Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carex Plant: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Microsporidia: A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.LouisianaArecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary hosts include CATTLE and SWINE.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.

*  Search Results - - 2,007 Results - Digital Library
Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals Description: Amending Federal laws to protect wetlands, ... Supporters counter that these programs are critical if the Nation is to achieve the stated goal of no-net-loss of wetlands. The ... It explains how each program works, especially on agricultural wetlands, and the likely effect of proposed revisions to ... especially agricultural wetlands, is a contentious issue for the 104th Congress. Critics contend that current programs are ...
*  Search Results - - 24 Results - Digital Library
This report addresses the importance of wetlands in general, the ecology of the coastal wetlands in the Gulf, impacts of oil ... The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response Description: The explosion of the Deepwater ... spills on wetland habitats, response options, the implications of hurricane season for the spill's impacts, and cleanup and ...
*  Search Results - - 76 Results - Digital Library
Considerable progress has been made in the past 10 years regarding wetlands and methane: a global digital dataset of wetlands ( ... The workshop developed a wetland parameterization scheme based on observable quantities to better incorporate wetlands into ... Global Wetland Distribution and Functional Characterization: Trace Gases and the Hydrologic Cycle Description: The IGBP ... Wetlands cover only about 1% of the Earth's surface, yet are responsible for a much greater proportion of biogeochemical fluxes ...
*  Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States :: Documents
Palustrine Moss-Lichen Wet-lands, Emergent Wetlands, Scrub-Shrub Wetlands, and Forested Wetlands may occur adjacent to the ... Palustrine Moss-Lichen Wet-lands, Emergent Wetlands, Scrub-Shrub Wetlands, and Forested Wetlands may occur adjacent to the ... Bottom Aquatic Bed Unconsolidated Shore Moss-Lichen Wetland Emergent Wetland Scrub-Shrub Wetland Forested Wetland Fig. 1. ... Bottom Aquatic Bed Unconsolidated Shore Moss-Lichen Wetland Emergent Wetland Scrub-Shrub Wetland Forested Wetland Fig. 1. ...
*  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+effects+of+wetlands+and+other+factors+on+rural+land+values....-a085921091
Business Real estate industry Real estate appraisal Real estate appraisers Economic aspects Real property Valuation Wetlands ... The effects of wetlands and other factors on rural land values. (Features). by 'Appraisal Journal'; ... Wetland variables include the total acreage of wetlands in each parcel and the amount of acreage classified in each wetland ... Riverine wetlands occupied only about 9.5 acres of the total wetland acreage in this study Although these wetland systems are ...
*  Texas coastal wetlands status and trends, mid-1950s to early 1990s :: Documents
In 1992, palustrine farmed wetlands comprised 52 percent of all palustrine wetlands and 45 percent of total wetlands for ... In 1992, palustrine farmed wetlands comprised 52 percent of all palustrine wetlands and 45 percent of total wetlands for ... Estuarine wetlands Texas estuarine wetlands totaled about 566,570 acres in 1992 -- about 10 percent of all estuarine wetlands ... Estuarine wetlands Texas estuarine wetlands totaled about 566,570 acres in 1992 -- about 10 percent of all estuarine wetlands ...
*  Exploring Argentina's wetlands | New York Post
Never heard of the Iberá wetlands, known locally as the Esteros del Iberá? Few folks have. But this criminally under visited ... From Buenos Aires, LAN and Aerolíneas Argentinas serve Corrientes, the nearest major airport to the Iberá wetlands. From there ... Guests of the new Iberá Lodge tackle the surrounding wetlands by horseback. Eliseo Miciu ... the only lodge in the area with private access into the wetlands - to beef up accessibility. Its six rooms are high-end but not ...
*  Abbot Point Wetlands | Greenpeace Australia Pacific
... we've been most moved and captivated by Abbot Point and the Caley Valley Wetlands. ... we've been most moved and captivated by Abbot Point and the Caley Valley Wetlands. ...
*  Urban Wetlands In Los Angeles | NRDC
Urban Wetlands In Los Angeles. May 05, 2011 David Pettit This week, Los Angeles City Councilwoman Jan Perry took me on a tour ... Our natural wetlands are disappearing in California. With innovative urban projects like these two in South Los Angeles, e ... Formerly a pipe storage yard, there is now an 8.5 acre park that includes a 0.5 acre engineered wetland, the first of its kind ... The wetland is surrounded by cottonwoods, willows, sycamores, cattails and yellow pond lilies and has two islands where ducks ...
*  Wet Meadows | Wetlands Protection and Restoration | US EPA
These wetlands, which often resemble grasslands, are typically drier than other marshes except during periods of seasonal high ... Wet meadows often occur in areas where farming is prevalent, leading historically to draining and filling of these wetlands for ... A variety of water-loving grasses, sedges, rushes, and wetland wildflowers proliferate in the highly fertile soil of wet ... Today, some recognize the importance of preserving these valuable wetlands, and efforts are underway to prevent further losses ...
*  Wetlands & Meadows--Seattle Public Utilities
shrub wetlands dominated by hardhack (Spiraea douglasii).. Extensive forested wetland habitats are found along middle Rock ... Two of the watershed's most unusual wetlands occur south of Little Mountain. These wetlands share both fen (neutral pH and ... Wetland habitats in the upper watershed vary widely in size and are distributed from the valley bottom of the Cedar River ( ... Major wetland habitats in the lower watershed include beaver pond, shrub, and bog or fen complexes. An extensive beaver pond ...
*  Who Pays to Repair Louisiana's Wetlands? : NPR
But who should pay to repair the wetlands? The state government and oil companies are asking the federal government to foot a ... Southern Louisiana's wetlands, a buffer against hurricanes, are slowly disappearing. Oil exploration has contributed to the ... Who Pays to Repair Louisiana's Wetlands? Southern Louisiana's wetlands, a buffer against hurricanes, are slowly disappearing. ... But who should pay to repair the wetlands? The state government and oil companies are asking the federal government to foot a ...
*  Topic: Wetlands - Water Education Foundation
EPA: Western wetlands in poor condition A first-of-its-kind report card on the nation's wetland habitats shows the western U.S ... Wetlands Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems in the world. They produce high levels of oxygen, filter toxic ... In Ballona Wetlands preserve, homeless are unwanted intruders As land manager of the Ballona Wetlands just south of Marina del ... Central Valley Wetlands and Riparian Habitat In the Central Valley, wetlands-partly or seasonally saturated land that supports ...
*  Soccer Insider - Jason Garey's goal: Saving Louisiana wetlands
Here's one that's genuine: A campaign by Columbus Crew forward Jason Garey to bring attention to the wetlands in his native ... Categories: MLS , Tags: BP oil spill, Jason Garey, Louisiana wetlands Save & Share: Previous: Landon Donovan's interview with ... Jason Garey's goal: Saving Louisiana wetlands. It's not unusual for athletes to lend their names to worthy causes, but too ... Here's one that's genuine: A campaign by Columbus Crew forward Jason Garey to bring attention to the wetlands in his native ...
*  Matanuska-Susitna Borough - Wetlands
MSB Wetlands Management Plan (see Specialty Plans under Government) Map Viewer. MAT-SU Wetland Map ViewerThe National Wetlands ... In the Mat-Su, there are 11 wetland types described on the "Identifying Wetlands" page. According to the MSB Wetlands ... Benefits of Wetlands. Wetlands are an important component of the natural resources within the Matanuska-Susitna Borough (Mat-Su ... Benefits of Wetlands. Wetlands and the activities they support are key to the sustainability of the Mat-Su's economy, lands, ...
*  Village of Lawrence, NY Freshwater Wetlands
FRESHWATER WETLANDS MAP. A map on which are indicated the boundaries of any freshwater wetland and which has been filed with ... FRESHWATER WETLANDS Lands and waters lying within the boundaries of the Village, as shown on a freshwater wetlands map, or ... Any activity located in a freshwater wetland where such wetland is located in more than one town or village. ... wetlands and to regulate the development of such wetlands in order to secure the natural benefits of freshwater wetlands, ...
*  Edisto River Basin Wetlands
... is forested wetland, 5% is barren, 3% is water, 2% is nonforested wetland, and 1% is urban land (SCDHEC, 2004). The river basin ... Edisto River Basin Wetlands. Scott Jones, Scott Smith, Erin Allen, Jue Jiang. Figure 1. Sunset view of the Edisto River estuary ... Figure 24- Interior wetland on ACE Basin Island approximately 45 miles south of Charleston, SC. NOAA Photo Library.. ... The majority of the farmland soils are not wetland soils as they tend to be deep and well-drained; these soils are mostly found ...
*  Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?
... had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice ... Species diversity is high with 100-130 wetland species occupying portions of the wetland. Good species differentiation ( ... Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?. Year Published:. 2002. Language:. English. Publisher:. U.S. Geological Survey. ... The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative ...
*  Rare, ancient life form found in Tasmania's wetlands - UPI.com
... living stromatolites among the wetlands of a remote Tasmanian Valley -- the first living stromatolites found on the island. ... The unique wetlands host spring mounds from which highly mineralized water flows, soaking the peat-rich soil. Structures in the ... Rare, ancient life form found in Tasmania's wetlands. "The discovery of living stromatolites in Tasmania is highly significant ... Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area is home to peat-bound karstic wetlands, which feature peaty soils on top and limestone ...
*  Wetland Ecology | The Morton Arboretum
Learn the essentials of wetland ecology and the vital management techniques necessary to maintain threatened wetland ecosystems ... Learn the essentials of wetland ecology and the management techniques necessary to maintain threatened wetland ecosystems. ... Wetlands are critical habitats in the Great Lakes region. Today, these ecosystems are threatened by encroaching development, ... Discuss the principles of wetland ecology underlying restoration practice, visit sites that represent different stages of ...
*  Wetlands Restoration Not a Panacea for Louisiana Coast
... 30.09.2008. Counting on wetlands restoration projects to protect storm ... Coast »Ernst & Young »Hurricanes »Infrastructure »Louisiana Coast »Panacea »Restoration »Wetlands »coastal communities » ... Wetlands can dampen the effect of storm surge, the problem is that scientists don't fully understand the impact that adding ... "In order to predict the impact of wetlands on storm surge, you need to have good storm surge data to understand what happened ...
2. The wetland is not part of a wetland mosaic;. 3. The wetland does not score thirteen points or more in the wetland rating ... All category I wetlands shall be considered regulated wetlands. Regulated wetlands do not include those artificial wetlands ... 2. The wetland is not part of a wetland mosaic; and. 3. The wetland does not contain habitat identified as essential for local ... "Wetland mosaic" means a patchwork of wetlands that is considered one unit where each patch of wetland is less than one acre; ...
*  Adopt-A-Pond - Wetland Curriculum
Wetland Curriculum Resource. Unit 3. Ecology - Activities. 3.1 - THERE'S NO PLACE LIKE HOME. (Level: 2 : 4 :: Wetland Habitat) ...
*  Adopt-A-Pond - Wetland Curriculum
2. LIVING IN THE WORLD'S WETLANDS - ADAPTATIONS. From the desert-like conditions of Canada's arctic to the rain forests of ... Living in the Worlds Wetlands: Adaptations. -Exploring Life Cycles and Families. -Animal Communications. -Who's Who: ... When you visit the Zoo, use one of the Zoo Activity Sheets such as 8.2: Spotting Wetland Creatures or 8.3: Animal Adaptations ... Most of us are familiar with the noise of spring, when wetlands and temporary ponds erupt into a chorus of frog calls. These ...
*  Adopt-A-Pond - Wetland Curriculum
Well-established fears associated with wetlands soon disappear when one has had the opportunity to interact with the wetland ... Wetland Curriculum Resource. Unit 4. Amphibians - Introduction. Expected learning outcomes ,,. List of Activities for this unit ... Few people, especially those living in urban areas, have an opportunity to experience and enjoy the beauty of a wetland. ...

California coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Global Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentList of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Meramec Conservation AreaTidal Wave (Sub Focus song)Weathering: Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters. Weathering occurs in situ, roughly translated to: "with no movement" , and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations.Telmatobacter: Telmatobacter is a genus of bacteria in the family Acidobacteriaceae.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.EcosystemCarex firma: Carex firma is a species of sedge that grows in the mountains of southern and central Europe.Soil salinity control: Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.Social effects of Hurricane Katrina: Hurricane Katrina had many social effects. Initially, many lives were lost, while many more were disrupted.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Microsporidia: The microsporidia constitute a phylum (Microspora) of spore-forming unicellular parasites. They were once thought to be protists but are now known to be fungi.Louisiana State University School of Dentistry: Louisiana State University School of Dentistry is a school of dentistry located in the United States city of New Orleans. It is the only dental school located in the state of Louisiana.Sago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Ranavirus: Ranavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Iridoviridae. There are four other genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae, but Ranavirus is the only one that includes viruses that are infectious to amphibians and reptiles.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Jardine Water Purification PlantPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAtmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.

(1/354) Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster.

BACKGROUND: Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. METHODS: An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. RESULTS: South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. CONCLUSION: Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently, there is a risk of vector abundance with enhanced malaria transmission potential, due to the vastness of these tsunami-created breeding grounds and likelihood of them becoming permanent due to continued flooding in view of land subsidence. The close proximity of the houses and paucity of cattle may lead to a higher degree of man/vector contact causing a threat of malaria outbreak in this densely populated area. Measures to prevent the possible outbreak of malaria in this tsunami-affected area are discussed.  (+info)

(2/354) The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control ?

Malaria has strong linkages with agriculture, and farmers in malarious regions have a central position in creating or controlling the conditions that favour disease transmission. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in control efforts. It is suggested that malaria control can benefit from a complementary intervention in rural development, the Farmer Field School (FFS) on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). This is a form of education that uses experiential learning methods to build farmers' expertise, and has proven farm-level and empowerment effects. The benefits of incorporating malaria control into the IPM curriculum are discussed. An example of a combined health-agriculture curriculum, labeled Integrated Pest and Vector Management (IPVM), developed in Sri Lanka is presented. Institutional ownership and support for IPVM could potentially be spread over several public sectors requiring a process for institutional learning and reform.  (+info)

(3/354) Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes.

Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada).One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest.Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly less perceptions of a decrease in the protected area, as compared to the adjacent non-protected area. A posteriori comparisons between sequential satellite imagery (retrospective till 1977) and respondents that were at least 15 years back then, revealed a mangrove decrease which was however perceived to different extents depending on the area with which the fishermen were familiar. While local needs had not been incorporated in the existing policy, we created a framework on how data on ethnobotanical traditions, fishery-related activities and local people's perceptions of change can be incorporated into management strategies.  (+info)

(4/354) A preliminary survey of ectoparasites of small mammals in Kuala Selangor Nature Park.

Trapping of small mammals was conducted at 5 study sites in Kuala Selangor Nature Park (KSNP) from 20-24 June 2005. A total of 11 animals comprising 2 species of rodents, Maxomys whiteheadi and Rattus exulans were caught from 3 sites, i.e from an area of mixed secondary forest and mangrove swamp; an area of mangrove swamp, and from an area of lalang fringing mangrove swamp. From these animals, the following 7 species of ectoparasites were found: Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps nuttalli, Ascoschoengastia indica, Leptotrombidium deliense, Hoplopleura pectinata, Hoplopleura pacifica and Polyplax spinulosa. One of the ectoparasites found, L. deliense is a known vector of scrub typhus and thus may pose potential health risks to visitors to KSNP.  (+info)

(5/354) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs.

Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols with a strong inhibitory effect on microbial breakdown. Because bogs receive their nutrient supply solely from atmospheric deposition, the global increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs as a consequence of human activities could potentially alter the litter chemistry with important, but still unknown, effects on their C balance. Here we present data showing the decomposition rates of recently formed litter peat samples collected in nine European countries under a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition from approximately 0.2 to 2 g.m(-2).yr(-1). We found that enhanced decomposition rates for material accumulated under higher atmospheric N supplies resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and dissolved organic carbon release. The increased N availability favored microbial decomposition (i) by removing N constraints on microbial metabolism and (ii) through a chemical amelioration of litter peat quality with a positive feedback on microbial enzymatic activity. Although some uncertainty remains about whether decay-resistant Sphagnum will continue to dominate litter peat, our data indicate that, even without such changes, increased N deposition poses a serious risk to our valuable peatland C sinks.  (+info)

(6/354) Isolation of aerobic, gliding, xylanolytic and laminarinolytic bacteria from acidic Sphagnum peatlands and emended description of Chitinophaga arvensicola Kampfer et al. 2006.

Four aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow-pigmented and flexirubin-producing bacterial strains with gliding motility were isolated from acidic Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. These bacteria are capable of degrading xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides, but not cellulose, pectin or chitin. The four strains possess almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and are most closely related (98.9-99.5 % sequence similarity) to the recently reclassified species of the phylum Bacteroidetes, Chitinophaga arvensicola Kampfer et al. 2006, formerly known as [Cytophaga] arvensicola Oyaizu et al. 1983. However, the novel isolates from Sphagnum peat differed from C. arvensicola DSM 3695(T) in their ability to degrade xylan and starch, by greater tolerance of acidic pH and by their inability to reduce nitrate. An emended description of this species is proposed.  (+info)

(7/354) Pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater: wetland treatment as a potential solution.

Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.  (+info)

(8/354) A comparison of fungal communities from four salt marsh plants using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA).

Fungal decomposers are important contributors to the detritus-based food webs of salt marsh ecosystems. Knowing the composition of salt marsh fungal communities is essential in understanding how detritus processing is affected by changes in community dynamics. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to examine the composition of fungal communities associated with four temperate salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora (short and tall forms), Juncus roemerianus, Distichlis spicata and Sarcocornia perennis. Plant tissues were homogenized and subjected to a particle-filtration protocol that yielded 106 microm particulate fractions, which were used as a source of fungal isolates and fungal DNA. Genera identified from sporulating cultures demonstrated that the 106 microm particles from each host plant were reliable sources of fungal DNA for ARISA. Analysis of ARISA data by principal component analysis (PCA), principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and species diversity comparisons indicated that the fungal communities from the two grasses, S. alterniflora and D. spicata were more similar to each other than they were to the distinct communities associated with J. roemerianus and S. perennis. Principal component analysis also showed no consistent, seasonal pattern in the composition of these fungal communities. Comparisons of ARISA fingerprints from the different fungal communities and those from pure cultures of selected Spartina ascomycetes supported the host/substrate specificity observed for the fungal communities.  (+info)

  • habitat
  • Small patches of non-forested habitat - including wetlands - break the nearly uniform canopy of second-growth conifer forest in the lower watershed. (seattle.gov)
  • There has been important habitat creation, and a resulting increase in fauna can be expected, particularly as the acreage reconstructed at Kenilworth has more than doubled with similarly reconstructed wetlands at Kingman Lake (42 acres), which were completed during the summer of 2000, just a quarter of a mile down river. (usgs.gov)
  • The wetlands are contained in the pastoral properties of 'Lynworth' and 'Yarrol', and in parts of 'Boonoke' and 'Old Dromana', with the surrounding land being important as providing feeding habitat for waterbirds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plan is to create a new national park as the wetlands provide habitat for 160 species of birds amongst four endangered ecological communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensive wetland provides habitat for several endangered species, including the peregrine falcon and American badger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wetland is a major habitat for endangered migratory birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process being termed "managed re-alignment", the seawall that protects croplands and property was re-established in more tenable positions, three miles behind the new wetlands, which will provide habitat for birds like oystercatchers, avocets and little terns, according to the press release issued at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • urban wetland
  • This week, Los Angeles City Councilwoman Jan Perry took me on a tour of two urban wetland sites in South Los Angeles, one under construction and one fully built out. (nrdc.org)
  • The site is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and is one of the largest urban wetland nature reserves in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valley Wetlands
  • Of all the places that the Rainbow Warrior has visited so far on its Save the Reef tour, we've been most moved and captivated by Abbot Point and the Caley Valley Wetlands. (greenpeace.org)
  • Valley Wetlands (Welsh: Gwlyptiroedd y Fali), formerly Valley Lakes, is a nature reserve in Anglesey, Wales belonging to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • acres
  • The order approved Tuesday by the State Water Resources Control Board sets targets for state agencies in building thousands of acres of ponds, wetlands and other dust-control projects around the lake. (watereducation.org)
  • Another 75 million acres are tidal wetlands and coastal estuaries. (matsugov.us)
  • Alaska has lost approximately 200,000 acres of wetlands to development activities. (matsugov.us)
  • This electronic map identifies and describes different wetland types over an area of about 450,000 acres between Palmer and Houston. (matsugov.us)
  • Included in the basin are 30 watersheds and approximately two million acres of land of which approximately 45% is forested land, 29% is agricultural land, 15% is forested wetland, 5% is barren, 3% is water, 2% is nonforested wetland, and 1% is urban land (SCDHEC, 2004). (emporia.edu)
  • The park was created on 50 acres (200,000 m2) of unused utility land and transformed into a recreation wetlands open to the public with a three-quarter mile boardwalk that crosses between open water pond areas, emergent marsh areas, shallow shelves, and islands with shrubs and snags to foster nesting and roosting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restoration
  • Visit www.vanishingparadise.org to learn more, and call, e-mail or write your congressman to demand restoration of our wetlands and protection of wildlife. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Discuss the principles of wetland ecology underlying restoration practice, visit sites that represent different stages of restoration, and explore the management of these systems.This class can be taken as a component of the Woodland Stewardship Program in natural areas management. (mortonarb.org)
  • Counting on wetlands restoration projects to protect storm buffeted infrastructure along the Louisiana Coast is likely to be a 'losing battle' that provides 'false hope' and prevents endangered communities from clearly planning for their future, says a researcher from Western Carolina University (WCU). (innovations-report.com)
  • As hurricanes have pounded the Gulf of Mexico this fall, the media has been filled with the words of politicians, policy makers, NGOs and local communities touting the importance of ongoing wetlands restoration projects as long-term storm protection for coastal communities and infrastructure. (innovations-report.com)
  • While I think that wetland restoration is a worthy goal, there's almost no scientific evidence that suggests that we will be able to put the wetlands back on the scale and nature needed to reduce storm impacts. (innovations-report.com)
  • and to achieve no net loss of wetlands by requiring restoration or enhancement of degraded wetlands or creation of new wetlands to offset losses that are unavoidable. (codepublishing.com)
  • 1. "Restoration" means actions performed to reestablish wetland functional characteristics and processes which have been lost by alterations, activities, or catastrophic events within an area which no longer meets the definition of a wetland. (codepublishing.com)
  • marshes
  • These wetlands, which often resemble grasslands, are typically drier than other marshes except during periods of seasonal high water. (epa.gov)
  • As the state has grown into one of the world's leading economies, Californians have developed and transformed the state's marshes, swamps and tidal flats, losing as much as 90 percent of the original wetlands acreage-a greater percentage of loss than any other state in the nation. (watereducation.org)
  • The delta region has many large and small distributary rivers and streams, permanent wetlands and marshes, oxbow lakes, levees and alluvial plains. (wikipedia.org)
  • lagoons
  • Construction was completed in 2006 and by 2011 the land had evolved into wetland, mudflats, saline lagoons and seven artificial islands, allowing the wildlife to reside on these areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • The new Iberá Lodge, opened to guests this past May, is hoping to get in on the action as well, focusing on ecotourism and using its on-property man-made channel - the only lodge in the area with private access into the wetlands - to beef up accessibility. (nypost.com)
  • The map is useful to identify the extent and types of wetlands in an area, but is not sufficiently detailed to serve as an accurate wetland delineation for regulatory purposes. (matsugov.us)
  • Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area is home to peat-bound karstic wetlands, which feature peaty soils on top and limestone beneath. (upi.com)
  • G. "Buildable area" means an area outside of wetlands and wetland buffers. (codepublishing.com)
  • The Crown Wetlands cover about 40% of the area of the island. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensive wetland area is a good example of an inland terminal delta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the consequent reduction of the wetland area from about 1000 km2 to 100 km2, it is still one of the most significant waterbird breeding sites in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is maintained by the Columbia Wetlands Wildlife Management Area (CWWMA, designated in 1996) and administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is "the largest and best example of fen bog in southern Ontario", one of the "most diverse undisturbed wetland tracts in Canada" and is a provincially significant Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minesing Wetlands is an important staging area for thousands of migratory waterfowl, and is the largest wintering ground for white-tailed deer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minesing Wetlands is a popular recreation area which draws many tourists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wetlands Construídos is a Brazilian startup company that specializes in the area of constructed wetland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wetlands is an area of high biodiversity and very hard to find. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several conservation units that provide varying degrees of protection of the wetlands and other area, such as the Delta del Orinoco biosphere reserve, Turuépano National Park and Mariusa National Park. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wallasea Wetlands is a reclaimed wetlands area located in Essex, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the largest man-made marine wetland area in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The area is currently managed by the Department of Sustainability & Environment and Melbourne Water, with Parks Victoria informally managing the area to the north of the wetlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased demand for housing and development in the area has and will continue to change the nature and character of Point Cook Coastal Park and Cheetham Wetlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cheetham Wetlands has been identified as a significant environmental area and as such management, conservation and protection plans have been implemented are currently implemented or being developed for the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • importance
  • Today, some recognize the importance of preserving these valuable wetlands, and efforts are underway to prevent further losses in some areas. (epa.gov)
  • It was designated a wetland of international importance on World Environment Day, June 5, 2005, and is the thirty-seventh such site in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Walthamstow Wetlands was designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) on account of the reservoirs' national and international importance to breeding, migratory and wintering waterbirds. (wikipedia.org)
  • divert
  • Councilwoman Perry's office rounded up $26 million in funding to turn it into an innovative engineered wetland that will divert stormwater from an existing storm drain, run it through a hydrodynamic separator to remove oil, grease and trash, and transport it into a three-cell wetland for pollutant removal before the water returns to a downstream storm drain. (nrdc.org)
  • comprise
  • Wetlands comprise a relatively small portion of the watershed (approximately one percent). (seattle.gov)
  • The Narran Wetlands, also known as the Narran Lakes, contained within the Narran Lakes Nature Reserve, comprise a series of protected ephemeral lakes and swamps fed by the Narran River in the north-west of New South Wales, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gwydir Wetlands comprise a system of irregularly inundated wetlands associated with the Gwydir River in the North West Slopes region of north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • grasslands
  • The flooded grasslands of the Orinoco wetlands are found in seven separate patches north of the main Orinoco channel, surrounded by mangroves, swamp forest, moist forest and llanos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Orinoco wetlands are in the flooded grasslands and savannas biome. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • A variety of water-loving grasses, sedges, rushes, and wetland wildflowers proliferate in the highly fertile soil of wet meadows. (epa.gov)
  • The water source of these wetlands varies and includes surface water from streams and lakes, snowmelt, and groundwater. (seattle.gov)
  • While the conversion of wetlands has slowed, the loss in California is significant and it affects a range of factors from water quality to quality of life. (watereducation.org)
  • The Delta wetlands are especially important because they are part of the vast complex of waterways that provide two-thirds of California's drinking water. (watereducation.org)
  • California's top water regulators adopted an agreement that commits the state to following through on plans of building wetlands and controlling dust around the shrinking Salton Sea over the next 10 years. (watereducation.org)
  • Wetland trees which depend upon seasonal or permanent flooding or sufficiently water-logged soils to give them a competitive advantage over other trees, including among others red maple (Acer rubrum), willows (Salix species), black spruce (Picea mariana), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), American elm (Ulmus americana) and larch (Larix laricina). (ecode360.com)
  • Wetlands shrubs, which depend upon seasonal or permanent flooding or sufficiently water-logged soils to give them a competitive advantage over other shrubs, including among others alder (Alnus species), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla) and leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata). (ecode360.com)
  • The unique wetlands host spring mounds from which highly mineralized water flows, soaking the peat-rich soil. (upi.com)
  • Minimize adverse impacts to surface water and groundwater flow, circulation patterns, and to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of wetlands. (codepublishing.com)
  • Water is key to the survival of all living species and many of the Zoo's inhabitants are specially adapted to life in the world's wetlands. (torontozoo.com)
  • They consist of the inland floodplain of the Gwydir River that splits into the Gingham and Big Leather water courses and creating, when fully flooded, a 1021 km2 wetland some 45 km west of Moree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a closed system, since the building of the 1364 GL Copeton Dam, water flows have been controlled by the State Government water authorities to the detriment of the wetlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its business includes the consulting and implementation of natural systems for water treatment and wastewater - specifically constructed wetland systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Walthamstow Wetlands project is managed by London Wildlife Trust, in partnership with Thames Water and London Borough of Waltham Forest. (wikipedia.org)
  • In total Walthamstow Wetlands has a value of £8m from capital works and revenue funding over five years, with Thames Water committing £1.84m to the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each day, the Palm Beach County Water Utilities Department's Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility pumps approximately two million gallons of highly treated water into the Wakodahatchee Wetlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreasing water quality of the wetlands due to storm water treatment, drainage and hard rubbish has also been identified as a threat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wetlands' water levels are managed by pumping and water flow controls onsite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the programs currently being undertaken onsite include: Melbourne Water in conjunction with Hobson's Bay Council recently planted a 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) stretch of land within the wetlands, with indigenous plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basin
  • The Edisto River Basin and its associated wetlands are located entirely within the state of South Carolina. (emporia.edu)
  • The wetland complex formed by the Narran floodplain is the terminal system of the Narran River, the easternmost distributary of the Balonne River, and lies between the towns of Brewarrina and Walgett, in the Murray-Darling Basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is part of the Setiu River basin, and also of the larger Setiu-Chalok-Bari-Merang basin wetland complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 75 per cent of Setiu district is wetland areas, which mainly consists Chalok River basin, Bari River basin, and Merang River basin that converge and form a continuous lagoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • sediment
  • Shorelines around small lakes, ponds, and tarns often include wetland margins that have formed as shallow areas fill in with sediment and organic material. (seattle.gov)
  • Symposium
  • In May 2013, a few of the co-founders participated in the 1st Brazilian Symposium on Wetlands Constructed of Application in Wastewater Treatment at Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meadows
  • Wet meadows often occur in areas where farming is prevalent, leading historically to draining and filling of these wetlands for agricultural uses. (epa.gov)
  • Higher elevation wetland meadows may be at risk due to predicted climate change effects. (seattle.gov)
  • streams
  • In Executive Order 13778, Trump directed agencies to review the Waters of the United States rule, which provides protections for streams and wetlands. (watereducation.org)
  • disappear
  • And of course, as the wetlands disappear, it'll increase the chances that a hurricane could destroy New Orleans. (npr.org)
  • Well-established fears associated with wetlands soon disappear when one has had the opportunity to interact with the wetland ecosystem. (torontozoo.com)
  • dependent
  • Residents, visitors, and outdoor enthusiasts from around the state enjoy the Mat-Su for its scenery and natural environment which are interrelated and dependent on healthy wetlands and watersheds. (matsugov.us)
  • characteristics
  • These wetlands share both fen (neutral pH and nutrient rich) and bog (low pH [acidic] and nutrient poor) characteristics. (seattle.gov)
  • Projected warmer winters and drier summers will likely result in reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and higher summer evapotranspiration rates that could result in loss of wetland characteristics and invasion by trees. (seattle.gov)
  • You might also want to review the 'General Characteristics of Frogs and Toads' in Unit 4 or Unit 6 for information about the beaver's adaptations for its wetland lifestyle . (torontozoo.com)
  • major
  • From Buenos Aires, LAN and Aerolíneas Argentinas serve Corrientes, the nearest major airport to the Iberá wetlands. (nypost.com)
  • Studies show that the oil and gas industry played a major role in destroying the wetlands in the first place, and now oil and gas companies have teamed up with state leaders to sponsor this ad campaign, which is designed to get the federal treasury to send the money to fix the damage. (npr.org)
  • The major part of Wetlands is made up of Helen's thoughts, reminiscences and sexual fantasies while confined to her hospital bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Setiu Wetlands is a major aquaculture spot. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • Few people, especially those living in urban areas, have an opportunity to experience and enjoy the beauty of a wetland. (torontozoo.com)
  • The term minesing is of Ojibwe origin and means "island", referring to an island located within Lake Edenvale, which encompassed the present-day wetlands and surrounding areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The title, which might be translated as "wetlands" or "damp areas," here refers to a woman's genitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lowland areas forming the Setiu Wetlands contain a large swath of Melaleuca or "Gelam" trees (also known as paperbark tea-tree) that is rare in this country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time more wetland areas were drained for development, leading to the reduction and endangerment of the wildlife that depended on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reserve is rich in wetland plants with large areas of reed and willow and uncommon species such as eight-stamened waterwort, flowering rush, marsh fern and hop sedge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • 3. "Enhancement" means actions performed to improve the condition of existing degraded wetlands so that the functions they provide are of a higher quality. (codepublishing.com)
  • includes
  • Augustus F. Hawkins Nature Park at Compton and Slauson in South LA. Formerly a pipe storage yard, there is now an 8.5 acre park that includes a 0.5 acre engineered wetland, the first of its kind in the City of Los Angeles. (nrdc.org)
  • Wetlands still remain in every part of the state, with the greatest concentration in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and its watershed, which includes the Central Valley. (watereducation.org)
  • The eastern part includes Llyn Traffwll and wetlands along the Afon Crigyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • scale
  • Thus the Mat-Su Borough Planning Department, with funding assistance from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), hired contractors to identify and map wetlands more accurately on a local scale. (matsugov.us)
  • project
  • E. "Compensation project" means actions necessary to replace project-induced wetland and/or wetland buffer losses, including land acquisition, planning, engineering, construction, monitoring and contingency actions. (codepublishing.com)
  • Up to date images and webcams of the RSPB Wild Coast Project Wallasea Wetlands Creation Project eNewsletter, DEFRA, 16 May 2011 From Directive to Detail: A joined up response to flooding? (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Wetlands are now recognized as highly specialized, valuable and functional components of our environment that need to be managed and protected. (matsugov.us)
  • kilometres
  • Setiu Wetlands itself is 26 kilometres long and 1.5 kilometres at its widest section. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wetlands are approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Melbourne, and sit within the Municipal Councils of Hobsons Bay and Wyndham City. (wikipedia.org)