Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Mice, Inbred C57BLLipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)United StatesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.TriglyceridesIdeal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Housing, AnimalDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)BrazilNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Rats, Inbred F344Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.

*  Birth Control Shot Linked to Weight Gain | Lifescript.com

... causes weight gain and an increase in body fat, according to a new study. ... ... LifeScript Health News) Depo-Provera (DMPA), a popular injectable birth control, causes weight gain and an increase in body fat ...

*  Will you have Weight gain with Artane - from FDA reports - eHealthMe

Among them, 98 have Weight gain. See what we found. ... Could Artane cause Weight gain? We studied 2,744 Artane users ... Drugs that are associated with Weight gain. Weight gain Could your condition cause Weight gain. Weight gain Related studies. * ... Artane and Weight gain - from FDA reports. Summary. Weight gain is found among people who take Artane, especially for people ... Do you have Weight gain when taking Artane?. *Check symptoms - is weight gain caused by a drug or a condition? ...

*  Bacteria in intestines play role in weight gain, study finds - Daily Press

... making it easier to gain weight and harder to lose it. ... Bacteria in intestines play role in weight gain, study finds. ... It also alters the composition of bacteria in your intestines, making it easier to gain weight and harder to lose it, research ... Many factors play a role in the propensity to gain weight, including genetics, physical activity and the environment, as well ... making it easier to gain weight.. When the researchers transferred bacteria from obese mice into so-called gnotobiotic mice, ...

*  Family, socio-economic and prenatal factors associated with failure to thrive in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and...

Using a weight gain criterion conditional on initial weight from birth to 6?8 weeks, 6?8 weeks to 9 months, and birth to 9 ... Parental height was significantly correlated with slow infant weight gain in both separate periods and from birth to 9 months ( ... prenatal and socioeconomic factors associated with these infants using standardized weight gain conditional on previous weight ... showed slow weight gain as infants born to taller parents (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.5). Higher parity was also related to slow ...

*  Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis | The BMJ

Most trials assessed did not report weight gain, and it is possible that trials chose to report weight gain only if the gain ... Weight gain is greatest during the first three months of quitting (average monthly weight gain of about 1 kg), after which the ... How much weight gain occurs following smoking cessation? A comparison of weight gain using both continuous and point prevalence ... Fig 8 Percentage of untreated quitting population who would be expected to lose weight, gain ,5 kg, gain 5-10 kg, or gain ,10 ...

*  Zyprexa: Weight gain vs. weight loss?

Home › Q & A › Questions › Zyprexa: Weight gain vs..... Zyprexa: Weight gain vs. weight loss?. Asked. 29 May 2013 by TrAva26. ... Zyprexa IS the most notorious AAP for causing weight gain. In some studies as many as 26% of users reported weight gain ... Fluoxetine - I am afraid to take this med again due to weight gain-does anyone lose weight?. Posted 2 Jul 2016 • 2 answers ... but i know that some people either gain no weight or actually lose some weight. My question is, if you are or were taking ...

*  5-HTP & Weight Gain | LIVESTRONG.COM

People gain weight as they age, due to... ... 5-HTP & Weight Gain by ANGELA BRADY Last Updated: Sep 17, 2011 ... A chemical called 5-HTP has been shown to help reduce weight gain and even promote weight loss by increasing serotonin levels ... To gain weight, your body needs a caloric surplus every day -- 5-HTP has been shown to increase satiety and reduce appetite. ... People gain weight as they age, due to fluctuating hormone levels, reduced activity and increased stress -- and many turn to ...

*  Biology-Online • View topic - Stomach bloating and weight gain

Also in these 6 years I have had a 30 pound weight gain. I have an amazing diet and always exercise. I have never been ... If you eat too much 'good' diet you can also gain weight, pigs eats vegetables and they are so fat. I don't think excessives ... Also in these 6 years I have had a 30 pound weight gain. I have an amazing diet and always exercise. I have never been ... I find that it has helped with the bloating but not the weight gain. I am seeing an Endocrinologist next week. Hopefully he can ...

*  Struggling to lose weight? Blame your ancestors! | Daily Mail Online

... that mechanism means when we gain weight the body sees it as a success and holds on to the fat. ... Meanwhile, your body may find this weight gain to be a success - and fight hard to keep any extra weight it can ... Struggling to shed pounds? Blame your ancestors! The body has 'evolved to view weight gain a success - and fights to build fat ... And when we gain weight, our body fights to keep it - even if we work out ...

*  How to Gain Weight: 15 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow

... it can be hard to figure out how to gain weight in a safe and healthy way. Luckily, the math of weight gain isn't hard to grasp ... How to Gain Weight. When everyone seems obsessed with losing weight, ... Try again! A weight gain goal of 1 to 2 pounds each month isn't bad, but you can gain that in muscle weight alone as long as ... Healthy weight gain is about 1 to 2 pounds per week.. *If you're not a weight lifter, you can gain about 2-4 pounds of both ...

*  flonase and weight gain - Allergy - MedHelp

flonase and weight gain. I have been on flonase once a day for 1 year, I have gained 25 lbs in that time. My eating habits have ... Astelin also is not known to cause weight gain. Have you noticed any other associated features? Let us know about hwta your ... Astelin also is not known to cause weight gain. Have you noticed any other associated features? Let us know about hwta your ... This can result in a rare condition called Cushing's Syndrome, which in turn can cause weight gain to your midsection. Unless ...

*  BME103:T130 Group 6 l2 - OpenWetWare

While there's not one specific "cause" of breast cancer many things like excessive weight gain after age 18, use of estrogen ...

*  Weight Gain | Inhabitots

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*  Posh's weight gain

... Victoria Beckham reportedly putting on weight and trying for baby number four. ... Victoria Beckham reportedly putting on weight and trying for baby number four ...

*  weight gain - Depression - MedHelp

Any one recommend anti depressants that do not have weight gain as a side effect? ... Taking a particular med to avoid weight gain and doing nothing should result in weight gain. Some do stimulate appetitie and ... Taking a particular med to avoid weight gain and doing nothing should result in weight gain. Some do stimulate appetitie and ... Effexor and Cymbalta seem to have less of weight gain side effects than some of the others mentioned. Try to walk or swim. That ...

*  weight gain - Depression - MedHelp

For some reason Paxil seems to be the one SSRI that causes this massive weight gain. If you don't like the weight gain, then ... For some reason Paxil seems to be the one SSRI that causes this massive weight gain. If you don't like the weight gain, then ... Weight gain is a common side-effect of SSRIs in general - paxil in particular. I have friends who lost weight on paxil with a ... Weight gain is a common side-effect of SSRIs in general - paxil in particular. I have friends who lost weight on paxil with a ...

*  Weight gain on Prozac?

... weight - Answer: Yes. Hydrate! Most of this is water retention. Also, bone up on how to ... ... Weight loss Prozac 10mg & weight gain but happy on 20mg, want to feel happier but not gain weight?. Posted 3 Sep 2013 • 1 ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Weight gain on Prozac?. Weight gain on Prozac?. Asked. 10 Feb 2015 by KAP123. Active. 10 Feb 2015. ... prozac, obesity, weight. Details:. Anyone experience major weight gain on Prozac? I've been on it for about 5 months and I've ...

*  What About Weight Gain?

Good Housekeeping's nutritionists on how to gain weight healthfully. ... Every time I pick up a magazine, I read information on how to lose weight. The problem is, I need to gain weight. Is there ... Though most people can't relate to your problem, there's plenty that you can do to gain weight healthfully. To tip the scales ...

*  Weight Gain | CafeMom Answers

Weight Gain. Okay so Im 29 weeks and 1 day well I went to the doctor last Thursday and he said that my weight was up there.Well ... You shouldn't ever try to LOSE weight when you are pregnant, just slow the rate of gain. You can still be active when you are ... Its not hard for me to lose weight all..Can anyone help me with this because when I hear my doctor say that my weight is up ... this time i started at about 213, so they told me NOT to gain more than 15 lbs this time, so i kinda get how you feel. im ...

*  Fibromyalgia and Weight Gain | HealthCentral

Learn why weight gain is a particular problem for Fibromyalgia patients and what can be done about it. ... The Link Between FM and Weight Gain. Why does fibromyalgia trigger weight gain in so many people? There are a number of ... Recent studies have shown that people who do not get adequate amounts of sleep are more likely to gain weight. Lack of sleep ... A particularly frustrating problem for many fibromyalgia patients is the tendency to gain weight. We eat less but notice little ...

*  Alcohol And Weight Gain - AskMen

Alcohol really does have an adverse effect on your weight-loss attempts. Here's why. ... Liquid calories are not satiating, and high ingestion is a major cause of weight gain. ... A number of other studies support the idea that alcohol has an appetite-stimulating effect, and can therefore lead to weight ... gain. So if you drink, you take in a bunch of alcohol calories and you've also got that decreased-inhibitions thing going on. ...

*  Sugar Substitutes May Contribute to Weight Gain

... By Randy Dotinga. HealthDay Reporter. Monday, February 11, 2008 12:00 AM ... "We found that the rats that were getting artificially sweetened yogurt gained more weight and ate more food," said study author ... The rats who ate artificially sweetened yogurt consumed more food overall and gained more weight. The body temperatures of ... Artificial sweeteners can help people lose weight, she said. "The scientific community firmly believes that calories in, ...

*  Unexplained Weight Gain Symptoms - Drugs.com

Check medical symptoms for unexplained weight gain with the self-assessment symptom checker. ... Unexplained Weight Gain. Getting Started. Most people who gain weight are taking in more calories per day than they are using. ... It will not address issues of weight gain related to eating too much or not getting enough exercise. ... If you are gaining weight despite eating fewer calories and maintaining your usual amount of physical activity, this guide is ...

*  weight gain - Diabetes - Type 2 - MedHelp

weight gain. WHY IS THAT I HAVE GAINED 45 POUNDS SINCE JAN.2010 WHEN I WAS PUT ON INSULIN.I AM NOW AT 320 POUNDS AT AGE 53 ,AND ... Have you had your thyroid checked to see if that is contributing to your weight gain? If not, you should do so. Then you should ... Some type 2's, even after they start insulin are put on an oral med as well to prevent weight gain. Your endo can perhaps refer ... Have you had your thyroid checked to see if that is contributing to your weight gain? If not, you should do so. Then you should ...

*  Ativan and weight gain - Anxiety - MedHelp

... or that someone told you that if you DID take it you WOULD gain weight. So, I'm curious to know what has prompted your query ... or that someone told you that if you DID take it you WOULD gain weight. So, I'm curious to know what has prompted your query ... there is nothing about whether that means you gain or you lose weight. And in any event, few things happen in our body for just ... there is nothing about whether that means you gain or you lose weight. And in any event, few things happen in our body for just ...

Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Birth weight: Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.Definitions from Georgia Department of Public Health.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Overweight PoochLow birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Animal fatLeptinGestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.Atypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders: The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) is the oldest organization aimed at fighting eating disorders in the United States. ANAD assists people struggling with eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa and also provides resources for families, schools and the eating disorder community.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIMale lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Anti-obesity medication: Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are all pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Wilson–Mikity syndromeBenzodiazepine misuse: The non-medical use of Benzodiazepine drugs (called misuse or abuse in public health journals) is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects. Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally.Deep litter: Deep litter is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use for bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer.Waterladder pumpPlant breedingBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Breastfeeding promotionPowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.RisperidoneCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.International Association of Plastics DistributorsAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.

(1/5722) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(2/5722) Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis.

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

(3/5722) Long term orexigenic effect of a novel melanocortin 4 receptor selective antagonist.

1. We designed and synthesized several novel cyclic MSH analogues and tested their affinities for cells expressing the MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5 receptors. 2. One of the substances HS028 (cyclic [AcCys11, dichloro-D-phenylalanine14, Cys18, Asp-NH2(22)]-beta-MSH11-22) showed high affinity (Ki of 0.95nM) and high (80 fold) MC4 receptor selectivity over the MC3 receptor. HS028 thus shows both higher affinity and higher selectivity for the MC4 receptor compared to the earlier first described MC4 receptor selective substance HS014. 3. HS028 antagonised a alpha-MSH induced increase in cyclic AMP production in transfected cells expressing the MC3 and MC4 receptors, whereas it seemed to be a partial agonist for the MC1 and MC5 receptors. 4. Chronic intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of HS028 by osmotic minipumps significantly increased both food intake and body weight in a dose dependent manner without tachyphylaxis for a period of 7 days. 5. This is the first report demonstrating that an MC4 receptor antagonist can increase food intake and body weight during chronic administration providing further evidence that the MC4 receptor is an important mediator of long term weight homeostasis.  (+info)

(4/5722) Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia.

1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells.  (+info)

(5/5722) The Janus-faced aspect of 'dry weight'.

BACKGROUND: The goal of haemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is to correct the complications of the uraemic condition. Among the main complications are fluid overload and subsequent hypertension that are corrected by achievement of 'dry weight'. We report in this study the evolution of post-dialysis body-weight and blood pressure in patients who began their HD treatment in our unit. METHODS: We studied the monthly evolution of post-dialysis body-weight (expressed as a percentage of pre-dialysis body-weight at the first HD treatment) and predialysis mean arterial pressure (MAP) over 24 months in 61 patients (21 females, mean age 59.8 years; 20% diabetic), treated with cellulosic membranes for 8 h, 3 times a week. RESULTS: The post-dialysis body-weight decreased between the onset of HD and month 2 (M2) (-4.40+/-0.52%). Then it went up, reaching -1.56+/-0.96% at M6, +0.3+/-1.27% at M12, +1.27+/-1.38% at M18 and +1.64+/-1.33% at M24. The post-dialysis body-weight increased by 6% between M2 and M24. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 111.3+/-2.5 mmHg at M0 to 94.4+/-1.7 at M6, and then remained stable after M6. Between M2 and M6 the post-dialysis body-weight increased, whereas the predialysis MAP continued to decline. The incidence of hypotension episodes was maximal during the first 4 months of HD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the second month of dialysis treatment, the simultaneous increase of post-dialysis body-weight and decrease of pre-dialysis MAP are related to the effects of two processes, i.e. increased weight as the result of anabolism induced by the HD treatment on the one hand and normalization of blood pressure by fluid removal on the other. Continuous clinical assessment of the patient is necessary to provide adequate prescription of post-dialysis body-weight. During the first months of HD treatment, the nephrologist, like Janus, is a double-faced gatekeeper: he must be willing to decrease post-dialysis weight to achieve 'dry weight' and to normalize blood pressure, but he must also be prepared to increase it to compensate for anabolism and to avoid episodes of hypotension.  (+info)

(6/5722) A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

(7/5722) The effect of age and teat order on alpha1-acid glycoprotein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, cortisol, and average daily gain in commercial growing pigs.

The objectives of the study were to evaluate age and teat order on a performance trait, average daily gain, and on physiological stress indicators, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N:L), and cortisol in commercial growing pigs from weaning to market age. Pigs (n = 129) from five commercial California farms were weighed and blood-sampled at 28-d intervals from 28 to 168 d of age. Laboratory assays were performed from blood samples to quantify cortisol, AGP, and N:L. Age and facility effects (P<.001), but not teat order effects (P>.05), were found for all three physiological traits and ADG. Pigs that routinely suckled from teats 1, 4, or 6 (numbered from anterior to posterior on the upper teat bank) had similar (P>.05) ADG and BW throughout the production cycle. No correlation (P> .05) was found between cortisol, AGP, and N:L. The use of these physiological and production traits as stress and health indices of growing pigs in commercial facilities has limitations in comparing data between facilities or different ages of pigs.  (+info)

(8/5722) Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions.

To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments.  (+info)

Modest Weight Loss

  • Modest Weight Loss Can Reap Prolonged Healt. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Even a modest weight loss -- an average of 14 pounds -- reduced the ri. (bio-medicine.org)
  • THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Even modest weight loss can give overweight and obese people a decade's worth of important health benefits, according to a new study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Even a modest weight loss -- an average of 14 pounds -- reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58 percent. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Weight loss is considered a key strategy to manage people with type 2 diabetes because even modest weight loss is associated with improved blood pressure, lipid concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)


  • Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between intention to lose weight, actual weight loss, and all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Overweight diabetic adults trying to lose weight have a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, independent of whether they lose weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, it is difficult to conclude from most studies of weight loss whether overweight adults with diabetes will lower their mortality risk by embarking on weight loss programs. (diabetesjournals.org)


  • 2 Evidence suggests that weight at 5 years of age is a good indicator of the future health of a child 3 and that obesity during childhood increases the risk of adult obesity. (bmj.com)


  • Nine-year mortality rates were examined according to intent to lose weight and weight loss, which were adjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, smoking, initial body weight, and diabetes complications. (diabetesjournals.org)


  • There was inconclusive evidence for delivery type, gestational weight gain, maternal postpartum weight loss and 'fussy' infant temperament due to the limited number of studies. (bmj.com)
  • The overall aim of this two-study research plan is to characterize the level of measurable risk using these sensitive markers in treated and untreated children with mental health disorders, and to evaluate the magnitude of change in risk that can be observed using these biomarkers in children receiving a well established behavioral weight-loss intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the effect of participation in a 16-week behavioral weight loss program on adiposity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of liver will be used to assess intracellular triglyceride content at baseline and following 16 weeks of participation in an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 9-13-MHZ B-mode Carotid Ultrasound will be used to assess intima media thickness at baseline and following 16 weeks of participation in an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the effect of participation in a 16-week behavioral weight loss program has on fasting laboratory measures of cardiometabolic risk, including fasting lipids, insulin, glucose and adiponectin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the effect of participation in a 16-week behavioral weight loss program on non-fasting measures of cardiometabolic risk, including fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antipsychotic treated participants randomized to this arm will engage in an evidence-based, 16 week manualized behavioral weight loss intervention that includes weekly meetings and phone check-ins with a trained study therapist. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • And the health benefits of this weight loss lasted up to 10 years, even if people regained the weight, said study author Rena Wing, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University in Providence, R.I. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Overall weight loss, without regard to intent, was associated with an increase of 22% (1.22, 0.99-1.50) in the mortality rate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This increase was largely explained by unintentional weight loss, which was associated with a 58% (1.58, 1.08-2.31) higher mortality rate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Actual weight loss is associated with increased mortality only if the weight loss is unintentional. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By reducing these risk factors, weight loss may reduce the high risk of vascular complications and death among individuals with diabetes ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the physiological benefits of weight loss have been observed primarily in short-term studies, and little evidence exists showing that these benefits translate into increased longevity for people with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Even more troubling, studies that have examined the association of weight change with subsequent mortality, without assessing weight loss intention, generally find that losing weight is associated with increased rather than decreased mortality risk ( 4 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The primary limitation of the observational literature on weight change and mortality is the lack of information about weight loss intention ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Unintentional weight loss is frequently associated with poor health. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the only prospective study to assess intentional weight loss among individuals with diabetes, intentionally losing up to ∼20 lb was associated with 25% lower all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We recently found in the general population that intentional weight loss was associated with reduced mortality and that attempted weight loss was associated with reduced mortality independent of actual weight change ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, three other studies in the general population found equivocal associations between intentional weight loss and mortality ( 14 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In 1989, a special questionnaire module in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) examined weight loss practices and recent weight change among a nationally representative sample of individuals with diabetes ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vital status was followed through 1997 ( 18 ), providing an opportunity to examine the relationship between weight change and mortality rates while stratifying by weight loss intention. (diabetesjournals.org)


  • When it's time to hit the gym and lose weight it is important that you have a reasonable goal in mind. (better-body.biz)
  • The behavioral strategies used by the participants to help them lose weight included keeping track of everything they ate, reducing the amount of unhealthy food they kept in their home and increasing their amount of physical activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The previous year intention to lose weight and weight change were assessed by self-report. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS -Individuals trying to lose weight had a 23% lower mortality rate (hazard rate ratio [HRR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.99) than those who reported not trying to lose weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This association was as strong for those who failed to lose weight (0.72, 0.55-0.96) as for those who succeeded in losing weight (0.83, 0.63-1.08). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The weight-losing population includes an admixture of individuals losing weight on purpose and those who lose weight unintentionally. (diabetesjournals.org)


  • Body weight, feed consumption, whole-body energy expenditure, organ mass, tissue respiration rates, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ATP concentrations were measured to estimate changes in energy metabolism. (animalsciencepublications.org)


  • Helping people find ways to change their eating and activity behaviors and developing interventions other than medication to reinforce a healthy lifestyle have made a huge difference in preventing one of the major health problems in this country," Wing, who is also director of the Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center at the Miriam Hospital in Providence, said in an association news release. (bio-medicine.org)



  • Only a doctor can give you an exact ideal weight century after a physical examination. (better-body.biz)


  • This formula for finding your ideal weight for a person of average medium build. (better-body.biz)


  • A person with a more muscular build will have a slightly higher ideal weight while a naturally thin person will have a slightly lower ideal weight. (better-body.biz)