Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Pollution, RadioactiveWater Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Respiratory Tract DiseasesEpidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.

*  Drinking Water Pollution Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find drinking water pollution articles on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and ... drinking water pollution Articles. Related terms for "drinking water pollution ": drinking water articles , water pollution ... Water Pollution Water pollution is a major global problem that requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource ... Water pollution Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading ...
https://environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-drinking-water-pollution-44087

*  Water Pollution - Safe Drinking Water Foundation

Water pollution includes all of the waste materials that cannot be naturally broken down by water. ... degrading the quality of the water for other users. ... Water pollution occurs when energy and other materials are ... www.saskatoon.ca/services-residents/power-water/water-wastewater/drinking-water. Environment Canada. 2010. Water Pollution.. ... Operation Water Pollution focuses on how water pollution occurs and how it is cleaned up and has been designed for a Science ...
https://safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/water-pollution

*  How does water pollution affect people? | Reference.com

Drinking water contaminated by disease-carrying micro-organisms, also known as pathogens, cause various waterborne diseases, ... The most common effect of water pollution on human beings is disease. ... How does water pollution occur?. A: Water pollution can occur via several mechanisms, but the most common causes are dumping ... What are some ways to prevent water pollution?. A: To prevent water pollution, avoid overwatering lawns and gardens, use native ...
https://reference.com/science/water-pollution-affect-people-54cd4d2e3937f9a3

*  Phone app lets citizens report water pollution

... A free smartphone app is letting people report oil spills, debris fields and ... Phone app lets citizens report water pollution. Associated Press, @ap Published 4:53 p.m. ET May 31, 2014 ... Phone app lets citizens report water pollution A free smartphone app is letting people report oil spills, debris fields and ... But it was updated this week to allow anyone who sees water pollution, floating debris, endangered animals or other ...
app.com/story/news/2014/05/31/phone-app-citizens-report-water-pollution/9814985/?from=global

*  Polluted environments kill 1.7 million children each year, WHO says - CNN

"We also need to be careful in attributing these deaths just to dirty water or pollution," she said. "To prevent deaths from ... The causes include unsafe water, lack of sanitation, poor hygiene practices and indoor and outdoor pollution, as well as ... These include reducing air pollution, improving access to clean water and sanitation, protecting pregnant women from secondhand ... "Clean water is taken for granted by families in high-income countries, and yet those children in the hottest climates, facing ...
edition.cnn.com/2017/03/05/health/pollution-child-deaths-who/

*  What is a possible solution for water pollution? | Reference.com

Solutions for fighting water pollution include: fighting global warming, reducing oil emissions and improving sewage ... Updating the sewage and water treatment systems has a positive impact on the amount of pollution present in the water supply. ... How much pollution does an average car produce?. A: Although the amount of pollution produced by cars can vary greatly, ... Solutions for fighting water pollution include: fighting global warming, reducing oil emissions and improving sewage ...
https://reference.com/science/possible-solution-water-pollution-2909ed5a5ef07df3

*  Water Pollution Fertilizer, Water Pollution Fertilizer Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com

Various High Quality Water Pollution Fertilizer Products from Global Water Pollution Fertilizer Suppliers and Water Pollution ... Related Searches for water pollution fertilizer: organic fertilizer bio fertilizer liquid fertilizer fertilizer dealers seaweed ... Do you want to show water pollution fertilizer or other products of your own company? Display your Products FREE now! ... RBCHEM 100% WATER SOLUBILITY SEAWEED EXTRACT FERTILIZER BEST SOIL CONDITIONER NO POLLUTION! ...
alibaba.com/showroom/water-pollution-fertilizer.html

*  Greenpeace Tells Gap to Stop "Sponsoring" Toxic Water Pollution | Ecouterre

... toxic water pollution in China, Mexico, and Indonesia. ... Toxic water pollution is impacting millions of people around ... Levi's, Major Denim Brands Embroiled in Mexican Water-Pollution Scandal. Levi Strauss may have pioneered the "Water,less" and " ... Toxic Water Pollution. by Jasmin Malik Chua , 04/29/13 filed under: Eco-Fashion Brands, Toxic Pollution ... One Response to "Greenpeace Tells Gap to Stop "Sponsoring" Toxic Water Pollution". ...
ecouterre.com/greenpeace-tells-gap-to-stop-sponsoring-toxic-water-pollution/

*  Water Pollution by ivy nguyen on Prezi

Transcript of Water Pollution What is Water Pollution ?. Water pollution : is the contamination of water bodies with harmful ... The resulting water pollution causes the quality of the water to deteriorate and affects aquatic ecosystems.. -Such water, ... This picture shows all the different ways agriculture has an effect on the worlds WATER pollution 3 cAUSES FOR WATER POLLUTION ... Residential waste (household), which became one of the causes water pollution due by human activity itself.. -Water pollution ...
https://prezi.com/soru5cy8j5qm/water-pollution/

*  water pollution Archives | Environmental Action

By Chris Burley #OurWater, Clean Water, Clean Water Rule, water pollution, water quality Comments Off on #OurWater. Your ... Check out Environmental Action's new ad in support of cleaner water for 117 million Americans…Our New #OurWater Ad Today ... Environmental Action launches a new effort in our campaign to save the Clean Water Rule and protect drinking water for 117 ...
environmental-action.org/tag/water-pollution/

*  Water Pollution: Freshwater - effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, causes, EPA, soil, pesticide, chemicals,...

Thermal Pollution, Times Beach, Missouri, Tobacco Smoke, Todd, John Innovative Ecological Designer (1939-), Toxic Release ... Surface Water Pollution Freshwater makes up less than three percent of earth's water, but is the source of virtually all ... Groundwater Pollution Water contained in the pores of soil or in aquifers is called groundwater. About 40 percent of U.S. ... Drinking water suppliers have discovered that watershed protection is cost-effective because it reduces pollution and cuts the ...
pollutionissues.com/Ve-Z/Water-Pollution-Freshwater.html

*  Water Pollution | Ecouterre

CHINA'S DIRTY LAUNDRY China is home to some of the worst water pollution in the world, with as much as 70 percent of its rivers ... Greenpeace Tells Gap to Stop "Sponsoring" Toxic Water Pollution. Photos by Andri Tambunan and Deden Iman for Greenpeace After ... Swedish Student Turns Toxic Textile-Factory Effluent Into Clean Water One of the least-glamorous aspects of the garment ... Colombian Plant Fiber Rids Water of Harmful Textile Dyes in Minutes. Photo by Wikimedia Commons Textile dyes and other ...
ecouterre.com/tag/water-pollution/

*  Plan set to curtail water pollution[1]- Chinadaily.com.cn

The newly released water pollution prevention and control action plan will put tough controls on polluting industries with ... Plan set to curtail water pollution. By ZHENG JINRAN (China Daily) Updated: 2015-04-17 06:32 ... Emission of water pollutants will continue to grow, but more slowly, and the tipping point for the overall improvement of water ... deputy head of the Water Resources Bureau under the Ministry of Water Resources. ...
chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-04/17/content_20453195.htm

*  Bacterial Water Pollution News on Environmental XPRT

Get the latest bacterial water pollution news on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and ... bacterial water pollution News. Related terms for "bacterial water pollution ": water pollution news , bacterial water ... NRDC annual beach report: Water pollution ruins over 20,000 days at the beach for third straight year America's beaches ... Don't drink the water - Thousands in Canada can't drink their water A new report from the Council of Canadians reveals that as ...
https://environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-bacterial-water-pollution-63693

*  Feds fine homebuilders for water pollution

... Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... The Clean Water Act requires builders that disturb land to obtain permits and minimize runoff from rain. The companies named in ... The settlements are part of a nationwide crackdown by the EPA to find storm water violations at construction sites. ... "Today's settlements mark an important step forward in protecting our waters from harmful storm water runoff from construction ...
denverpost.com/2008/06/11/feds-fine-homebuilders-for-water-pollution/

*  Water pollution - overview - European Environment Agency

For security reasons, we store your password encrypted, and cannot mail it to you. If you would like to reset your password, fill out the form below and we will send you an email at the address you gave when you registered to start the process of resetting your password ...
https://eea.europa.eu/themes/water/water-pollution/overview/mail_password_form

*  7 surprising ways you may be contributing to water pollution - Cottage Life

Ground and surface water pollution caused by agricultural pesticides and fertilizers is one of the largest sources of water ... While we'd like to believe that Canada's lakes and rivers are crystal clear, water pollution is a serious problem in even the ... Leaky, rusting, and older septic tanks and lines are one of the greatest sources of water pollution in cottage country. ... 7 surprising ways you may be contributing to water pollution. By Jessica Wynne Lockhart ...
https://cottagelife.com/outdoors/7-surprising-ways-you-may-be-contributing-to-water-pollution/

*  Turbidity Prediction in a River Basin by Using Artificial Neural Networks: A Case Study in Northern Spain | SpringerLink

Vigil KJ (2003) Clean water: an introduction to water quality and water pollution control. Oregon State University Press, ... Artificial neural networks (ANNs) Water quality monitoring Water Framework Directive (WFD) Water pollution ... Water quality controls involve a large number of measurements of variables and observations according to the European Water ... Chemical and physical-chemical parameters define water quality and are involved in water body type and habitat determination. ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11269-013-0487-9

*  TNMN - TransNational Monitoring Network | ICPDR - International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River

... the contracting parties of the ICPDR monitor water quality pollution and long-term trends in water quality and pollution loads ... it aims to provide a well-balanced overall view of pollution and long-term trends in water quality and pollution loads in the ... TNMN is to provide a structured and well-balanced overall view of pollution and long-term trends in water quality and pollution ... All countries of the European Union are using a river basin approach for water management since the adoption of the EU Water ...
icpdr.org/main/activities-projects/tnmn-transnational-monitoring-network

*  Expert Manages Storm Water Discharge in Active Construction Sites

As a pre-requisite to construction, the Developer of Plan must generate and gain approval of BMPs and Storm Water Pollution ... Mike Alberson, an expert in storm water pollution prevention, uses the Ultrameter II to meet new and existing state and federal ... Water+Discharge+in+Active+Construction+Sites&ro=false&summary=Mike+Alberson%2C+an+expert+in+storm+water+polluti...&source=. [6 ... Expert Manages Storm Water Discharge in Active Construction Sites. Share: Facebook [2] Twitter [3] Google Plus [4] LinkedIn [5] ...
https://wwdmag.com/print/26090

*  Water Pollution - The New York Times

Commentary and archival information about water pollution from The New York Times. ... Commentary and archival information about water pollution from The New York Times. ... News about Water Pollution, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. ... Review: Tainted Water, Bad Science and 8,000 Children Exposed to Lead Llewellyn Smith's 'Poisoned Water,' on Nova on PBS, ...
https://nytimes.com/topic/subject/water-pollution?query=Japan&field=geo&match=exact

*  Stop Water Pollution | Greenpeace Philippines

Stop Water Pollution Add your voice to the growing chorus of Filipinos who want clean and safe water. Let us get the DENR to ...
greenpeace.org/seasia/ph/What-we-do/Toxics/Water-Patrol/Water-Patrol-Expedition/petition-denr-for-prtr/

*  Water pollution from coal - SourceWatch

71 coal plants surveyed discharge toxic water pollution into water that has already been declared impaired due to poor water ... Thermal pollution. Thermal pollution from coal plants is the degradation of water quality by power plants and industrial ... Water Pollution from Coal includes negative health and environmental effects from the mining, processing, burning, and waste ... Some regulators have used the Clean Water Act to try and limit pollution, but the law does not mandate limits on many dangerous ...
sourcewatch.org/index.php/Water_pollution_from_coal

*  Delaware - Water Pollution - The New York Times

... that Congress created to protect the nation's waters under the Clean Water Act of 1972 today often fails to prevent pollution. ... Toxic Water: A series about the worsening pollution in American waters and regulators' response. *E-Mail ... City of Wilmington Water Pollution Control Fac. Los Angeles. No Information. 0. $0. ... City of Wilmington/Us Filter Water Pollution Control Fac. Los Angeles. Jan. 22, 2009. 5. $0. ...
https://nytimes.com/interactive/projects/toxic-waters/polluters/delaware/index.html

*  Lesson Plans - English Language Arts Grade 3

Reading and Writing About Pollution to Understand Cause and Effect In this lesson, students access prior knowledge about water ... pollution before exploring the topic further using read-alouds. They then complete a sequencing graphic organizer using a story ...
uen.org/core/displayLessonPlans.do?courseNumber=4230&standardId=70403

United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Public water systemBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Angang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.P-AnisidinePolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Exhaust gasOzone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Tissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.Jardine Water Purification PlantCoulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.

(1/712) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/712) Water pollution and human health in China.

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

(3/712) Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts and the risk of colon-rectum, lung, and other cancers.

We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the relationship between cancer of the colon-rectum (n = 326), lung (n = 252), brain (n = 37), and pancreas (n = 37), and exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from public drinking water. Subjects were exposed to PCE when it leached from the vinyl lining of drinking-water distribution pipes. Relative delivered dose of PCE was estimated using a model that took into account residential location, years of residence, water flow, and pipe characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for lung cancer were moderately elevated among subjects whose exposure level was above the 90th percentile whether or not a latent period was assumed [ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 3.7 (1.0-11.7), 3.3 (0.6-13.4), 6.2 (1.1-31.6), and 19.3 (2.5-141.7) for 0, 5, 7, and 9 years of latency, respectively]. The adjusted ORs for colon-rectum cancer were modestly elevated among ever-exposed subjects as more years of latency were assumed [OR and CI, 1.7 (0.8-3.8) and 2.0 (0.6-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These elevated ORs stemmed mainly from associations with rectal cancer. Adjusted ORs for rectal cancer among ever-exposed subjects were more elevated [OR and CI, 2.6 (0. 8-6.7) and 3.1 (0.7-10.9) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively] than were corresponding estimates for colon cancer [OR and CI, 1.3 (0.5-3.5) and 1.5 (0.3-5.8) for 11 and 13 years of latency, respectively]. These results provide evidence for an association between PCE-contaminated public drinking water and cancer of the lung and, possibly, cancer of the colon-rectum.  (+info)

(4/712) Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units.

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.  (+info)

(5/712) Diversity of bacteroides fragilis strains in their capacity to recover phages from human and animal wastes and from fecally polluted wastewater.

Great differences in capability to detect bacteriophages from urban sewage of the area of Barcelona existed among 115 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The capability of six of the strains to detect phages in a variety of feces and wastewater was studied. Strains HSP40 and RYC4023 detected similar numbers of phages in urban sewage and did not detect phages in animal feces. The other four strains detected phages in the feces of different animal species and in wastewater of both human and animal origin. Strain RYC2056 recovered consistently higher counts than the other strains and also detected counts ranging from 10(1) to approximately 10(3) phages per ml in urban sewage from different geographical areas. This strain detected bacteriophages in animal feces even though their relative concentration with respect to the other fecal indicators was significantly lower in wastewater polluted with animal feces than in urban sewage.  (+info)

(6/712) Epidemic and endemic seroprevalence of antibodies to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in residents of three communities with different drinking water supplies.

This study was carried out to compare cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis seroprevalence rates in residents of three communities. Community (Com 1) uses drinking water from deep wells, community 2 (Com 2) uses surface water from a protected watershed, and community 3 (Com 3) uses surface water frequently containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Unfiltered drinking water from each community was collected at the tap and tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts during the 12 months in which sera were collected for testing. No oocysts or cysts were detected in the water from the Com 1 deep wells; oocysts and cysts were detected intermittently in the drinking water from the other two communities. A waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in a municipality adjacent to Com 3 six months into this 12-month study. Sera from residents of each of the communities were collected proportionately by month and by population size. Coded sera were tested for IgG to Cryptosporidium using a previously developed Western blotting method. The presence or absence of bands at 15-17 kD and/or 27 kD was recorded for the 1,944 sera tested. Definite bands at 15-17 kD and/or 27 kD were detected in 981 (50.5%) of the sera. A total of 33.2% of sera from Com 1 (community using deep wells) were positive using the same criteria compared with 53.5% (Com 2) and 52.5% (Com 3) of sera from the two communities using surface drinking water. Both bands (15-17 kD plus 27 kD) were detected in 582 sera (29.9%) from the three communities: 14.1% of sera from Com 1 compared with 32.7% from Com 2 and 31.5% from Com 3. These findings are consistent with a lower risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from drinking water obtained from deep well sources. However, analysis of results by calendar quarter showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the number of Com 3 positive sera (compared with Com 1) following the waterborne outbreak. Without this outbreak-related observation, a significant overall difference in seropositivity would not have been seen. We also observed that in sera from the community affected by the outbreak, the presence on immunoblots of both Cryptosporidium bands appeared to be the best indicator of recent infection. Seroprevalence rates using an ELISA to detect IgG to Giardia were estimated using the same sera. Overall 30.3% (590 of 1,944) of sera were positive by the ELISA. A total of 19.1% of sera from Com 1, 34.7% from Com 2 and 16.0% from Com 3 were seropositive. Rates for both Com 3 and Com 1 did not change significantly over time. In Com 2, rates decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during the last half of the study period (third and fourth calendar quarters). The reasons for the decrease in seroprevalence in Com 2 sera are presently not known. These studies show intriguing associations between seroprevalence, outbreak-related laboratory serologic data, and patterns of parasite contamination of drinking water. Further studies are required to validate the serologic approach to risk assessment of waterborne parasitic infections at a community level.  (+info)

(7/712) Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.

The world's first documented toxoplasmosis outbreak associated with a municipal water supply was recognized in 1995 in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. It was hypothesized that domestic cat (Felis catus) or cougar (Felis concolor) faeces contaminated a surface water reservoir with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. An extensive investigation of the Victoria watershed 1 year following the outbreak documented the presence of an endemic T. gondii cycle involving the animals inhabiting the area. Cats and cougars were observed throughout the watershed. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was demonstrated among domestic cats living in the Victoria area. Cougars were found to shed T. gondii oocysts. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection in deer mice living in the riparian environments of the watershed suggested that T. gondii oocysts were being shed near the water edge. Contamination of Victoria's water supply with T. gondii oocysts potentially occurred during the study period and future waterborne toxoplasmosis outbreaks in this and other communities are possible.  (+info)

(8/712) Discriminant analysis of ribotype profiles of Escherichia coli for differentiating human and nonhuman sources of fecal pollution.

Estuarine waters receive fecal pollution from a variety of sources, including humans and wildlife. Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous bacterium in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and is used as an indicator of fecal pollution. However, its presence does not specifically differentiate sources of pollution. A total of 238 E. coli isolates from human sources (HS) and nonhuman sources (NHS) were collected from the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve, from associated sewage treatment plants, and directly from animals and tested for ribotype (RT) profile. HS and NHS isolates showed 41 and 61 RT profiles, respectively. At a similarity index of ca. 50%, HS and NHS isolates demonstrated four clusters, with the majority of HS and NHS isolates located in clusters C and D; isolates obtained directly from human and animal feces also could be grouped within these clusters. Discriminant analysis (DA) of RT profiles showed that 97% of the NHS isolates and 100% of the animal fecal isolates were correctly classified. The average rate of correct classification for HS and NHS isolates was 82%. We conclude that DA of RT profiles may be a useful method for identifying HS and NHS fecal pollution and may potentially facilitate management practices.  (+info)



natural


  • The objective of this work is to study the ecological and water quality changes resulting from increasing anthropogenic pollution and human intervention on the natural variations of the water level. (environmental-expert.com)