Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Accidents, AviationAir Movements: The motion of air currents.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Hebrides: A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

*  Statistics for The Weather Channel: Your Local Weather Outlook--Croton-On-Hudson, NY (10520) 355584 Feedage.com

The Weather Channel has brought timely weather information to the world. Now via our Local Weather Outlook RSS feed we can keep ... Your Local Weather Outlook--Croton-On-Hudson, NY (10520), Local Weather Outlook for Croton-on-Hudson, NY (10520). Since 1982, ... weather croton+hudson deg local croton hudson forecast high+deg low+deg local+weather weather+outlook deg+low details weather ... Local Weather Outlook for Croton-on-Hudson, NY (10520). Since 1982, The Weather Channel has brought timely weather information ...
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*  Weather Senanga | Zambia | WeatherOnline

Weather forecast up to 14 days including temperature, weather condition and precipitation and much more. ...
weatheronline.co.uk/Zambia/Senanga.htm

*  Kolback, Sweden - Weather Forecasts | Maps | News - Yahoo Weather

... news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Kolback, Sweden throughout the world ...
https://yahoo.com/news/weather/sweden/vastmanland/kolback-895633/

*  Food Fad: Bone Broth

We thought the weather aligned perfectly for with this week's food fad edition: bone broth. Bone broth rose in popularity in ... This past week's weather has been particularly brutal, with daytime temps barely rising above freezing. ... This past week's weather has been particularly brutal, with daytime temps barely rising above freezing. We thought the weather ...
foodinsight.org/food-fad-trend-bone-broth

*  Shop Severe Weather (Common: 4-in x 6-in x 8-ft; Actual: 3.5-in x 5.5-in x 8-ft) Pressure Treated Lumber at Lowes.com

Shop severe weather (common: 4-in x 6-in x 8-ft; actual: 3.5-in x 5.5-in x 8-ft) pressure treated lumber in the dimensional ... Severe Weather (Common: 4-in x 6-in x 8-ft; Actual: 3.5-in x 5.5-in x 8-ft) Pressure Treated Lumber ... Severe Weather (Common: 4-in x 6-in x 8-ft; Actual: 3.5-in x 5.5-in x 8-ft) Pressure Treated Lumber. ...
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*  Weather Ærøskøbing | Denmark | WeatherOnline

Weather forecast up to 14 days including temperature, weather condition and precipitation and much more. ...
weatheronline.co.uk/Denmark/Aroskobing.htm

*  "Impossibly High": WHO's initial report estimated Tokyo AND Osaka infant thyroid dose at 10 to 100 millisieverts - Up to 1 full...

And so, I'm forced to put my trust in the Weather Modifiers to do the right and honorable thing on my behalf, and the behalf of ... Hmm…makes you wonder how all this Fuku fallout is affecting our weather worldwide. Did you see this latest study from the D.O.E ... Weather modification? Radiation mitigation?. This 'hush hush' approach gives open season for conspiracy theorists run amok on ... WATKids…The discovery of pollutant affects on weather could have been made while looking at Fuku plumes. But I feel it is much ...
enenews.com/impossibly-high-whos-initial-report-estimated-tokyo-osaka-infants-thyroid-dose-between-10-100-millisieverts-1-full-sievert-namie

*  Gas Odors Surface in Warm Weather - latimes

Question: What causes the smell of raw gas inside my 1978 Lincoln Town Car on hot days when the temperature outside is more than 70 degrees? I have had the engine analyzed. I have had a specialist
articles.latimes.com/1986-09-04/news/vw-13848_1_gas-tanks

*  Illby, Finland - Weather Forecasts | Maps | News - Yahoo Weather

... news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Illby, Finland throughout the world ...
https://yahoo.com/news/weather/finland/eastern-uusimaa/illby-565948

*  Trebisov, Slovakia - Weather Forecasts | Maps | News - Yahoo Weather

... news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Trebisov, Slovakia throughout the world ...
https://yahoo.com/news/weather/slovakia/kosicky/michalany-29400806

*  Valines Weather - AccuWeather Forecast for Somme France

Get the Valines weather forecast. Access hourly, 10 day and 15 day forecasts along with up to the minute reports and videos for ...
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*  Halton Gill observations map - Met Office

Weather observations for Halton Gill over the past 24 hours including a map to view recent weather data, timeline and ... Learn about the weather. *When does summer start?. *What is the jet stream? ...
https://metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/observation/map/gcwkq210f

*  Weather Whiplash Is Like My Old Broken Sprinkler - Greg Laden's Blog

In other words, weather whiplash is like my old broken sprinkler.. Until recently I had one of those sprinklers that wave back ... 1) Weather has extremes. Sometimes, instead of raining just a bit, it rains a hella lot and you get a big giant flood. ... The weather patterns in the Northern Hemisphere have shifted in a way that makes the rain event in Colorado a fairly likely ... "The weather patterns in the Northern Hemisphere have shifted in a way that makes the rain event in Colorado a fairly likely ...
scienceblogs.com/gregladen/2013/09/19/weather-whiplash-is-like-my-old-broken-sprinkler/

*  weather map | meteorology | Britannica.com

The earliest weather charts were made by collecting synchronous weather reports by... ... weather map: Any map or chart that shows the meteorological elements at a given time over an extended area. ... use in weather forecasting (in weather forecasting: Measurements and ideas as the basis for weather prediction) (in weather ... Aviation weather map from the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit, U.S. National Weather Service. ...
https://britannica.com/science/weather-map

*  Kapeka, Uganda - Weather Forecasts | Maps | News - Yahoo Weather

... news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Kapeka, Uganda throughout the world ...
https://yahoo.com/news/weather/uganda/nakaseke/kapeka-1452062

*  Boron, France - Weather Forecasts | Maps | News - Yahoo Weather

... news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Boron, France throughout the world ...
https://yahoo.com/news/weather/france/franche-comte/boron-580826/

*  Sulphur Springs Hunting Weather - AccuWeather for AR 72768

AR 72768 weather forecasts for outdoor activities including the 3 day hunting forecast and other sportsman related articles and ...
https://accuweather.com/en/us/sulphur-springs-ar/72768/hunting-weather/2100856

*  Health & Flu: Ange-Gardien, Quebec - The Weather Network

Health Report by The Weather Network is your source for cold & flu prevention. Fight off a cold, and prepare for this winter ... About the Active Weather Trigger. Active weather triggers are changes in the weather that could augment health complaints. Each ... If severe weather is happening in your area, let us know! Call the Stormline toll free at 1-800-463-9463 ... active weather trigger is weighted equally. The occurrence of more than one trigger increases the severity of health risk. ...
https://theweathernetwork.com/ca/health/quebec/ange-gardien

*  Parts of Iowa under freeze warning | The Gazette

The National Weather Service has issued a freeze warning for parts of Iowa and Nebraska.A freeze ... The Weather Service expects temperatures to rise into the upper 50s in the western and central Iowa, and into the 60s in ... The National Weather Service has issued a freeze warning for parts of Iowa and Nebraska. ...
thegazette.com/2012/09/23/parts-of-iowa-under-freeze-warning

*  Kaplan, Poland Forecast | Weather Underground

Doppler radar and rain conditions from Weather Underground. ... PL weather forecast with today, tomorrow, and 10-day forecast ... You are about to report this weather station for bad data. Please select the information that is incorrect. ...
https://wunderground.com/weather/pl/kaplan/52.77999878,22.46999931

*  Field History, Weather Keys to Disease Management | Agweb.com

Field history and weather patterns are important in determining how to best manage crop diseases, says a Purdue plant ... But an even bigger factor in crop disease development is the weather.. 'Weather conditions as farmers start planting and when ... Field history and weather patterns are important in determining how to best manage crop diseases, says a Purdue plant ... Field History, Weather Keys to Disease Management March 14, 2013 12:09 AM ...
https://agweb.com/livestock/beef/article/field_history_weather_keys_to_disease_management/

*  Middle Tongue weather forecast - Met Office

Changeable weather is likely to continue across much of the country in the second week in October, bringing wind and rain at ... Unsettled weather will then continue during the middle of next week with spells of rain travelling eastwards, and brighter, ... However further south there is a greater chance of drier and brighter weather which will give an increased risk of fog forming ... Overcast conditions with mist, and hill fog, will steadily clear during the morning to leave often sunny weather for most. ...
https://metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/forecast/gcwkrr6j6

*  Chubs35

With the weather getting better I have a whole list of things to get done and yes unfortunately, eating at regular times just ...
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*  Running in Humid Weather | LIVESTRONG.COM

Weather usually changes gradually, occasional odd weather patterns excepted. Start running outside as soon as possible if you ... In humid weather, you need to wear apparel that is light and allows your skin to breathe so that you can sweat and cool your ... This is very dangerous if you are going to be running in humid weather. The key is to prevent dehydration and avoid heat- ... Let your body become used to the weather as it warms instead of shocking it by going from an air-conditioned indoor environment ...
livestrong.com/article/477606-running-in-humid-weather/

*  White Camellia by bikervet (Photo) | Weather Underground

... long range Weather Forecast, weather reports, maps & tropical weather conditions for locations worldwide. ...
https://wunderground.com/wximage/bikervet/343

*  Northwest-Territories Weather Map

Animated Northwest-Territories weather map showing 10 day forecast and current weather conditions. Overlay rain, snow, cloud, ... Northwest-Territories Weather Map. The Northwest-Territories Weather Map below shows the weather forecast for the next 10 days ... List of all animated weather maps.. The Northwest-Territories Weather Map below shows the weather forecast for the next 10 days ... You can also get the latest temperature, weather and wind observations from actual weather stations under the live weather ...
weather-forecast.com/maps/Northwest-Territories

Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightHumidifierQuasiperiodicity: Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity. Periodic behavior is defined as recurring at regular intervals, such as "every 24 hours".Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization: Atmospheric pressure laser ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS). Laser light in the UV range is used to ionize molecules in a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) process.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Mount Fuji Radar System: The Mount Fuji Radar System is a historic weather radar system located on the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan. It was completed in 1964, and is now recorded on the list of IEEE Milestones in electrical engineering.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Sunspots (economics): In economics, the term sunspots (or sometimes "a sunspot") usually refers to an extrinsic random variable, that is, a random variable that does not affect economic fundamentals (such as endowments, preferences, or technology). Sunspots can also refer to the related concept of extrinsic uncertainty, that is, economic uncertainty that does not come from variation in economic fundamentals.WormsgrabenAir pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Breeding for heat stress tolerance: Plant breeding is process of development of new cultivars. Plant breeding involves development of varieties for different environmental conditions – some of them are not favorable.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Kurt DiembergerNorthwest Airlines Flight 85NAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.MSN Encarta Dictionary.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.P-AnisidineMortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.South Asia Disaster Report: South Asia Disaster Report is a 2006 report by Duryog Nivaran, edited by Amjad Bhatti and others, and subtitled Tackling the Tides and Tremors. It looks at disasters affecting the South Asian region's "countries and communities (that) are connected to each other geologically, geographically and culturally".Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Flora and fauna of the Outer HebridesGeolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Ecosystem

(1/740) An association between fine particles and asthma emergency department visits for children in Seattle.

Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and its prevalence is increasing, causing much concern for identification of risk factors such as air pollution. We previously conducted a study showing a relationship between asthma visits in all persons < 65 years of age to emergency departments (EDs) and air pollution in Seattle, Washington. In that study the most frequent zip codes of the visits were in the inner city. The Seattle-King County Department of Public Health (Seattle, WA) subsequently published a report which showed that the hospitalization rate for children in the inner city was over 600/100,000, whereas it was < 100/100,000 for children living in the suburbs. Therefore, we conducted the present study to evaluate whether asthma visits to hospital emergency departments in the inner city of Seattle were associated with outdoor air pollution levels. ED visits to six hospitals for asthma and daily air pollution data were obtained for 15 months during 1995 and 1996. The association between air pollution and childhood ED visits for asthma from the inner city area with high asthma hospitalization rates were compared with those from lower hospital utilization areas. Daily ED counts were regressed against fine particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide using a semiparametric Poisson regression model. Significant associations were found between ED visits for asthma in children and fine PM and CO. A change of 11 microg/m3 in fine PM was associated with a relative rate of 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.23]. There was no stronger association between ED visits for asthma and air pollution in the higher hospital utilization area than in the lower utilization area. These findings were seen when estimated PM2.5 concentrations were below the newly adopted annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 15 microg/m3.  (+info)

(2/740) Effects of temperature and snowfall on mortality in Pennsylvania.

The relation between exposure to severe cold weather and mortality is examined in a retrospective study of deaths occurring during the month of January from 1991 to 1996 in Pennsylvania. Using division-days as units of observation (n = 1,560) aggregated from death certificates and geographic divisions, the authors estimated mortality rates for total deaths and deaths due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases by analyses based on generalized estimating equations. Total mortality increased on days of "extreme" climatic conditions, that is, when snowfall was greater than 3 cm and when temperatures were below -7 degrees C (rate ratio (RR) = 1.27, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.44). On days of extreme conditions, mortality due to ischemic heart diseases tripled among males aged 35-49 years (RR = 3.54, 95 percent CI 2.35-5.35), increased for men aged 50-64 years (RR = 1.77, 95 percent CI 1.32-2.38), and rose for males aged 65 years and older (RR = 1.58, 95 percent CI 1.37-1.82), when compared with milder conditions. Among females, mortality for those aged 65 years and older increased for respiratory causes (RR = 1.68, 95 percent CI 1.28-2.21) and cerebrovascular causes (RR = 1.47, 95 percent CI 1.13-1.91). Cold and snow exposure may be hazardous among men as young as 35 years.  (+info)

(3/740) Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front.

Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles.  (+info)

(4/740) Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya.

All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with satellite normalized difference vegetation index data, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks may be made up to 5 months in advance of outbreaks in East Africa. Concurrent near-real-time monitoring with satellite normalized difference vegetation data may identify actual affected areas.  (+info)

(5/740) Repeatability of cough-related variables during fog challenges at threshold and suprathreshold stimulus intensity in humans.

Cough-related variables such as cough frequency, time to onset (i.e. the time until the first cough occurs) and the cough index (i.e. the ratio between the cough frequency and the time to onset) may be important when interpreting results of cough challenges for therapeutic interventions or for comparative research purposes. Nevertheless, repeatability (or reproducibility) for these widely used variables has been poorly studied. In thirty normal subjects, coughing was induced by inhalation of threshold (T) and suprathreshold (1.6 x T) concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog). Cough threshold was taken as the lowest fog concentration that evoked at least one cough effort during two challenges separated by a 30-min interval. During challenges performed at both threshold and suprathreshold stimulus intensity, cough frequency, time to onset, and the cough index were assessed; within-subject repeatability for these variables was subsequently evaluated. Median +/- interquartile range cough threshold value was 0.9+/-0.5 mL x min(-1). During the two challenges performed to assess cough threshold, the mean +/-SD values of cough frequency, time to onset, and cough index were similar (5.0+/-2.7 and 5.3+/-3.1 coughs x min(-1), 32.4+/-13.3 and 32.9+/-13.6 s, and 0.2+/-0.2 and 0.2+/-0.2, respectively). However, none of these cough-related variables proved to be sufficiently repeatable. During the two challenges performed at suprathreshold stimulus intensity, mean values of cough frequency, time to onset, and cough index were also similar (20.0+/-9.0 and 18.2+/-10.2 coughs x min(-1), 13.5+/-5.8 and 12.0+/-4.62 s, and 1.7+/-1.0 and 1.8+/-1.2); furthermore, all considered variable of suprathreshold challenge turned out to be reproducible. In conclusion, during fog challenges at threshold stimulus intensity, cough frequency, time to onset and cough index cannot reliably be used for evaluating cough responses. However, these cough-related variables may represent useful and reliable research tools in the evaluation of suprathreshold cough responses.  (+info)

(6/740) Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection among paediatric patients in Hong Kong: seasonality and disease impact.

In a 5-year retrospective survey of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among hospitalized children, 1340 cases were identified of which, 98.4% were children < 5 years old with a male:female ratio of 1.5: 1. Most cases occurred from April to September showing a significant positive correlation with temperature and relative humidity. Community-acquired infections accounted for 92.5% of the cases with a mean hospital stay of 5 days. The estimated annual incidence of RSV infection requiring hospitalization was 2.5/1000 children < 5 years old with a mortality of 0.15% among hospitalized cases. On average, 248 children were admitted each year to the 1400-bed acute regional hospital accounting for an expenditure of HK S1.94 ((approximately US +/-0.25) million for hospitalization costs which equates to an annual cost in excess of HK $6.67 (approximately US $0.86) million for the whole of Hong Kong. An RSV vaccine should be a priority.  (+info)

(7/740) Residual delay maps unveil global patterns of atmospheric nonlinearity and produce improved local forecasts.

We use residual-delay maps of observational field data for barometric pressure to demonstrate the structure of latitudinal gradients in nonlinearity in the atmosphere. Nonlinearity is weak and largely lacking in tropical and subtropical sites and increases rapidly into the temperate regions where the time series also appear to be much noisier. The degree of nonlinearity closely follows the meridional variation of midlatitude storm track frequency. We extract the specific functional form of this nonlinearity, a V shape in the lagged residuals that appears to be a basic feature of midlatitude synoptic weather systems associated with frontal passages. We present evidence that this form arises from the relative time scales of high-pressure versus low-pressure events. Finally, we show that this nonlinear feature is weaker in a well regarded numerical forecast model (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts) because small-scale temporal and spatial variation is smoothed out in the grided inputs. This is significant, in that it allows us to demonstrate how application of statistical corrections based on the residual-delay map may provide marked increases in local forecast accuracy, especially for severe weather systems.  (+info)

(8/740) Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.  (+info)



Forecasts


  • official weather bureau of the United States, founded on February 9, 1870, and charged with providing weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its possessions, and its marine and freshwater approaches. (britannica.com)
  • Such weather forecasts and warnings are produced to help. (britannica.com)

Precipitation


  • At many locations on the map, a standard plotting code indicates wind direction and speed, air temperature and dew point , barometric pressure and its change during the preceding hours, the amount and types of clouds, the weather type, including restrictions to visibility, and the amount and type of precipitation. (britannica.com)

severe


  • The most common type of surface weather map, normally issued by a central weather office, shows the distribution of surface isobars (lines of constant pressure) and the location of fronts and severe weather areas such as hurricanes and other storms. (britannica.com)
  • The Met Office has forecast severe cold weather, icy conditions and possibly heavy snow in all regions of England between Wednesday 11 January and Sunday 15 January. (ageuk.org.uk)

ALERTS


  • Cold Weather Alerts are issued by the Met Office when winter weather is most likely to significantly impact people's health, i.e. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • Met Office Cold Weather Alerts are a way of warning about cold weather conditions in advance - so you can take extra precautions to keep safe and well. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • The alerts themselves can be found on the Cold Weather Alerts page on the Met Office website , Twitter feed and on TV and radio. (ageuk.org.uk)

Office


  • We're working with the Met Office again this year - to help keep you prepared for cold weather over winter. (ageuk.org.uk)

National Weather


  • Aviation weather map from the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit, U.S. National Weather Service. (britannica.com)
  • In the United States , weather maps are issued every three hours by the National Weather Service . (britannica.com)

data


  • You are about to report this weather station for bad data. (wunderground.com)
  • However, it was not until 1816 that German physicist Heinrich Wilhelm Brandes created the first weather maps, which were hand drawn and reconstructed from data collected in 1783. (britannica.com)

themselves


  • In addition to predictions of atmospheric phenomena themselves, weather forecasting includes predictions of changes on Earth's surface caused by. (britannica.com)