Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carex Plant: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Microsporidia: A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.LouisianaArecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary hosts include CATTLE and SWINE.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.

*  Wetlands - The New York Times

Commentary and archival information about wetlands from The New York Times. ... Commentary and archival information about wetlands from The New York Times. ... News about Wetlands, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. More ... In a rare urban remnant of wetlands and its 1,500 years of sediment, climate experts find more proof of rising seas, a looming ...
https://nytimes.com/topic/subject/wetlands?offset=60&s=newest

*  Birds arriving at north-state wetlands - SFGate

13,000 acres linked to 50,000 acres of wetlands connected by mosaic of waterways, ponds and marsh; 200 species of birds. Dirt ... According to surveys, roughly 1.6 million waterfowl and shorebirds spend the winter at bay wetlands. In mid-October, the latest ... It can take wind to get them to fly, fog to get them to fly low, and rain and water deliveries to expand wetland areas and ... Storms in the Arctic, Canada and the Pacific Northwest are sending roughly 5 million birds on the Pacific Flyway to wetlands on ...
sfgate.com/sports/article/Birds-arriving-at-north-state-wetlands-4017826.php

*  Federal Register :: Wetlands Reserve Program

This document has been published in the Federal Register. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/1995/06/26/X95-30626/wetlands-reserve-program

*  Jackpine mine will destroy wetlands: FN - CBC Player

Jackpine mine will destroy wetlands: FN. CBC News: Northbeat. December 9, 2013 ...
cbc.ca/player/play/2423321178

*  Wetlands plan updated | The Spokesman-Review

A Tuesday meeting to update residents on the proposed Saltese Flats wetlands restoration project was jam-packed and at times ... Wetlands plan updated. Sat., June 29, 2013. Flooding on the Saltese Flats is shown in this photo taken April 23, 2012. This is ... "Our wetland restoration project is not allowed to make flooding on the Saltese Flats, upstream or downstream, worse than it ... A berm would be created around the new wetlands that would include a raised trail for pedestrians and cyclists. Several water ...
spokesman.com/stories/2013/jun/29/wetlands-plan-updated/?photos

*  Columbia Wetlands

Coots, geese, ducks, bald eagles, and osprey also have been recorded in significant numbers in the wetlands. The wetlands also ... Within the Columbia Wetlands area, the river channel meanders from one side of the valley to the other as it turns around the ... The Columbia wetlands are home to the second-largest colony of Great Blue Herons in western Canada, estimated at more than 300 ... The Columbia wetlands are internationally recognized for the diversity of the aquatic and streamside (riparian) habitat, the ...
https://nwcouncil.org/history/ColumbiaWetlands

*  Cleaning Oil-Soaked Wetlands May Be Impossible

Oil that has rolled into shoreline wetlands now coats the stalks and leaves of plants such as roseau cane - the fabric that ... But with the plants gone, water from the gulf would roll in and wash away the roots, turning wetlands to open water. ... Officials are considering some drastic and risky solutions: They could set the wetlands on fire or flood areas in hopes of ... Hundreds of thousands of migratory birds nest in the wetlands' inner reaches, a complex network of bayous, bays and man-made ...
https://newsmax.com/newsfront/us-oil-spill-impossible/2010/05/22/id/359848/

*  Groups to Amend Wetlands Challenge

Three groups that challenged an unprecedented variance to state wetlands regulation for the St. Joe Company plan to revise ... Joe blanket approval to fill wetlands. Such work would be in accord with limits set by the plan instead of obtaining separate ... They contend the agreement would protect wetlands by keeping nearly two-thirds of the acreage in Bay and Walton counties ...
wjhg.com/home/headlines/792977.html?site=mobile

*  iSimangaliso Wetland Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre

The iSimangaliso Wetland Park is one of the outstanding natural wetland and coastal sites of Africa. Covering an area of ... World Wetlands Day 2013 Saturday, 2 February 2013 * World Migratory Bird Day 2011 observed 14-15 May in over 50 countries ... iSimangaliso Wetland Park. The ongoing fluvial, marine and aeolian processes in the site have produced a variety of landforms, ... CEO of iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority receives 2017 KfW-Bernhard-Grzimek-Preis Thursday, 4 May 2017 ...
whc.unesco.org/en/list/914/

*  Wetlands Monitoring Applications on Environmental XPRT

Results for wetlands monitoring from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT ... For example, measuring the leaching of nutrients from the cultivation of wetlands and measuring water quality in rainwater and ... wetlands and mud flats, sulfur springs and decaying organic matter. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide is produced by living ...
https://environmental-expert.com/applications/keyword-wetlands-monitoring-8149

*  Wetlands of the Northeast: Results of the National Wetlands Inventory :: Documents

Wetlands of the Northeast: Results of the National Wetlands Inventory April 2010 U.S. Fish & Wildlife ServiceWetlands of the Northeast: Results of the National Wetlands Inventory April 2010 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Ralph W. Tiner Regional Wetland Coordinator Northeast Region U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, Massachusetts 01035ii This document should be cited as: Tiner, Ralph W. 2010. Wetlands of the Northeast: Results of the National Wetlands Inventory. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, Hadley, MA. 71 pp.iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Wetlands of the Northeast: Results of the National Wetlands Inventory Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………………………………… v Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………………………… vi Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… ...
digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/document/id/1345/rec/2

*  KDOT finds consensus lacking on wetlands / LJWorld.com

Mike Rees says he hasn't seen much support for plans to offset damage to wetlands caused by construction of the South Lawrence Trafficway. As a result, he said Tuesday, such mitigation efforts might be pared back to meet only minimum requirements.. "To date, I've been unable to garner any support for the mitigation concepts," said Rees, chief counsel of the Kansas Department of Transportation, told the Lawrence City Commission.. Rees presented commissioners with a series of maps Tuesday night. One included a proposal to shift Louisiana Street west and Haskell Avenue east, both south of 31st Street, to create new wetlands to make up for any destruction to the Baker Wetlands when the SLT is completed east of Iowa Street.. Federal rules require newly created wetlands to cover 1.5 times the area of wetlands destroyed by such construction, Rees said. KDOT's proposal covers more than the required area, he said, but it hasn't ...
www2.ljworld.com/news/2001/aug/01/kdot_finds_consensus/

*  Red Tape Movement: 2010

The Ramsar Convention (Article 1.1) defined wetlands as: "areas of marsh, fen, peat land, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide doesn't exceed six meters". In addition, the convention (Article 2.1) provides that wetlands: "may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six meters at low tide lying within the wetlands. Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. In wetland ecosystem water is the primary factor controlling both the plant and animal life; they are found on every continent except Antarctica and from the tundra to the tropics . Wetlands fall into four general categories-marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens. Marshes ...
redtapemovementcommunity.blogspot.com/2010/

*  The application of geographic information systems for delineation and classification of tidal wetlands for resource management...

In addition to wetland classification this project was partly developed to provide a GIS base layer, which when combined with supplementary data sets, would enhance the ability of resource mangers and citizens to prioritize tidal wetland restoration efforts and evaluate the ecological integrity of an individual tidal wetlands or an entire estuarine complex. A simple spatial analysis of this data set's classification system by watershed and comparison to the Oregon State of the Environment Report 2000 (SER) shows improvements to total existing tidal marsh habitat. It also shows that the SER underestimated the total habitat lost due to anthropogenic alteration based on information and techniques available for their assessment. Additional development of the data set may enhance management of Goals 16 and 17 of Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals Guidelines, aid in management of non-point source pollution and the designation Critical Habitat and restoration priorities for the endangered Coastal ...
westernwaters.org/record/view/242380

*  Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States 2004 to 2009 :: Documents

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Report to Congress Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 2004 to 2009 Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 2004 to 2009 T. E. Dahl U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fisheries and Habitat Conservation Washington, D.C. 3 Acknowledgments Many agencies, organizations, and individuals have contributed to the completion of this study. The author would like to specifically recognize the following individuals for their contributions: From the Fish and Wildlife Service, Bryan Arroyo, Assistant Director, Fisheries and Habitat Conservation; Jeff Underwood, Deputy Assistant Director, Fisheries and Habitat Conservation; David J. Stout, Chief, Division of Habitat and Resource Conservation; Robin NimsElliott, Deputy Chief, Division of Habitat and Resource Conservation; and Martin Kodis, Chief, Branch of Resource and Mapping Support1. Editorial, administrative and outreach assistance was provided by Cheryl Amrani ...
digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/document/id/1370/rec/50

*  World Wetlands Day | Ramsar

World Wetlands Day is celebrated every year on 2 February. This day marks the date of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea ...
ramsar.org/activity/world-wetlands-day

*  Detail of wetland Obora v Liblicích - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/R-ME-02-obora-v-liblicich

*  Detail of wetland Čakovecké rybníky - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-CB-15-cakovecke-rybniky

*  Detail of wetland Natálka (Natálie) - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-CH-01-natalka-natalie

*  Detail of wetland Údolní nádrž Nechranice - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-CV-20-udolni-nadrz-nechranice

*  Detail of wetland Němčické rybníčky - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-JH-33-nemcicke-rybnicky

*  Detail of wetland Zásada pod školou - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-JN-02-zasada-pod-skolou

*  Detail of wetland Lom Na plachtě - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-PH-04-lom-na-plachte

*  Detail of wetland Smutný - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-PI-08-smutny

*  Detail of wetland Spůlka - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-PT-18-spulka

*  Detail of wetland Jesení - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/L-TA-02-jeseni

*  Detail of wetland Kladinský potok - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/R-PE-07-kladinsky-potok

*  Detail of wetland Lednické rybníky - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/RS04-02-lednicke-rybniky

*  Detail of wetland Kovářská - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/RS12-03-kovarska

*  Detail of wetland Černá louka - wetlands.nature.cz

The most important wetlands in the Czech Republic is due to the professional nature conservation bodies mapped and largely protected.
wetlands.nature.cz/wetland/RS12-21-cerna-louka

*  Ecosystem Facts: North American Arid West Emergent Marsh | Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife

Species & Ecosystem Science. Ecosystem Facts North American Arid West Emergent Marsh. This widespread ecological system occurs throughout much of the arid and semi-arid regions of western North America, typically surrounded by savanna, shrub steppe, steppe, or desert vegetation. Natural marshes may occur in depressions in the landscape (ponds, kettle ponds), as fringes around lakes, and along slow-flowing streams and rivers (such riparian marshes are also referred to as sloughs). Marshes are frequently or continually inundated, with water depths up to 2 m. Water levels may be stable, or may fluctuate 1 m or more over the course of the growing season. Water chemistry may include some alkaline or semi-alkaline situations, but the alkalinity is highly variable even within the same complex of wetlands. Marshes have distinctive soils that are typically mineral, but can also accumulate organic material. Soils have characteristics that result from long periods of anaerobic conditions in the soils ...
wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/research/ecofacts/n_american_arid_west_emergent_marsh.html

*  Water Practice and Technology

Two horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were constructed on separate sites in Ireland - one to provide secondary treatment and the other to provide a tertiary treatment for single house domestic effluent. A comprehensive analysis over three years provided a robust characterisation of the internal dynamics of the systems with respect to N and P removal. The removal of Total N was only 29% and 30% in the secondary and tertiary treatment wetlands respectively and revealed a drop off in performance over time with a higher release of org-N during summer periods. 15N stable isotope studies confirmed that 35% of the ammonium from the septic tank was passing straight through the process without taking part in any biogeochemical processes. However, the study showed that influent N in both wetlands was being biologically assimilated into organic nitrogen (biomass or plants) and then released again as soluble ammonium - so-called nitrogen "spiraling". Removal of Total ...
wpt.iwaponline.com/content/6/3/wpt2011041

*  Mounds Bring Wetlands Work To Standstill - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel

The discovery of three mounds that may contain Indian artifacts has prompted county officials to halt the restoration of damaged wetlands at a proposed residential development in south Lake
articles.orlandosentinel.com/1986-05-20/news/0220290033_1_wetlands-minneola-indian-artifacts

*  Officials To Study Proposal To Repair Wetlands Damage - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel

State and county environmental officials will meet Friday in Orlando to discuss restoration plans for wetlands damaged by developers of a planned 540- acre residential project on Lake
articles.orlandosentinel.com/1985-07-17/news/0310340164_1_lake-minneola-wetlands-environmental-officials

*  Wetlands Bill on Bolsa Chica - latimes

Accolades for the suggestion by Anne Spiegel to create a conservancy for the preservation of the Bolsa Chica Wetlands.Not easy to accomplish, but most worthwhile projects aren't achieved without
articles.latimes.com/1987-07-19/local/me-4864_1_bolsa-chica-wetlands-wetlands-bill-huntington-beach

California coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Global Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentList of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Meramec Conservation AreaTidal Wave (Sub Focus song)Weathering: Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters. Weathering occurs in situ, roughly translated to: "with no movement" , and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations.Telmatobacter: Telmatobacter is a genus of bacteria in the family Acidobacteriaceae.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.EcosystemCarex firma: Carex firma is a species of sedge that grows in the mountains of southern and central Europe.Soil salinity control: Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.Social effects of Hurricane Katrina: Hurricane Katrina had many social effects. Initially, many lives were lost, while many more were disrupted.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Microsporidia: The microsporidia constitute a phylum (Microspora) of spore-forming unicellular parasites. They were once thought to be protists but are now known to be fungi.Louisiana State University School of Dentistry: Louisiana State University School of Dentistry is a school of dentistry located in the United States city of New Orleans. It is the only dental school located in the state of Louisiana.Sago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Ranavirus: Ranavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Iridoviridae. There are four other genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae, but Ranavirus is the only one that includes viruses that are infectious to amphibians and reptiles.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Jardine Water Purification PlantPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAtmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.

(1/354) Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster.

BACKGROUND: Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. METHODS: An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. RESULTS: South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. CONCLUSION: Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently, there is a risk of vector abundance with enhanced malaria transmission potential, due to the vastness of these tsunami-created breeding grounds and likelihood of them becoming permanent due to continued flooding in view of land subsidence. The close proximity of the houses and paucity of cattle may lead to a higher degree of man/vector contact causing a threat of malaria outbreak in this densely populated area. Measures to prevent the possible outbreak of malaria in this tsunami-affected area are discussed.  (+info)

(2/354) The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control ?

Malaria has strong linkages with agriculture, and farmers in malarious regions have a central position in creating or controlling the conditions that favour disease transmission. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in control efforts. It is suggested that malaria control can benefit from a complementary intervention in rural development, the Farmer Field School (FFS) on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). This is a form of education that uses experiential learning methods to build farmers' expertise, and has proven farm-level and empowerment effects. The benefits of incorporating malaria control into the IPM curriculum are discussed. An example of a combined health-agriculture curriculum, labeled Integrated Pest and Vector Management (IPVM), developed in Sri Lanka is presented. Institutional ownership and support for IPVM could potentially be spread over several public sectors requiring a process for institutional learning and reform.  (+info)

(3/354) Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes.

Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada).One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest.Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly less perceptions of a decrease in the protected area, as compared to the adjacent non-protected area. A posteriori comparisons between sequential satellite imagery (retrospective till 1977) and respondents that were at least 15 years back then, revealed a mangrove decrease which was however perceived to different extents depending on the area with which the fishermen were familiar. While local needs had not been incorporated in the existing policy, we created a framework on how data on ethnobotanical traditions, fishery-related activities and local people's perceptions of change can be incorporated into management strategies.  (+info)

(4/354) A preliminary survey of ectoparasites of small mammals in Kuala Selangor Nature Park.

Trapping of small mammals was conducted at 5 study sites in Kuala Selangor Nature Park (KSNP) from 20-24 June 2005. A total of 11 animals comprising 2 species of rodents, Maxomys whiteheadi and Rattus exulans were caught from 3 sites, i.e from an area of mixed secondary forest and mangrove swamp; an area of mangrove swamp, and from an area of lalang fringing mangrove swamp. From these animals, the following 7 species of ectoparasites were found: Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps nuttalli, Ascoschoengastia indica, Leptotrombidium deliense, Hoplopleura pectinata, Hoplopleura pacifica and Polyplax spinulosa. One of the ectoparasites found, L. deliense is a known vector of scrub typhus and thus may pose potential health risks to visitors to KSNP.  (+info)

(5/354) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs.

Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols with a strong inhibitory effect on microbial breakdown. Because bogs receive their nutrient supply solely from atmospheric deposition, the global increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs as a consequence of human activities could potentially alter the litter chemistry with important, but still unknown, effects on their C balance. Here we present data showing the decomposition rates of recently formed litter peat samples collected in nine European countries under a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition from approximately 0.2 to 2 g.m(-2).yr(-1). We found that enhanced decomposition rates for material accumulated under higher atmospheric N supplies resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and dissolved organic carbon release. The increased N availability favored microbial decomposition (i) by removing N constraints on microbial metabolism and (ii) through a chemical amelioration of litter peat quality with a positive feedback on microbial enzymatic activity. Although some uncertainty remains about whether decay-resistant Sphagnum will continue to dominate litter peat, our data indicate that, even without such changes, increased N deposition poses a serious risk to our valuable peatland C sinks.  (+info)

(6/354) Isolation of aerobic, gliding, xylanolytic and laminarinolytic bacteria from acidic Sphagnum peatlands and emended description of Chitinophaga arvensicola Kampfer et al. 2006.

Four aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow-pigmented and flexirubin-producing bacterial strains with gliding motility were isolated from acidic Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. These bacteria are capable of degrading xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides, but not cellulose, pectin or chitin. The four strains possess almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and are most closely related (98.9-99.5 % sequence similarity) to the recently reclassified species of the phylum Bacteroidetes, Chitinophaga arvensicola Kampfer et al. 2006, formerly known as [Cytophaga] arvensicola Oyaizu et al. 1983. However, the novel isolates from Sphagnum peat differed from C. arvensicola DSM 3695(T) in their ability to degrade xylan and starch, by greater tolerance of acidic pH and by their inability to reduce nitrate. An emended description of this species is proposed.  (+info)

(7/354) Pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater: wetland treatment as a potential solution.

Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.  (+info)

(8/354) A comparison of fungal communities from four salt marsh plants using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA).

Fungal decomposers are important contributors to the detritus-based food webs of salt marsh ecosystems. Knowing the composition of salt marsh fungal communities is essential in understanding how detritus processing is affected by changes in community dynamics. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to examine the composition of fungal communities associated with four temperate salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora (short and tall forms), Juncus roemerianus, Distichlis spicata and Sarcocornia perennis. Plant tissues were homogenized and subjected to a particle-filtration protocol that yielded 106 microm particulate fractions, which were used as a source of fungal isolates and fungal DNA. Genera identified from sporulating cultures demonstrated that the 106 microm particles from each host plant were reliable sources of fungal DNA for ARISA. Analysis of ARISA data by principal component analysis (PCA), principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and species diversity comparisons indicated that the fungal communities from the two grasses, S. alterniflora and D. spicata were more similar to each other than they were to the distinct communities associated with J. roemerianus and S. perennis. Principal component analysis also showed no consistent, seasonal pattern in the composition of these fungal communities. Comparisons of ARISA fingerprints from the different fungal communities and those from pure cultures of selected Spartina ascomycetes supported the host/substrate specificity observed for the fungal communities.  (+info)



Wastewater


  • Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent low-cost technology for the treatment and reuse of wastewater in urban areas. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this study, a pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland with vertical flow (VF) and horizontal flow (HF) in series was designed and investigated to evaluate sewage wastewater treatment capacity. (environmental-expert.com)

national refuge


  • Opponents warn the project could release pollutants, such as pesticides and radioactive contaminants, harm crucial bird habitats, affect the nearby national refuge and destroy precious freshwater wetlands to create more common salt marsh. (onlineathens.com)

swamps


  • The ongoing fluvial, marine and aeolian processes in the site have produced a variety of landforms, including coral reefs, long sandy beaches, coastal dunes, lake systems, swamps, and extensive reed and papyrus wetlands. (unesco.org)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is the most prevalent of the total reduced sulfurs, and is commonly found in volcanic gases, marshes and swamps, wetlands and mud flats, sulfur springs and decaying organic matter. (environmental-expert.com)

Marsh


  • Learn about the wetland species that call the marsh home. (chicagoparkdistrict.com)
  • Among them is whether the project "restores," rare freshwater wetlands to saltwater tidal wetlands, as he says, or "converts" it into salt marsh. (onlineathens.com)

destroy


  • Plans to transform Beijing and create a new nearby supercity may destroy celebrated wetlands - and erase the communities' aquatic traditions. (nytimes.com)

restore


  • Several projects have been undertaken to restore wetlands in Louisiana to provide flood protection and wildlife habitat. (nytimes.com)
  • This is the area Spokane County wants to restore wetlands that were there before a lake was drained in the late 1800s. (spokesman.com)

birds


  • Storms in the Arctic, Canada and the Pacific Northwest are sending roughly 5 million birds on the Pacific Flyway to wetlands on the bay, delta and refuges in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. (sfgate.com)
  • It can take wind to get them to fly, fog to get them to fly low, and rain and water deliveries to expand wetland areas and disperse the birds. (sfgate.com)
  • The Columbia wetlands are internationally recognized for the diversity of the aquatic and streamside (riparian) habitat, the variety of wildlife and, because of the location in the Rocky Mountain Trench, the important resting and breeding habitat for migrating and resident species of birds along the Pacific flyway. (nwcouncil.org)
  • Hundreds of thousands of migratory birds nest in the wetlands' inner reaches, a complex network of bayous, bays and man-made canals. (newsmax.com)
  • Take a hike, discover birds, learn what lives in the river and wetlands, build forts, and make seasonal art. (chicagoparkdistrict.com)

acreage


  • While much of the acreage in the wetlands is privately owned, the entire area is designated by the province as a Wildlife Management Area. (nwcouncil.org)
  • They contend the agreement would protect wetlands by keeping nearly two-thirds of the acreage in Bay and Walton counties undeveloped. (wjhg.com)

restoration


  • A Tuesday meeting to update residents on the proposed Saltese Flats wetlands restoration project was jam-packed and at times hostile, forcing county Commissioner Shelly O'Quinn to ask people to be respectful. (spokesman.com)
  • Our wetland restoration project is not allowed to make flooding on the Saltese Flats, upstream or downstream, worse than it already is," Brattabo said. (spokesman.com)
  • Phase one of the county's wetlands restoration plan involves redirecting the water that already flows into the flats off the Mica Peak watershed. (spokesman.com)
  • This paper presents a simple method for the restoration of clogged vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland by earthworm. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Since clogging always takes place at the top layer, epigeic earthworm is suitable for restoration of the clogged wetland. (environmental-expert.com)

species


  • The site contains critical habitats for a range of species from Africa's marine, wetland and savannah environments. (unesco.org)

sustainability


  • Mary Mattingly's "WetLand" is part houseboat, part sculpture, part DIY sustainability demonstration site. (nytimes.com)

acres


  • But instead of a 38-mile stretch of river, business and environmental interests are now clashing over the fate of 700 acres of sensitive freshwater wetlands. (onlineathens.com)

flood


  • Officials are considering some drastic and risky solutions: They could set the wetlands on fire or flood areas in hopes of floating out the oil. (newsmax.com)

destruction


  • Experts say that the exploitation of wetlands in southern Mexico City could lead to the destruction of the area's bucolic canals within a few years. (nytimes.com)
  • One included a proposal to shift Louisiana Street west and Haskell Avenue east, both south of 31st Street, to create new wetlands to make up for any destruction to the Baker Wetlands when the SLT is completed east of Iowa Street. (ljworld.com)

water quality


  • For example, measuring the leaching of nutrients from the cultivation of wetlands and measuring water quality in rainwater and sewage. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Constructed wetlands: a solution to water quality issues in Mexico? (environmental-expert.com)
  • The state Pesticides Board is considering a request from the state Division of Water Quality to investigate herbicide spraying in the wetlands used to grow pine trees in North Carolina's coastal plain. (wral.com)
  • This study describes the first Norwegian microbial source tracking (MST) approach for water quality control and pollution removal from catchment run-off in a nature-based treatment system (NBTS) with a constructed wetland. (environmental-expert.com)

Project


  • Information on the wetlands project is available at www.spokanecounty.org/ salteseflats . (spokesman.com)
  • ABSTRACT: Wetland rapid assessment methods (RAMs) can provide a cost effective, scientifically defensible estimate of wetland and riparian condition for use in ambient and project monitoring in resource management and regulatory programs. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Dana Beach, executive director of the league, said the project raises questions about the way the rules of wetlands mitigation are carried out in South Carolina. (onlineathens.com)

Area


  • In the Bay Area, each region has many protected wetlands that attract waterfowl and shorebirds. (sfgate.com)
  • Within the Columbia Wetlands area, the river channel meanders from one side of the valley to the other as it turns around the alluvial fans of 80 tributary streams. (nwcouncil.org)
  • Federal rules require newly created wetlands to cover 1.5 times the area of wetlands destroyed by such construction, Rees said. (ljworld.com)

provide


  • The wetlands also provide important winter range for elk, moose, deer, and a variety of other wildlife. (nwcouncil.org)

Nature


  • Introduction Wetlands International has been in Mali since 1998, when it started a partnership with the national government to help better manage the country's water resources for both its people and nature. (environmental-expert.com)

back


  • Scientists are turning a cranberry bog back into coastal wetland. (nytimes.com)
  • Wetlands can hold back water from rushing into streams and rivers, reducing the likelihood of flooding. (cbc.ca)

Times


  • News about Wetlands, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. (nytimes.com)

nearby


  • In the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, about 3 million ducks and 750,000 geese will head to the refuges and nearby wetlands at some point over winter to rest, water and feed. (sfgate.com)

open water


  • But with the plants gone, water from the gulf would roll in and wash away the roots, turning wetlands to open water. (newsmax.com)

areas


  • Constructed wetlands (CWs) have proven to be an exceptional alternative, particularly for rural areas in developing countries. (environmental-expert.com)

plan


  • It points to a $320-million plan announced in June to promote wetland protection and toughen drainage licensing. (cbc.ca)

urban


  • In a rare urban remnant of wetlands and its 1,500 years of sediment, climate experts find more proof of rising seas, a looming hazard for much of the region. (nytimes.com)

years


  • Murphy McLean, president of South Coast Mitigation Group, has been trying for more than four years to transform freshwater wetland into a saltwater environment in order to sell mitigation credits. (onlineathens.com)

winter


  • According to surveys, roughly 1.6 million waterfowl and shorebirds spend the winter at bay wetlands. (sfgate.com)

Photo


  • The Columbia Wetlands near Golden, B.C. Photo: Kindy Gosal, Golden. (nwcouncil.org)

seen


  • Mike Rees says he hasn't seen much support for plans to offset damage to wetlands caused by construction of the South Lawrence Trafficway. (ljworld.com)

rural


  • Tory Leader Brian Pallister says the province should expand pilot projects that give rural landowners cash incentives to keep wetlands healthy. (cbc.ca)

give


  • The Panhandle Citizens Coalition, Sierra Club and Citizens for the Bay are questioning an agreement that would give St. Joe blanket approval to fill wetlands. (wjhg.com)

million


  • The company will have to pay just $225 million for its pollution of New Jersey's wetlands. (nytimes.com)