chemotherapy, and for preventing cerebral palsy in babies born with neonatal encephalopathy caused by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).Cancellous bone: Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. The other osseous tissue type is cortical bone also called compact bone.Autoradiograph: An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g.Bone tumorFall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Radioimmunodetection: Radioimmunodetection is an imaging technique using radiolabeled antibodies.Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM: ISAS (Ictal-Interictal SPECT Analysis by SPM) is an objective tool for analyzing ictal vs. interictal SPECT scans.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Carbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.Off-road vehicleList of truck types: This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks and to provide links to articles on the various types. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks.
(1/290) Additional value of whole-body positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in recurrent colorectal cancer.
PURPOSE: To assess the additional value of the whole-body [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan as a staging modality complementing conventional diagnostic methods (CDM) in patients suspected of having recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 103 patients, the discordances between FDG-PET and CDM results were identified and related to the final diagnosis obtained by histopathology or clinical follow-up (> 1 year). All FDG-PET studies were reviewed with full knowledge of the CDM findings. RESULTS: In a region-based analysis, discordances between CDM and FDG-PET findings were found in 40 of 412 regions (10%). In these, FDG-PET had additional diagnostic value in 14 of 16 locoregional, six of seven hepatic, seven of eight abdominal, and eight of nine extra-abdominal regions. In a patient-based analysis, CDM categorized a subgroup of 60 patients as having resectable recurrent disease limited to the liver (n = 37) or locoregional region (n = 23). In 13 of these patients, there were discordant FDG-PET findings, detecting additional tumor sites in nine patients and excluding disease in three patients and yielding an additional diagnostic value in 20% of the patients. A second subgroup consisted of 13 patients with inconclusive CDM findings (n = 5) or with elevated plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels and an otherwise negative conventional work-up (n = 8). In these patients, FDG-PET results were correct in eight of nine discordances, yielding a positive additional diagnostic value in 62% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Whole-body FDG-PET can have a clear impact on the therapeutic management in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer. (+info)
(2/290) Rhenium-186-labeled hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate dosimetry and dosing guidelines for the palliation of skeletal metastases from androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Rhenium-186 (tin)-labeled hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (186Re-labeled HEDP) was evaluated in 27 men with progressive androgen-independent prostate cancer and bone metastases. Administered activities ranged from 1251 to 4336 MBq (33.8-117.2 mCi). The primary objectives were to assess tumor targeting, normal organ dosimetry, and safety. Antitumor effects were assessed by posttherapy changes in prostate-specific antigen and, when present, palliation of pain. Whole-body kinetics, blood and kidney clearance, skeletal dose, marrow dose, and urinary excretion of the isotope were assessed. Targeting of skeletal disease was observed over the period of quantification (4-168 h). Radiation doses to whole body, bladder, and kidney were well tolerated. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression (grade III) at 4107 MBq (111 mCi) and grade II at 296 MBq (80 mCi). Probe clearance (whole body) and urinary excretion measurements were highly correlated. Of the six patients treated at the highest dosage schedules (three at 1510 MBq/m2 and three at 1665 MBq/m2), three showed a posttherapy decline in prostate-specific antigen of 50% or more. The declines were not sustained. The determination of total activity retained at 24 h, as well as an estimate of marrow dose, correlated with the amount of myelosuppression observed. These results suggest that a single 24-h measurement of retained activity would allow individualized dosing and an improved therapeutic index relative to fixed dosing schema. Repetitive dosing is required to increase palliation. (+info)
(3/290) Clinical evaluation of processing techniques for attenuation correction with 137Cs in whole-body PET imaging.
Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a 137Cs single-photon emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. However, the attenuation coefficients provided by this method are underestimated because of the energy difference between 662- and 511-keV photons, as well as scatter and emission contamination when the transmission data are acquired after injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, from a clinical perspective, the relative benefits of various processing schemes to resolve these issues. METHODS: Thirty-eight whole-body PET studies acquired with postinjection singles transmission scans were analyzed. The transmission images were processed and applied to the emission data for attenuation correction. Three processing techniques were compared: simple segmentation (SEG) of the transmission scan, emission contamination subtraction with scaling (ECS) of the resulting data to 511-keV attenuation coefficient values and a hybrid technique performing partial segmentation of some tissue densities on the ECS scan (THR). The corrected emission scans were blindly assessed for image noise, the presence of edge artifacts at the lung-soft-tissue interface and for overall diagnostic confidence using a semiquantitative scoring system. The count densities and the SDs in uniform structures were compared among the various techniques. The observations for each method were compared using a paired t test. RESULTS: The SEG technique produced images that were visually less noisy than the ECS method (P < 0.0001) and the THR technique, but at the expense of increased edge artifacts at the boundaries between the lungs and surrounding tissues. The THR technique failed to eliminate these artifacts compared with the ECS technique (P < 0.0001) but preserved the activity gradients in the hilar areas. The count densities (and thus, the standardized uptake values) were similar among the three techniques, but the SEG method tended to underestimate the activity in the lung fields and in chest tumors (slope = 0.79 and 0.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: For many clinical applications, SEG data remain an efficient method for processing 137Cs transmission scans. The ECS method produced noisier images than the other two techniques but did not introduce artifacts at the lung boundaries. The THR technique, more versatile in complex anatomic areas, allowed good preservation of density gradients in the lungs. (+info)
(4/290) Influence of radiation synovectomy on articular cartilage, synovial thickness and enhancement as evidenced by MRI in patients with chronic synovitis.
Radiation synovectomy is a safe and effective treatment for chronic synovitis that is refractory to the repetitive, intra-articular application of glucocorticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid or seronegative arthritis. Short-term and long-term effects of radiation synovectomy on articular cartilage, synovial enhancement and thickness were assessed in a prospective, clinical trial by MRI. METHODS: Thirteen patients (mean age 39+/-13 y) were treated with a median activity of 8.4 GBq 165Dy ferric hydroxide, a radionuclide with favorable physical properties and a well-documented clinical safety and efficacy profile. MRI was performed on a 1.5-T MR unit using a circular polarized knee coil. RESULTS: After a mean observation period of 13 mo, a marked reduction in synovial enhancement was observed in 10 patients. The mean reduction in baseline synovial thickness (mean 7.6+/-3.0 mm) was 24% (P = 0.03) at 1 wk and 42% (P = 0.01) about 1 y after treatment, respectively. Clinically, 9 of 13 patients (69%) exhibited persistent response to radiation synovectomy. The local clinical score, as defined by the reduction in pain, pannus, joint effusion and by the increase in the range of motion, improved significantly (P = 0.01), from a median of 7 (range 4-10) to a median of 2 (range 0-9). One year after treatment, changes in the local clinical score were related to the decrease in synovial enhancement in MRI (r = 0.7, P = 0.008, n = 12). There were no persistent adverse effects, nor was there evidence for any severe radiation-induced damage to the articular cartilage. On later follow-up images, the structure of the articular cartilage remained unaltered in all but 3 patients, who had new, superficial erosions most likely attributed to an active disease with persistence of inflammation. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that radiation synovectomy with 165Dy-ferric hydroxide is effective in terms of reducing chronic synovitis without causing detectable harm to the articular cartilage, as shown by MRI. (+info)
(5/290) Biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolism of 11beta-methoxy-(17alpha,20E/Z)-[123I]iodovinylestradiol in healthy women and breast cancer patients.
The biodistribution and dosimetry of the 20E and 20Z stereoisomers of 11 beta-methoxy-(17alpha,20)-[123I]iodovinylestradiol (MIVE) were evaluated in six healthy women. Tumor uptake and metabolism of the 20Z isomer were evaluated in 13 women referred after abnormal mammography or after discovery of a suspect mass at physical examination. METHODS: The radiopharmaceuticals were prepared from their corresponding stannyl intermediates and administrated intravenously. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals and urine was collected for up to 24 h. Metabolites were detected by radiochromatography. Tissue distribution was followed for up to 24 h by scintigraphic imaging. The dosimetry was computed according to the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. RESULTS: The 20E and 20Z isomers exhibit similar biodistribution and dosimetry patterns. Chromatographic analysis of plasma samples of healthy volunteers and cancer patients, as well as in vitro plasma incubations, confirmed the in vivo stability of (20Z)-[123I]MIVE. Radioactivity was rapidly cleared from the blood by the liver and excreted through the gut, which received the highest radiation dose (0.211 mGy/MBq). The effective doses for the adult female and male phantom were 0.054 and 0.046 mSv/MBq, respectively. Among the 13 patients imaged with (20Z)-[123I]MIVE, 3 had fibrocystic disease with no focal uptake, 8 had good agreement with in vitro estrogen receptor determination and 2 were false-positive. CONCLUSION: The radiation dose after intravenous administration of 20E- or (20Z)-[123I]MIVE at imaging dose levels is within acceptable limits. There was a good correlation between uptake of (20Z)-[123I]MIVE and the presence of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients. (+info)
(6/290) Correlation of total body potassium and leukemic cell mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Total body leukemic mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was measured by quantitation of total body potassium (TBK) with a whole-body counter. In addition, the predicted normal total body potassium (Kp) for each patient was calculated from an empirically derived relationship involving height, weight, age, and sex. Both the absolute TBK and the relative excess of total body potassium (TBK/Kp) were related to the stage of disease. Patients in the early stages of CLL were found to have lower TBK and TBK Kp than patients in the late stages of disease. Both of these parameters increased with the successively advanced stages of the disease. The clinically monitored reduction of leukemic cell mass following therapy was accompanied by reductions in TBK and TBK/Kp. Data presented support the notion that TBK/Kp is a useful indicator of the total body leukemic mass. Furthermore, the results of these studies quantitatively validate the proposed clinical staging system for CLL. Quantitation of TBK by a whole-body counter is an accurate and noninvasive procedure and does not require administration of isotopes. (+info)
(7/290) Detection of a large arteriovenous fistula between the internal lliac vessels by radionuclide angiography.
A patient evaluated for heart failure was found by routine radionuclide angiography to have a large internal iliac arteriovenous fistula of presumed postoperative origin. The value of radionuclide angiography is described with a review of the literature on such unusual cases. (+info)
(8/290) Radionuclide computed tomography of the body using routine radiopharmaceuticals. I. System characterization.
A whole-body computed tomography system for single-photon emitters was evaluated from the standpoint of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and thresholds for count densities with reference to standard doses of currently used radiopharmaceuticals in patients. In air and tissue equivalents, spatial resolution was relatively constant throughout the field of view and attentuation correction algorithms returned uniformity of response to within 10%. In a phantom of the human abdomen 1.5-cm spherical "cold" lesions and 1-cm "hot" lesions could be resolved. Aspects of the partial-volume effect were observed and investigated. To detect 1.5 cm-cold lesions in an abdominal phantom, five million events were required. (+info)