Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Accidents, AviationAir Movements: The motion of air currents.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Hebrides: A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

*  National Weather Service
Local Forecast OfficeMore Local Wx3 Day HistoryMobile WeatherHourly Weather Forecast ... High Winds Creating Critical Fire Weather Threats in California; Heavy Rains Along Gulf Coast. Strong to high winds are ... Conversely, very wet conditions will develop this week as week along the Gulf Coast; and unsettled weather pattern to the north ... creating critical fire weather conditions across much of California, and explosive fire growth in Southern California. Wind ...
*  National Weather Service Text Product Display
*  Michigan Section ARES/RACES
There are four National Weather Service sites in Michigan - Detroit/White Lake, Grand Rapids, Gaylord and Marquette. ... Skywarn is administered by the NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Division. ... with the National Weather Service). ARES Events can be any event where a Communications need exists of a non-commercial nature ...
*  Urban Weather Stations, Bee Conservation and Green Roofs
Siting weather stations in urban areas has always been a tricky endeavor. Issues like security and extreme localized heat ... Nevertheless many urban weather stations are still located on rooftops, but they can be suspect because of the temperature ... If the number of such green roof weather station locations grow, this will improve data on true micro-climate variations within ... Two that have recently impressed me are: (i) the realization that green roofs are ideal new locations for urban weather ...
*  National Weather Service Text Product Display
National Weather Service Warnings and Advisories mean weather is likely to cause you problems and you should consider if this ... Some winter weather related deaths result from exposure to cold so dress appropriately. Most winter weather related deaths are ... Being prepared and having a plan and reacting properly will help minimize the impact of weather. Remember National Weather ... Have multiple sources of weather information available. Always consider changing plans when the weather is expected to turn bad ...
*  National Weather Service Text Product Display
However, winter weather can be not only dangerous, but possibly deadly in some cases. Winter storms are considered deceptive ... Issues such as hypothermia can be diminished by wearing the proper clothing when planning to be out in the cold weather for an ... The purpose of this week is to remind people what winter weather can bring, and how to deal with hazardous winter conditions. ... When Arkansans think of winter weather, usually a picture of falling snow and temperatures in the 20s and lower 30s comes to ...
*  National Weather Service New York, NY
Fire Weather. Heat. Hydrology/Freshwater Flooding. Marine Weather. Outreach. Severe Weather. SKYWARN. Tropical Weather. Tsunami ... National Weather Service New York, NY Air Quality Page. , New York, NY , National Weather Service New York, NY Air ... Weather Safety/Preparedness Weather Ready Nation. Storm Ready. NOAA Weather Radio. Pubs/Brochures/Booklets. More Safety Links. ... Climate/Past Weather Local Past Weather. Recent and Past Rainfall. Local Normals, Extremes and Records. ...
*  National Weather Service Text Product Display
000 FXUS63 KMKX 081138 AAA AFDMKX Area Forecast Discussion...UPDATED National Weather Service Milwaukee/Sullivan WI 538 AM CST ...
*  Atlanta Weather
The National Weather Service in Louisville has issued a Frost. Advisory, which is in effect from 1 AM EDT /midnight CDT/ to. 10 ...
*  Winter Weather|CDC
... and by observing safety precautions during times of extremely cold weather, you can reduce the risk of weather-related health ... Taking preventive action is your best defense against having to deal with extreme cold-weather conditions. By preparing your ... Stay Healthy in Cold Weather. Serious health problems can result from prolonged exposure to the cold, such as hypothermia and ... Taking preventive action is your best defense against having to deal with extreme cold-weather conditions. ...
*  Fire Weather
JetStream: Weather School. Products/Services Guide. Owlie's Weather-Ready Kids. Weather Glossary. Weather-Ready Nation. ... Fire Weather Watch is issued up to 96 hours in advance of expected onset of red flag criteria. Red Flag Warning is issued when ... Customize Your Enter Your City, ST or ZIP Code. Remember Me. ... Special Weather Statement is issued when Red Flag criteria are met, however temperatures are below 50F, or to raise elevated ...
*  Fire Weather
... Products. Location. Fire Weather Products. Red Flag Warning / Fire Weather Watch. Point Forecast Matrix. Technical ... Winter Weather Info, Safety Tips, and Climo. SKYWARN. Severe Weather Info, Safety Tips, and Climo. NOAA Weather Radio. Local ... NWS National Fire Weather Page - Localized and broad based fire weather across the country. ... Climate and Past Weather NOAA Climate Center. Winter Climatology for NM. Local Data. Severe T-Storm Climatology for NM. Drought ...
*  Weather Maps
Bureau Home , Australia , Weather Maps. Weather Maps. Numerical Weather and Ocean Prediction Maps. *Interactive Weather and ...
*  Weather Underground
... long range Weather Forecast, weather reports, maps & tropical weather conditions for locations worldwide. ...
*  Weather - paul biggins photography
Images by Cambridgeshire-based photographer Paul Biggins, including environmental and landscape photography, nature, portraits, music and performance, and weddings.
* - Weather
By clicking "Create Account", I hearby grant permission to Postmedia to use my account information to create my account.. I also accept and agree to be bound by Postmedia's Terms and Conditions with respect to my use of the Site and I have read and understand Postmedia's Privacy Statement. I consent to the collection, use, maintenance, and disclosure of my information in accordance with the Postmedia's Privacy Policy.. ...
*  Antarctic Weather Reports
The weather station names paint quite a picture of Antarctica-Penguin Point, Ski-Hi, and Windless Bight. Which one would you ... Antarctic Weather Reports. This site uses iFrames, a technology that requires a newer browser than you have.. ...
*  Significant Weather Events
Fire Weather. Forecaster's Discussion. Local Products. Model Data. Marine Forecasts. Activity Planner. Aviation Weather. ... Customize Your Enter Your City, ST or ZIP Code. Remember Me. ... National Weather Service. Lake Charles, LA. 500 Airport Boulevard. Lake Charles, LA 70607. (337) 477-5285. Comments? Questions ...
*  Fire Weather Forecast
FORMAT OF THE FIRE WEATHER FORECAST. * DISCUSSION - brief description of general weather conditions affecting forecast for the ... Customize Your Enter Your City, ST or ZIP Code. Remember Me. ... National Weather Service. Cleveland, OH. Cleveland Hopkins Airport. 5301 West Hanger Rd. Cleveland, OH 44135. 216-265-2370. ... REMARKS - text space to include additional information such as a Fire Weather Watch/Red Flag Warning. ...
*  National Weather Service
Local Forecast OfficeMore Local Wx3 Day HistoryMobile WeatherHourly Weather Forecast ... Active weather pattern will continue across the U.S. into the weekend. Heavy rain with the continued risk of burn scar flooding ... Over the Plains and Desert Southwest, dry conditions will lead to extremely critical fire weather into Saturday. Another storm ... Heavy Rain And Flood Threat Continues For California, Critical Fire Weather Over The Plains, Wintry Conditions For The Midwest ...
*  National Weather Service
Local Forecast OfficeMore Local Wx3 Day HistoryMobile WeatherHourly Weather Forecast ... dry air will remain over the area with elevated fire weather conditions. Read More , ...
*  National Weather Service
Local Forecast OfficeMore Local Wx3 Day HistoryMobile WeatherHourly Weather Forecast ... Heavy Lake Effect Snow Likely into Monday; Critical Fire Weather Continues Over Southern California. Heavy Lake Effect snow ...
*  Weather - Wikipedia
Weather Forecasting Through the Ages. Retrieved on 25 May 2008. Weather Doctor. Applying The Barometer To Weather Watching. ... When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth. Weather is driven by air ... Weather is one of the fundamental processes that shape the Earth. The process of weathering breaks down the rocks and soils ... Weather on other planets follows many of the same physical principles as weather on Earth, but occurs on different scales and ...
*  Weather Tower - Wikipedia
Weather Tower, a public sculpture by American artist Jerald Jacquard, is located on the Indiana University-Purdue University ... Prior to coming to the campus of IUPUI, Weather Tower was located near the front entrance of the Indianapolis Museum of Art at ... Five elongated cubist forms make up Weather Tower. These forms vary in size and shape and are stacked upon each other to create ... "Weather Tower". Explore Art: IMA Collections. Retrieved November 19, 2009. [dead link] Indianapolis Museum of Art. "Jerald ...
*  Celestial Weather - Wikipedia
Celestial Weather review. Down Beat March 16: page 52. Print. McLenaghan, Dan. Celestial Weather review at All About Jazz ... Celestial Weather review at JazzTimes Robinson, Chris. Celestial Weather review at Point of Departure. ... Celestial Weather is an album by American jazz trumpeter Wadada Leo Smith and bassist John Lindberg, which was recorded in 2012 ... "Celestial Weather is one long series of in-depth conversations, where each man carefully listens to his friend and responds in ...

Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightHumidifierQuasiperiodicity: Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity. Periodic behavior is defined as recurring at regular intervals, such as "every 24 hours".Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization: Atmospheric pressure laser ionization is an atmospheric pressure ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS). Laser light in the UV range is used to ionize molecules in a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) process.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Mount Fuji Radar System: The Mount Fuji Radar System is a historic weather radar system located on the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan. It was completed in 1964, and is now recorded on the list of IEEE Milestones in electrical engineering.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Sunspots (economics): In economics, the term sunspots (or sometimes "a sunspot") usually refers to an extrinsic random variable, that is, a random variable that does not affect economic fundamentals (such as endowments, preferences, or technology). Sunspots can also refer to the related concept of extrinsic uncertainty, that is, economic uncertainty that does not come from variation in economic fundamentals.WormsgrabenAir pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Breeding for heat stress tolerance: Plant breeding is process of development of new cultivars. Plant breeding involves development of varieties for different environmental conditions – some of them are not favorable.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Kurt DiembergerNorthwest Airlines Flight 85NAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.MSN Encarta Dictionary.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.P-AnisidineMortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.South Asia Disaster Report: South Asia Disaster Report is a 2006 report by Duryog Nivaran, edited by Amjad Bhatti and others, and subtitled Tackling the Tides and Tremors. It looks at disasters affecting the South Asian region's "countries and communities (that) are connected to each other geologically, geographically and culturally".Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Flora and fauna of the Outer HebridesGeolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Ecosystem

(1/740) An association between fine particles and asthma emergency department visits for children in Seattle.

Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and its prevalence is increasing, causing much concern for identification of risk factors such as air pollution. We previously conducted a study showing a relationship between asthma visits in all persons < 65 years of age to emergency departments (EDs) and air pollution in Seattle, Washington. In that study the most frequent zip codes of the visits were in the inner city. The Seattle-King County Department of Public Health (Seattle, WA) subsequently published a report which showed that the hospitalization rate for children in the inner city was over 600/100,000, whereas it was < 100/100,000 for children living in the suburbs. Therefore, we conducted the present study to evaluate whether asthma visits to hospital emergency departments in the inner city of Seattle were associated with outdoor air pollution levels. ED visits to six hospitals for asthma and daily air pollution data were obtained for 15 months during 1995 and 1996. The association between air pollution and childhood ED visits for asthma from the inner city area with high asthma hospitalization rates were compared with those from lower hospital utilization areas. Daily ED counts were regressed against fine particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide using a semiparametric Poisson regression model. Significant associations were found between ED visits for asthma in children and fine PM and CO. A change of 11 microg/m3 in fine PM was associated with a relative rate of 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.23]. There was no stronger association between ED visits for asthma and air pollution in the higher hospital utilization area than in the lower utilization area. These findings were seen when estimated PM2.5 concentrations were below the newly adopted annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 15 microg/m3.  (+info)

(2/740) Effects of temperature and snowfall on mortality in Pennsylvania.

The relation between exposure to severe cold weather and mortality is examined in a retrospective study of deaths occurring during the month of January from 1991 to 1996 in Pennsylvania. Using division-days as units of observation (n = 1,560) aggregated from death certificates and geographic divisions, the authors estimated mortality rates for total deaths and deaths due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases by analyses based on generalized estimating equations. Total mortality increased on days of "extreme" climatic conditions, that is, when snowfall was greater than 3 cm and when temperatures were below -7 degrees C (rate ratio (RR) = 1.27, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.44). On days of extreme conditions, mortality due to ischemic heart diseases tripled among males aged 35-49 years (RR = 3.54, 95 percent CI 2.35-5.35), increased for men aged 50-64 years (RR = 1.77, 95 percent CI 1.32-2.38), and rose for males aged 65 years and older (RR = 1.58, 95 percent CI 1.37-1.82), when compared with milder conditions. Among females, mortality for those aged 65 years and older increased for respiratory causes (RR = 1.68, 95 percent CI 1.28-2.21) and cerebrovascular causes (RR = 1.47, 95 percent CI 1.13-1.91). Cold and snow exposure may be hazardous among men as young as 35 years.  (+info)

(3/740) Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front.

Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles.  (+info)

(4/740) Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya.

All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with satellite normalized difference vegetation index data, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks may be made up to 5 months in advance of outbreaks in East Africa. Concurrent near-real-time monitoring with satellite normalized difference vegetation data may identify actual affected areas.  (+info)

(5/740) Repeatability of cough-related variables during fog challenges at threshold and suprathreshold stimulus intensity in humans.

Cough-related variables such as cough frequency, time to onset (i.e. the time until the first cough occurs) and the cough index (i.e. the ratio between the cough frequency and the time to onset) may be important when interpreting results of cough challenges for therapeutic interventions or for comparative research purposes. Nevertheless, repeatability (or reproducibility) for these widely used variables has been poorly studied. In thirty normal subjects, coughing was induced by inhalation of threshold (T) and suprathreshold (1.6 x T) concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog). Cough threshold was taken as the lowest fog concentration that evoked at least one cough effort during two challenges separated by a 30-min interval. During challenges performed at both threshold and suprathreshold stimulus intensity, cough frequency, time to onset, and the cough index were assessed; within-subject repeatability for these variables was subsequently evaluated. Median +/- interquartile range cough threshold value was 0.9+/-0.5 mL x min(-1). During the two challenges performed to assess cough threshold, the mean +/-SD values of cough frequency, time to onset, and cough index were similar (5.0+/-2.7 and 5.3+/-3.1 coughs x min(-1), 32.4+/-13.3 and 32.9+/-13.6 s, and 0.2+/-0.2 and 0.2+/-0.2, respectively). However, none of these cough-related variables proved to be sufficiently repeatable. During the two challenges performed at suprathreshold stimulus intensity, mean values of cough frequency, time to onset, and cough index were also similar (20.0+/-9.0 and 18.2+/-10.2 coughs x min(-1), 13.5+/-5.8 and 12.0+/-4.62 s, and 1.7+/-1.0 and 1.8+/-1.2); furthermore, all considered variable of suprathreshold challenge turned out to be reproducible. In conclusion, during fog challenges at threshold stimulus intensity, cough frequency, time to onset and cough index cannot reliably be used for evaluating cough responses. However, these cough-related variables may represent useful and reliable research tools in the evaluation of suprathreshold cough responses.  (+info)

(6/740) Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection among paediatric patients in Hong Kong: seasonality and disease impact.

In a 5-year retrospective survey of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among hospitalized children, 1340 cases were identified of which, 98.4% were children < 5 years old with a male:female ratio of 1.5: 1. Most cases occurred from April to September showing a significant positive correlation with temperature and relative humidity. Community-acquired infections accounted for 92.5% of the cases with a mean hospital stay of 5 days. The estimated annual incidence of RSV infection requiring hospitalization was 2.5/1000 children < 5 years old with a mortality of 0.15% among hospitalized cases. On average, 248 children were admitted each year to the 1400-bed acute regional hospital accounting for an expenditure of HK S1.94 ((approximately US +/-0.25) million for hospitalization costs which equates to an annual cost in excess of HK $6.67 (approximately US $0.86) million for the whole of Hong Kong. An RSV vaccine should be a priority.  (+info)

(7/740) Residual delay maps unveil global patterns of atmospheric nonlinearity and produce improved local forecasts.

We use residual-delay maps of observational field data for barometric pressure to demonstrate the structure of latitudinal gradients in nonlinearity in the atmosphere. Nonlinearity is weak and largely lacking in tropical and subtropical sites and increases rapidly into the temperate regions where the time series also appear to be much noisier. The degree of nonlinearity closely follows the meridional variation of midlatitude storm track frequency. We extract the specific functional form of this nonlinearity, a V shape in the lagged residuals that appears to be a basic feature of midlatitude synoptic weather systems associated with frontal passages. We present evidence that this form arises from the relative time scales of high-pressure versus low-pressure events. Finally, we show that this nonlinear feature is weaker in a well regarded numerical forecast model (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts) because small-scale temporal and spatial variation is smoothed out in the grided inputs. This is significant, in that it allows us to demonstrate how application of statistical corrections based on the residual-delay map may provide marked increases in local forecast accuracy, especially for severe weather systems.  (+info)

(8/740) Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.  (+info)

  • California
  • Meanwhile in southern California, Santa Ana winds will decrease but hot, dry air will remain over the area with elevated fire weather conditions. (
  • Los Angeles, California, United States Weather Girl received mixed to mostly negative reviews, it received an approval rating of 25% on Rotten Tomatoes, based on eight reviews Roeper, Richard (August 21, 2009). (
  • stormy
  • Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. (
  • During its daily two-minute sequence, which includes a trumpet fanfare, mist, and flashing lights, the machine displays one of three metal symbols as a prediction of the weather for the following 24-hour period: a sun for clear and sunny weather, a blue heron for drizzle and transitional weather, or a dragon and mist for rainy or stormy weather. (
  • It eventually reveals one of three metal symbols: a stylized golden sun ("helia") for clear and sunny weather, a blue heron (Portland's official bird) for drizzle and transitional weather, or mist and a "fierce, open-mouthed" dragon for heavy rain or stormy weather. (
  • occurs
  • With conditional weather insurance an organization can run a promotion advertising up to a 100% rebate on all items purchased during a designated promotional period if a particular type and/or volume of weather occurs on a specific day. (
  • Robinson
  • The Point of Departure review by Chris Robinson says, "Celestial Weather is one long series of in-depth conversations, where each man carefully listens to his friend and responds in kind with care and generosity. (
  • Celestial Weather review at JazzTimes Robinson, Chris. (
  • Geologist Russell Robinson has described "earthquake weather" as one of the most common pseudoscientific methods of predicting earthquakes. (
  • Collect
  • Weather buoys are instruments which collect weather and ocean data within the world's oceans, as well as aid during emergency response to chemical spills, legal proceedings, and engineering design. (
  • Location
  • Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. (
  • Locations can be removed by tapping the list icon and swiping left on the location that the user wants to delete The Weather app in iOS 8 was updated to use The Weather Channel as the source of the weather information (rather than Yahoo Weather). (
  • The insurer would look up the weather history for their particular location. (
  • If a car dealership wanted to insure a conditional weather promotion in which new car buyers would receive a rebate if at least 2 inches of rain fell at their location on the day after Easter, the client would need to contact the insurance company about two weeks prior to the peril date. (
  • bronze
  • Weather Machine is a lumino-kinetic bronze sculpture and columnar machine that serves as a weather beacon, displaying a weather prediction each day at noon. (
  • Weather Machine is a lumino-kinetic bronze sculpture that serves as a weather beacon, designed and constructed by Omen Design Group Inc. Contributors included Jere and Ray Grimm, Dick Ponzi, who won a 40-entry international competition to design the machine for Pioneer Courthouse Square (1984), and Roger Patrick Sheppard. (
  • time
  • Having originally made his name as a pioneering electric piano player, he went on to consistently develop the role of the synthesizer in jazz during his time with Weather Report. (
  • During his time with Weather Report, Shorter was noted for generally playing saxophone with an economical, "listening" style. (
  • Discussion
  • Since ancient times, the notion that weather can somehow foreshadow coming seismic activity has been the topic of much discussion and debate. (
  • American
  • Weather Tower, a public sculpture by American artist Jerald Jacquard, is located on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis campus, which is near downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. (
  • Celestial Weather is an album by American jazz trumpeter Wadada Leo Smith and bassist John Lindberg, which was recorded in 2012 and released on the Finnish TUM label. (
  • Colder Weather" is a song performed by the Zac Brown Band, an American country music group. (
  • The use of the Weather Eye name for automobile passenger heating and air conditioning systems continued in American Motors (AMC) vehicles. (
  • Weather Report was an American jazz fusion band of the 1970s and early 1980s. (
  • form
  • Drifting buoys are the dominant form of weather buoy in sheer number, with 1250 located worldwide. (
  • When a company or organization is holding a concert, running a special event, having a sale, or executing any form of outdoor activity and the weather prevents that activity from taking place, the organization risks losing whatever money that has been invested in the planning, organization, marketing and operation of the event. (
  • While saxophone player Allan Jones went on to form Judas Jump, Fairweather Low led Dennis Byron (drums), Blue Weaver (organ), Clive Taylor (bass) and Neil Jones (guitar) into the new band, Fair Weather. (
  • system
  • The first weather buoy in the Southern Ocean was deployed by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) on March 17, 2010. (
  • The Weather Eye was a trade name for a Nash Motors-designed fresh-air system for automobile passenger compartment heating, cooling, and ventilating. (
  • The Nash "All-Weather Eye" was the first automobile air conditioning system for the mass market. (
  • The design principles of the Nash Weather Eye system are now in use by nearly every motor vehicle. (
  • The Weather Eye "was the first truly good heating and ventilating system. (
  • Nash's Conditioned Air System heater was now marketed as the "Weather Eye" and consumer sales literature explained that the thermostat's "mechanical eye" watched the weather, hence the name. (
  • First as optional equipment and later as a standard feature, the Weather Eye system was continued by AMC after the merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. (
  • type
  • Earthquake weather is a type of weather popularly believed to precede earthquakes. (
  • Instead, an insurance company will cover those costs based on the size and type of the weather cancellation insurance purchased. (
  • The insurer, in turn, would price the insurance policy based on weather history for that city and state on the date that is being "insured", the type of peril being covered, and the volume of sales expected during the promotion. (
  • years
  • Weather Machine, which took five years to plan and build and cost $60,000, was installed in the square in August 1988. (
  • As a continuous working unit, Weather Report outlasted all of its contemporaries despite (or perhaps because of) frequent changes of personnel, with a career lasting sixteen years between 1970 and 1986. (
  • Start
  • From the start, Weather Report took the unusual and innovative approach of abandoning the traditional "soloist/accompaniment" demarcation of straight-ahead jazz and instead featuring opportunities for continuous improvisation by every member of the band. (
  • history
  • Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns. (
  • band
  • A Weather is an indie band from Portland, Oregon, fronted by Aaron Gerber and Sarah Winchester. (
  • Fair Weather was a British rock band formed in 1970 by former Amen Corner guitarist and vocalist, Andy Fairweather Low. (