Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Water SofteningRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Grindelia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain triterpenoid sapogenins.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Water Pollution, RadioactiveGarbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Perilla frutescens: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Nyctaginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluoride PoisoningEnterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Prosopis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of prosopis gum.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Legionellosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Simazine: A triazine herbicide.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dracunculus Nematode: A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Larrea: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. It is sometimes called chaparral but that is a generic word which is used with a number of other plants. Members contain NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.BrazilRain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Communicable DiseasesDecontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.EnglandDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)VietnamCampylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.WalesParasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.IndiaInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.United StatesEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

*  Water Supply Planning Events on Environmental XPRT

Find water supply planning events on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... water supply planning Events. Related terms for "water supply planning ": water supply events ... WEFTEC, the Water Environment Federation's Annual Technical Exhibition and Conference, is the largest conference of its kind in ... IFAT is the World's Leading Trade Fair for Water, Sewage, Waste and Raw Materials Management, and is a place where visitors can ...
https://environmental-expert.com/events/keyword-water-supply-planning-42645

*  Federal Register :: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Monitoring Requirements for Public Drinking...

This rule is intended to provide EPA with information on the occurrence in drinking water of (1) chemical byproducts that form ... which establishes monitoring and data reporting requirements for large public water systems (PWSs). ... National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Monitoring Requirements for Public Drinking Water Supplies: Cryptosporidium, ... Giardia, Viruses, Disinfection Byproducts, Water Treatment Plant Data and Other Information Requirements. A Rule by the ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/1996/05/14/96-11370/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations-monitoring-requirements-for-public-drinking-water

*  Professor POU/POE - September 2014 | Water Technology Online

Some people have decided to use POU or POE treatment to give them more control over the quality of their drinking water supply ... Contaminated water can enter the drinking water by that route. Pressure drops can occur in an area when water is being pumped ... Transit time and water age. Transit time and water age can vary from hours to days depending upon the system configuration, ... Most toxicants require such large additions to high volume water supplies that source and storage contamination is an unlikely ...
https://watertechonline.com/professor-poupoe-september-2014/

*  Patent US5133731 - Embolus supply system and method - Google Patents

The fluid used to flush the embolus through the delivery tube is water or another biologically compatible fluid such as saline ... A supply of fluid is provided and a predetermined volume of fluid from the supply is pressurized at a predetermined rate to ... 1, the supply conduit 42 that is coupled to the fluid reservoir 26 is not ale to supply pressurized fluid to the feeder ... and a fluid supply assembly 20 coupled to an inlet fixture 22 of the feeder assembly 14. The fluid supply assembly 20 is used ...
google.com/patents/US5133731?dq=4,923,986

*  Water Regulations | Thermo Fisher Scientific

In order to ensure water resources are well protected and guarantee a safe supply of drinking water it is critical that these ... has set water quality standards for contaminants in water, soil and air. ... To protect water resources and guarantee a safe supply of drinking water, both drinking water standards and effluent ( ... of our environment and water resources so we have safe water to drink and clean water to use as the supply for drinking water ...
https://thermofisher.com/fr/fr/home/industrial/environmental/environmental-learning-center/water-quality-analysis-information/water-regulations.html

*  Township of Montville, NJ Water Supply

442-5 Certificate of compliance as condition to placing new water supplies in operation. A. New water supplies shall not be ... construct or alter any water supply until a permit for the location, construction or alteration of said water supply shall have ... water supply systems for realty improvements shall be issued a permit by the Board of Health to construct a water supply system ... Chapter 442: Water Supply [HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Health of the Township of Montville 11-12-1968. Amendments noted ...
ecode360.com/13654504

*  Wiley: Water Encyclopedia, 5 Volume Set - Jay H. Lehr, Jack Keeley

Water Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Domestic, Municipal, and Industrial Water Supply and Waste Disposal ... Water Encyclopedia, Volume 4, Oceanography; Meteorology; Physics and Chemistry; Water Law; and Water History, Art, and Culture ... A Primer on Water Quality.. Overview of Analytical Methods of Water Analyses With Specific Reference to EPA Methods for ... Water Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Water Quality and Resource Development. by Jay H. Lehr (Editor-in-Chief), Jack Keeley (Editor), ...
wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471441643.html

*  2,800 pigs dumped in Shanghai river raises concern

... as Shanghai residents and local media fret over the possibility of contamination to the city's water supply, though authorities ... as Shanghai residents and local media fret over the possibility of contamination to the city's water supply, though authorities ... Huang said he's most concerned about water safety. "Though the government says the water is safe, at least I do not believe it ... "This is the water we are drinking," Huang wrote. "What is the government doing to address this?" ...
dailyherald.com/article/20130311/news/703119873/

*  The effect of forest land use on the cost of drinking water supply: A spatial econometric analysis

... namely drinking water supply, by estimating variations in drinking water costs as a function of variations in land uses. ... grouping of municipalities within a water service) and factors related to the scarcity of resources in neighboring water ... We found a significant negative effect of forest land use on water costs. We found no evidence of spatial spillovers concerning ... This study attempted to measure the value of the forest on the quality of water resources from a contingent market, ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/eaae11/120385.html

*  Patent US7352434 - Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

... system uses feedforward or feedback control with input of the surface height of the substrate to maintain the liquid supply ... The height of a liquid supply system above the surface of the substrate can be varied using actuators. A control ... The liquid reservoir 10 is filled with a liquid 11 having a relatively high refractive index, e.g. water, provided via inlet/ ... A signal is supplied to the actuators to move the supply and take-up system 310 closer to the surface of the substrate. The ...
google.com/patents/US7352434?dq=7565338

*  Water Supply | Thomas Jefferson's Monticello

The water supply at Monticello was a constant struggle for those living on the mountaintop. In 1769, when construction began on ... Jefferson's notes concerning the water supply in the well are available online. Transcription available in Betts, Garden Book, ... water had to be carted up from springs lower down on the mountain.3 ...
https://monticello.org/site/house-and-gardens/water-supply

*  Town of Groton, MA Water Supply

The Town establishes a water supply or water distributing system and shall maintain and operate the same in accordance with the ... Chapter 210: Water Supply [HISTORY: Adopted by the Annual Town Meeting of the Town of Groton 3-20-1982 by Art. 10. Amendments ...
https://ecode360.com/9078447

*  Lead in Drinking Water | American Planning Association - Wisconsin Chapter

... public education and treat the water supply with phosphates to cease lead from continuing to leaching into drinking water. ... First Wisconsin Cities to Show Lead in Drinking Water. 81 Wisconsin water systems were tested from 2012 to 2105 by the EPA ... How Does Lead Get in the Water?. Lead can enter drinking water through the corrosion of plumbing materials. This happens due to ... www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/basic-information-about-lead-drinking-water ...
wisconsinplanners.org/lead-in-drinking-water/

*  Filter Tests | Friends of Water

Chicago's Water Supply Has High Levels of Lead. The brain-damaging metal lead, continues to pose threats to public water ... Fluoride Water Filter PitcherFluoride Pilter Pitchereco water softenerchloramines water filterwhole house chlorine water filter ... Chicago's Water Supply Has High Levels of Lead. The brain-damaging metal lead, continues to pose threats to public water ... Friends of Water is a family-owned and family-run business founded in January 2006. We work to save water, filter water and ...
friendsofwater.com/filter-tests/

*  August 9, 2000 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Ground Water

... will cause consumers to remain at risk of virus exposure from public water supplies using such aquifers.. Treatment to Achieve ... Ground Water Federal Register Notice: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Ground Water Rule; Proposed Rules ... The Ground Water Rule is important to the safety of drinking water in the U.S. but should be viewed as a first-step, with ... Short-term water providers. The ASM recommends that EPA provide guidance for non-community water systems (NCWS) and transient ...
https://asm.org/index.php/publicpolicy-2/statements-testimony?id=2329

*  Water supply | Page 3 | SunStar

THE target delivery of water supply to Bacolod City Water District (Baciwa) by Bacolod Bulk Water Inc. (BBWI) next month ... Canlas: Bulk supply via surface water (Part 3). Friday, September 15, 2017 Atty. Manuel P. Canlas ... WATER consumers in the western part of Cagayan de Oro City may have to endure little to no water coming out of their taps for ... Bulk water supply delivery remains uncertain. Thursday, September 28, 2017 Teresa D. Ellera ...
sunstar.com.ph/water-supply?page=2

*  Categories of Persons: Water Regulations 2008: Water Information: Bureau of Meteorology

What does Category E (rural water utilities) include?. This Category includes organisations that supply water for irrigation. ... Bureau Home » Water Information » Water Regulations 2008 » Categories of Persons. *Water Information *Water data *Climate ... What does Category F (urban water utilities) include?. This Category includes urban water utilities required to provide high- ... What does Category L (urban water utilities) include?. This Category includes urban water utilities required to provide more ...
bom.gov.au/water/regulations/categoriesPersonAuxNav.shtml

*  Water Supply and Resources

The Office of Watershed Management manages and protects the drinking water supply watersheds for approximately 2.5 million ... Water Quality Monitoring Water quality sampling and watershed monitoring make up an important part of the overall mission of ... The Office of Watershed Management manages and protects the drinking water supply watersheds for approximately 2.5 million ... and Wachusett Reservoir watersheds are the sources of drinking water for distribution by the Massachusetts Water Resources ...
mass.gov/eea/state-parks-beaches/water-supply-and-resources/

*  Water Supply Protection Trust

... the ability of the Office of Watershed Management to maintain this drinking water supply by establishing a Water Supply ... The Water Supply Protection Trust has a five person board of trustees responsible for approving the Office of Watershed ... The Water Supply Protection Trust. The legislature further enhanced ... The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) distributes this source water to over 2 million customers. ...
mass.gov/eea/agencies/dcr/water-res-protection/watershed-mgmt/water-supply-protection-trust.html

*  Mysterious Glitch Poisons Town Water Supply | WIRED

... is trying to figure out why its water treatment plant flooded the water supply with enough sodium hydroxide to cause chemical ... Mysterious Glitch Poisons Town Water Supply. The town of Spencer, Massachusetts, population 1,200, ... and began passing out bottled water. (Photo). Today the water department finished flushing out the entire system. From the ... Sodium hydroxide is used in small quantities to reduce water acidity and inhibit pipe corrosion. But the Spencer treatment ...
https://wired.com/2007/04/glitch_poisons_/

*  water supply | Hackaday

Posted in cooking hacksTagged coffee, keurig, plumbing, water supply. Search. Search for: Never miss a hack. Follow on facebook ... Posted in home hacksTagged arduino, Arduino micro, coffee, eTape, flow meter, rtc, vacuum sealed, water supply. ... The plastic supply line leaving the valve passes through a rubber grommet in the lid of the water reservoir pointed to by the ... His coffee maker sits right next to the fridge, which has its own water supply. So one day he thought, why not run a line to ...
https://hackaday.com/tag/water-supply/

*  qanat | water-supply system | Britannica.com

A qanāt taps underground mountain water sources trapped in and beneath the upper reaches... ... Ancient type of water-supply system, developed and still used in arid regions of the world. ... development of water supply systems (in water supply system: Developments in supply systems) ... Most towns are supplied with water by qanāt, an irrigation system by which an underground mountain water source is tapped and ...
https://britannica.com/technology/qanat

*  Nature: Water Supply Ebooks

... buy and download Water Supply ebooks from our Nature section for your eReader at great prices. ... Globalized Waterby Graciela Schneier-Madanes. Springer Netherlands 2014; US$ 155.40. Globalized Water presents a compilation of ... Firstly, the importance of the urban water environment is highlighted and the major problems urban water bodies face and ... Sustainable Urban Water Environmentby A. Goonetilleke; T. Yigitcanlar; G. A. Ayoko. Edward Elgar Publishing 2014; US$ 40.00 ...
https://ebooks.com/subjects/searchresults.net?term=SubjectID:735&bc=nature-water-supply&page=9

*  Battle over water supply | Albuquerque Journal

... drawing millions of gallons of water to unlock oil and gas reserves from beneath the Earth's… ... Battle over water supply. By By Garance Burke / The Associated Press. Published: Monday, June 17th, 2013 at 12:05am ... Study backs fracking's advantages in water use - Jan 6, 2014 EPA: No widespread harm to drinking water from fracking - Jun 4, ... 100 for an acre-foot of water in auctions held by cities with excess supplies. But these days, energy companies are paying some ...
https://abqjournal.com/211464/battle-over-water-supply.html

*  Dentsply International | Faskut® Super Band Arbor Bands - 3/:4', 500/:Pkg | Dental Product Shopper

Air-Water and Evacuation Products. Dental Unit Waterline Treatment. *Waterline Cleaners. Infection Control Miscellaneous. * ... Clinical Supplies. Education Books & Software. Filing & Accessories. Patient Financing. Patient Giveaways. Practice Development ...
dentalproductshopper.com/faskut-super-band-arbor-bands-34-500pkg

Public water systemOutline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Jardine Water Purification PlantUnited States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Sanitation: Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.Water fluoridation in the United StatesBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.Tissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.Plumbing fixture: A plumbing fixture is an exchangeable device which can be connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water.Dental fluorosisPercent active chlorine: Percent active chlorine is a unit of concentration used for hypochlorite-based bleaches. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the same bleaching power as one gram of chlorine.Full mouth disinfection: Full mouth disinfection typically refers to an intense course of treatment for periodontitis typically involving scaling and root planing in combination with adjunctive use of local antimicrobial adjuncts to periodontal treatment such as chlorhexidine in various ways of application. The aim is to complete debridement of all periodontal pocket areas within a short time frame such as 24 hours, in order to minimize the chance of reinfection of the pockets with pathogens coming from another oral niches like the tongue, tonsils and non-treated periodontal pocket.Chlorine dioxideCasing hanger: In petroleum production, the casing hanger is that portion of a wellhead assembly which provides support for the casing string when it is lowered into the wellbore. It serves to ensure that the casing is properly located.Restroom Access Act: The Restroom Access Act, also known as Ally's Law, is legislation passed by several U.S.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Trihalomethane: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms. Many trihalomethanes find uses in industry as solvents or refrigerants.Fluoride toxicityCryptosporidiosisAlpha SerpentisFabric softener: A Fabric softener (also called fabric conditioner) is a chemical compound that is typically applied to laundry during the rinse cycle in a washing machine. Fabric softeners are available as solutions and solids, and may also be impregnated in dryer sheets used in a clothes dryer.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Darwinia squarrosaMedia filter: 250px|thumb|Peat-Sand Filter in [[United States. The filter treats stormwater runoff from a residential area.Mordru the Merciless: "Mordru the Merciless" is a story arc that was published by DC Comics, and was presented in Adventure Comics #369-370 (June–July 1968). It was written by Jim Shooter, pencilled by Curt Swan and inked by Jack Abel.Garbage disposal unit: A garbage disposal unit or waste disposal unit is a device, usually electrically powered, installed under a kitchen sink between the sink's drain and the trap. The disposal unit shreds food waste into pieces small enough—generally less than —to pass through plumbing.Legionella micdadei: Legionella micdadei is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which stains acid-fast. It stains weakly, but loses this trait upon being grown in culture.Giardia: Giardia ( or ) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between an actively swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst.Legionella pneumophila: Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Thomas BrittonLoutra, Rethymno: Loutra () is a medieval village of central Crete, Rethymno regional unit, Arkadi municipal unit. It is situated 2 km from the Bay of Rethymno and 8 km from the town of Rethymno.Angang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.Cryptosporidium parvum: Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several protozoal species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Easy Gardener Products, Inc.: Easy Gardener Products, Inc. headquartered in Waco, Texas, is a leading marketer and producer of branded gardening products with a leading market position in several garden care categories.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Mesquite: Mesquite is the common name for several species of small trees. They are native to the southwestern United States and Mexico (except for creeping mesquite, which is invasive in southern California).DracunculiasisVirkon: Virkon is a multi-purpose disinfectant. It contains oxone (potassium peroxymonosulfate), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sulfamic acid, and inorganic buffers.List of Pontiac vehicles: ==Past Models==PotometerHydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Postage stamps and postal history of the Danish West Indies: [Danish West Indies 1866 3c.jpg|thumb|120px|right|3 cent stamp, 1866]Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.SimazineFree-living Amoebozoa infectionArsenic biochemistry: Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a moderately abundant element in Earth's crust, and although many arsenic compounds are often considered highly toxic, a wide variety of organoarsenic compounds are produced biologically and various organic and inorganic arsenic compounds are metabolized by numerous organisms.Phreatobius dracunculus: Phreatobius dracunculus is a species of catfish in the genus Phreatobius.Groundwater model: Groundwater models are computer models of groundwater flow systems, and are used by hydrogeologists. Groundwater models are used to simulate and predict aquifer conditions.Larrea tridentataSchistosomiasisUniversity of CampinasThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Breeding for drought stress toleranceNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Rum Jungle, Northern Territory: Rum Jungle is an area in the Northern Territory, Australia where a uranium deposit was found and recognised as such in 1949. It is about 105 kilometres south of Darwin on the East Branch of the Finniss River.Aluminium toxicity in dialysis patients: Aluminium toxicity is a problem for patients on haemodialysis. The dialysis process does not efficiently remove excess aluminium from the body, so it may build up over time.List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Atrazine chlorohydrolase: Atrazine Chlorohydrolase (AtzA) is an enzyme (E.C.List of shipwrecks in March 1918: The list of shipwrecks in March 1918 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1918.Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.Meramec Conservation AreaGlobal Handwashing Day: Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a campaign to motivate and mobilize people around the world to improve their handwashing habits by washing their hands with soap at critical moments throughout each day. It takes place on 15 October of each year.Dental cariesDispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.Aeromonas aquariorum: Aeromonas aquariorum is a Gram-negative bacterium first isolated from aquariums in Portugal in 2005. The species is globally distributed in aquatic environments, like other species in the Aermonas genus.Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Sodium perchlorateLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Intestinal parasite

(1/2621) Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

(2/2621) Needs assessment following hurricane Georges--Dominican Republic, 1998.

Hurricane Georges struck the Carribean Islands in September 1998, causing numerous deaths and extensive damage throughout the region. The Dominican Republic was hardest hit, with approximately 300 deaths; extensive infrastructure damage; and severe agricultural losses, including staple crops of rice, plantain, and cassava. Two months after the hurricane, the American Red Cross (ARC) was asked to provide food to an estimated 170,000 families affected by the storm throughout the country. To assist in directing relief efforts, CDC performed a needs assessment to estimate the food and water availability, sanitation, and medical needs of the hurricane-affected population. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicate that, 2 months after the disaster, 40% of selected families had insufficient food > or =5 days per and 28% of families reported someone in need of medical attention.  (+info)

(3/2621) Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water.

We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) pattern analyses were done with AseI. The LRF patterns of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight hospitals had varying degrees of relatedness to 19 clinical isolates recovered from 17 patients. The high number of M. avium isolates recovered from hospital water and their close relationship with clinical isolates suggests the potential threat of nosocomial spread. This study supports the possibility that potable water is a source for the acquisition of M. avium infections.  (+info)

(4/2621) High-performance liquid chromatography column switching applied to the trace determination of herbicides in environmental and drinking water samples.

A selective and sensitive coupled-column high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the simultaneous determination of 5 phenylurea herbicides (monuron, linuron, isoproturon, monolinuron, and diuron) in environmental and drinking water samples. Sample clean-up is performed automatically by means of a column switching technique. Using 2 octadecyl silica columns connected via two programmable 6-port valves and ultraviolet detection at 244 nm, the aforementioned compounds can be determined at the low concentration levels required for pesticide residue analysis in water samples. A mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol-water (55:45, v/v) is pumped at 1 mL/min. For the 5 phenylureas, high recoveries ranging from 94.9 to 101.6%, good reproducibility with relative standard deviations lower than 5%, and wide linear ranges up to 20 micrograms/L are observed with determination limits of 0.05 microgram/L. The method is successfully applied to the screening of different environmental water samples such as surface, ground, rain, and drinking water.  (+info)

(5/2621) Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts and the risk of colon-rectum, lung, and other cancers.

We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the relationship between cancer of the colon-rectum (n = 326), lung (n = 252), brain (n = 37), and pancreas (n = 37), and exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from public drinking water. Subjects were exposed to PCE when it leached from the vinyl lining of drinking-water distribution pipes. Relative delivered dose of PCE was estimated using a model that took into account residential location, years of residence, water flow, and pipe characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for lung cancer were moderately elevated among subjects whose exposure level was above the 90th percentile whether or not a latent period was assumed [ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 3.7 (1.0-11.7), 3.3 (0.6-13.4), 6.2 (1.1-31.6), and 19.3 (2.5-141.7) for 0, 5, 7, and 9 years of latency, respectively]. The adjusted ORs for colon-rectum cancer were modestly elevated among ever-exposed subjects as more years of latency were assumed [OR and CI, 1.7 (0.8-3.8) and 2.0 (0.6-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These elevated ORs stemmed mainly from associations with rectal cancer. Adjusted ORs for rectal cancer among ever-exposed subjects were more elevated [OR and CI, 2.6 (0. 8-6.7) and 3.1 (0.7-10.9) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively] than were corresponding estimates for colon cancer [OR and CI, 1.3 (0.5-3.5) and 1.5 (0.3-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These results provide evidence for an association between PCE-contaminated public drinking water and cancer of the lung and, possibly, cancer of the colon-rectum.  (+info)

(6/2621) The role of humic substances in drinking water in Kashin-Beck disease in China.

We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays in a selenium-deficient system to determine if organic matter (mainly fulvic acid; FA) is involved in a free radical mechanism of action for Kashin-Beck disease. Cartilage cell culture experiments indicated that the oxy or hydroxy functional groups in FA may interfere with the cell membrane and result in enhancement of lipid peroxidation. Experiments with rats demonstrated that toxicity from FA was reduced when the hydroxy group was blocked. Induction of lipid peroxidation by FA in liver and blood of rats was similar to that exhibited by acetyl phenyl hydrazine. FA accumulated in bone and cartilage, where selenium rarely concentrates. In addition, selenium supplementation in rats' drinking water inhibited the generation of oxy-free radicals in bone. We hypothesized that FA in drinking water is an etiological factor of Kashin-Beck disease and that the mechanism of action involves the oxy and hydroxy groups in FA for the generation of free radicals. Selenium was confirmed to be a preventive factor for Kashin-Beck disease.  (+info)

(7/2621) Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.  (+info)

(8/2621) Criteria for successful sanitation programmes in low income countries.

In the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90), the development of a consensus on the concept of sanitation and the planning and implementation of effective and efficient sanitation programmes was not emphasized. Yet lack of good sanitation is a growing burden and environmental threat. Significant improvement of human health cannot be achieved without good environmental sanitation conditions and practices. A consensus on what makes a sanitation programme successful can help to conserve limited funds and spend those available more wisely. It will also help to reduce the increasing flows of waste poisoning precious sources of drinking water. This article was written to stimulate discussion on what attributes can be taken as characteristic of good environmental sanitation programmes, and on which indicators can be used to assess those attributes in actual sanitation programmes.  (+info)



fluoridation


  • The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has designated community water fluoridation as one of the 10 greatest public health accomplishments of the 20th century. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 3 As the anti-fluoride movement continues to gain momentum, 1 oral health professionals must be prepared to effectively support and defend the benefits of community water fluoridation. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Numerous studies have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of community water fluoridation. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • A systematic review by Yeung 5 evaluated studies that assessed community water fluoridation by both the decayed, missing, filled tooth caries index and the proportion of children who were caries-free compared to nonfluoridated areas during the same time. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Yeung concluded that the evidence supports water fluoridation as helpful in decreasing caries rates. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • An analysis by Truman6 evaluated community water fluoridation as an intervention for dental caries prevention. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The study evaluated caries development before and after fluoridation, and the effects of community water fluoridation on caries experience. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The economic feasibility of community water fluoridation was also analyzed, with results demonstrating that it provided cost savings in all studies. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • McDonagh et al 7 conducted a systematic review to determine the effects of community water fluoridation in comparison to communities without water fluoridation. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 7 The systematic review concluded mild fluorosis of water fluoridation of 1 ppm may occur, but that there was no clear association between bone fractures and consumption of fluoridated water. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The National Cancer Institute has reviewed numerous studies on water fluoridation and a potential association with cancer. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • 8 Not only has the organization found no relationship between fluoride intake and cancer risk, it endorses community water fluoridation for caries prevention. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Community water fluoridation is the process of adjusting fluoride content in community water to improve dental health. (ygoy.com)
  • Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay.Community water fluoridation has been rated as one of ten greatest achievements in public health by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (ygoy.com)
  • Community water fluoridation is the cheapest and most efficient way to ensure constant fluoride supply to all. (ygoy.com)
  • Initially, water fluoridation was thought to help children. (ygoy.com)
  • Also, many children in the U.S are being affected by dental fluorosis.There is a lack of awareness and research on the complete effects of water fluoridation and consumption of fluoride. (ygoy.com)
  • Karen Favazza Spencer in the USA has compiled a list of health professionals who have become vociferous against water fluoridation. (wmaf.org.uk)
  • New Technology Paper on the Costs of Water Fluoridation in England, 2013 - 2021. (wmaf.org.uk)
  • However, the most important question which can be asked of researchers who promoted the fluoridation of our water supply in the 1970s is "Since it was known that fluoride altered bones and caused osteosclerosis, why did the fluoridation experiment not cease then and there? (wmaf.org.uk)
  • Community water fluoridation helps prevent tooth decay by adjusting the fluoride in the water supply to an optimal level. (mo.gov)
  • It is important to note that although the Department of Health and Senior Services recognizes that community water fluoridation is a safe, effective, cost efficient means to prevent tooth decay, the decision to fluoridate is up to each water district. (mo.gov)
  • Some water systems do not adjust fluoride levels at all, while others achieve optimal fluoridation by adding or removing fluoride. (mo.gov)
  • This statute requires that any public water system or district must notify the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS), and its customers of its intentions to make modifications to fluoridation of its water supply. (mo.gov)
  • We also find that fluoridation in neighboring markets was associated with an increase in own-market dental supply, suggesting that dentists responded to the demand shock by moving from fluoridated areas to close-by markets. (nber.org)
  • Our estimates imply that the 8 percentage point change in exposure to water fluoridation from 1974 to 1992 may have led to the loss of as many as 0.6 percent of dental establishments and 2.1 percent of dental employees, suggesting a substantial net impact of this public good on the dental profession since its inception. (nber.org)

fluoride


  • The role of fluoride in preventing tooth decay was discovered in 1930.Scientists observed that people who consumed water containing naturally occurring fluoride had less tooth decay than others. (ygoy.com)
  • This gave them the idea of adding fluoride to community water.Fluoride works by stopping, or even reversing, the process of decaying. (ygoy.com)
  • Fluoridated tooth paste, mouth rinses, supplements such as tablets, lorenzes or drops and water containing natural or added fluoride. (ygoy.com)
  • In China and India, millions of people suffer from fluorosis, which occurs due to consumption of water with excessive fluoride. (ygoy.com)
  • Many drinking water supplies contain some fluoride naturally, however, to prevent tooth decay, it is important to supplement and maintain an adequate level of fluoride to achieve this goal. (mo.gov)
  • Approximately 100 communities in Missouri are currently supplementing the natural fluoride level in the water system to the optimum for dental decay prevention. (mo.gov)
  • Visit Missouri's 'My Water's Fluoride' page to find out whether your local water system optimally fluoridates its water. (mo.gov)
  • the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) for fluoride in drinking water is 2.0 ppm and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for fluoride in drinking water is 4.0 ppm. (mo.gov)
  • In this paper we consider how the dental industry responded to the addition of fluoride to public drinking water. (nber.org)

less tooth decay


  • People drinking fluoridated water have 20 to 40 percent less tooth decay. (mo.gov)

community


  • Additionally, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources maintains a website containing Consumer Confidence Reports on each community water supply in Missouri. (mo.gov)

systems


  • LuminUltra, a New Brunswick, Canada-based innovator in microbiological monitoring and control solutions, and Microbe Detectives LLC, a Wisconsin-based pioneer in applied metagenomics services for water and wastewater systems, today announced a multi-year partnership. (environmental-expert.com)

take advantage


  • Shop Grainger online for water purification system consumables and take advantage of easy ordering and fast delivery. (grainger.com)

Help


  • Stock up on water purification system consumables at Grainger to help ensure you'll have the tools you need to continue providing clean, untainted water to your lab. (grainger.com)

treatment


  • A water treatment system provides treated or softened water to a point of use by removing a portion of any hardness-causing species contained in water from a point-of-entry coming from a water source, such as municipal water, well water, brackish water and water containing foulants. (google.com)
  • The water treatment. (google.com)
  • The water treatment system typically treats the water containing at least some undesirable species before delivering the treated water to a point of use. (google.com)
  • The water treatment system has a controller for adjusting or regulating at least one operating parameter of the treatment system or a component of the water treatment system to optimize the operation and performance of the system or components of the system. (google.com)
  • A flow regulator regulates a waste stream flow to drain and can be operated to recirculate fluid through electrode or concentrating compartments of an electrochemical device and can opened and closed intermittently according to a predetermined schedule or based on an operating parameter of the water treatment system. (google.com)
  • 15. A method of facilitating fluid treatment comprising providing a fluid treatment system comprising an electrochemical device comprising a depleting compartment and a concentrating compartment, and a flow regulator regulated by a controller according to a predetermined discharge schedule and based on a measured property of the softened water and fluidly connected downstream of the concentrating compartment for regulating a flow of a waste stream therefrom to a drain. (google.com)
  • Zhengzhou Wade Water Treatment Material Co., Ltd. (alibaba.com)

benefits


  • Other features include the benefits of heat pump water heaters, preventing cockroach infestations with drain maintenance, and much more. (pmmag.com)

please


  • For more specific information on your public drinking water system, please contact your local water district. (mo.gov)

found


  • It is a microscopic parasite that may be found in soil, food, water or surfaces that have been contaminated with the feces from an infected host. (environmental-expert.com)