Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.

*  Pharmaceuticals and wildlife | Biology Letters

... rivers and willingness to pay for water treatments that remove harmful levels of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants ... 2011 Predicting the threats of chemicals to wildlife: what are the challenges? Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 7, 499-506. doi: ... 2009 Protecting aquatic organisms from chemicals: the harsh realities. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 3877-3894. doi:10.1098/rsta. ... Assessments need to be future-proofed against increasing water scarcity and recycling of raw sewage, wastewater and application ...
rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/4/20130492

*  FARK.com: (7610053) Chemical pollutants in water linked to small penises

Chemical pollutants in water linked to small penises ( bbc.co.uk). 7 ... The My Little Pony Killer: Chemical pollutants in water is linked to gun ownership? Who knew?. ... I'm going to jump in my car and head down to the local water plant to try and find out about my water quality.. ... Let me just check my water purity test device.. Nope, my water's just fine. ...
fark.com/comments/7610053?tt=voteresults1&startid=82704770

*  Handbook of Environmental Analysis: Chemical Pollutants in Air, Water, Soil, and Solid Wastes, Third Edition - CRC Press Book

Water, Soil, and Solid Wastes, Third Edition - CRC Press Book ... will examine the emergence of many new classes of pollutants in ... Handbook of Environmental Analysis: Chemical Pollutants in Air, Water, Soil, and Solid Wastes, Third Edition. ISBN ... Handbook of Environmental Analysis: Chemical Pollutants in Air, Water, Soil, and Solid Wastes, Third Edition. Pradyot Patnaik ... Handbook of Environmental Analysis: Chemical Pollutants in Air, Water, Soil, and Solid Wastes, Third Edition ...
https://crcpress.com/Handbook-of-Environmental-Analysis-Chemical-Pollutants-in-Air-Water-Soil/Patnaik/p/book/9781498745611

*  Mixing Zone - water, environmental, pollutants, EPA, chemicals, toxic, use

Household Pollutants, Hypoxia, Incineration, Indoor Air Pollution, Industrial Ecology, Industry, Infectious Waste, Information ... The discharge into the mixing zone may be effluent from water treatment plants, chemicals, or hot water from cooling towers. ... Outside the mixing zone, the pollutant levels must meet water quality standards. A typical mixing zone consists of two parts: ... with cleaner water. In the mixing zone, the level of toxic pollutants is allowed to be higher than the acceptable concentration ...
pollutionissues.com/Li-Na/Mixing-Zone.html

*  Cleanup - water, environmental, pollutants, United States, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, wells, toxic,...

Aqueous phase chemicals, chemicals that are soluble in water, dissolve in and move with groundwater. Nonaqueous phase chemicals ... chemicals including agricultural chemicals such as pesticides that are washed into water bodies, industrial chemicals that are ... These chemical reactions may be produced by the introduction of reactive chemicals to the contaminated area, or by the action ... Final disposition of these chemicals depends on their volatility and water solubility. ...
pollutionissues.com/Br-Co/Cleanup.html

*  Electric Power - water, environmental, pollutants, United States, types, EPA, chemicals, industrial, world, human, sources, use...

... particulates that are recognized as the pollutants. NO x is highly reactive with other pollutants found in urban and industrial ... The hot water returning to the boiler is used to preheat the fuel, allowing more efficient firing. See the illustration for a ... Once considered a pollutant or waste and dumped into open pit coal mines, coal ash is now becoming a valuable commodity. ... However, it very quickly changes to a methyl mercury form, and when it settles into water, streams, lakes, or cooling ponds, it ...
pollutionissues.com/Ec-Fi/Electric-Power.html

*  Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea.

0/Trace Elements; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 7439-97-6/Mercury From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... 25481059 - Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of bacillus and geobacillus by nitro.... 7104169 - The influence ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Trophodynamics-mercury-other-trace-elements/19767059.html

*  P-glycoprotein (multi-xenobiotic resistance) and heat shock protein gene expression in the reef coral Montastraea franksi in...

The deleterious impacts of marine pollutants on reef corals and their symbiotic algae are an important element of global coral ... 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 60617-06-3/corexit 9527; 7440-50-8/Copper; 865-21-4/Vinblastine ... The deleterious impacts of marine pollutants on reef corals and their symbiotic algae are an important element of global coral ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/P-glycoprotein-multi-xenobiotic-resistance/19501419.html

*  Estimating consumer exposure to PFOS and PFOA.

0/Alkanesulfonic Acids; 0/Dust; 0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/Fluorocarbons; 0/Octanoic Acids; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; ... Environmental Pollutants / blood*. Female. Fluorocarbons / analysis*, blood. Humans. Infant. Male. Octanoic Acids / analysis*, ... Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.. ... including drinking water. Consumer products cause a minor portion of the consumer exposure to PFOS and PFOA. Of these, it is ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Estimating-consumer-exposure-to-PFOS/18419647.html

*  Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

0/Hydrocarbons; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Determination-aliphatic-hydrocarbons-in-alga/14759670.html

*  Vehicular Pollution - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, impact, EPA, chemicals, toxic, human, power, sources, use,...

Hazardous air pollutants (toxics). These chemical compounds, which are emitted by cars, trucks, refineries, gas pumps, and ... chemical reactions between pollutants after they have been released into the air. ... The following are the major pollutants associated with motor vehicles: * Ozone (O 3 ). The primary ingredient in urban smog, ... Cars and trucks are the source of nearly two-thirds of this pollutant. When inhaled, CO blocks the transport of oxygen to the ...
pollutionissues.com/Ve-Z/Vehicular-Pollution.html

*  Hazardous Waste - City of Casper

Chemicals are never to be poured down the drain or into storm sewers. These toxic chemicals are water pollutants. ... Modern household chemicals make life easier. These household products placed in the trash might leach out and contaminate ... leftover household chemicals to the City of Casper special waste and diversion facility. ... surface and ground water supplies. There is a strict ban on placing these items in your dumpster or in the landfill. ...
casperwy.gov/cms/One.aspx?portalId=63067&pageId=79847

*  Industry - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, history, types, causes, impact, EPA, pesticide, chemicals,...

... for the spread of pollutants into the air, land, and water, and must shoulder the cost of any required cleanup. ... In the past, companies had been able to regard the air, land, and water as free goods. Often, companies saw the pollution they ... That is, since air, land, and water pollution usually affects areas that businesses do not own, then it was not their ... For example, air pollution was a concern in the 1850s when English companies emitted noxious pollutants from their chimneys. In ...
pollutionissues.com/Ho-Li/Industry.html

*  Environmental Movement - water, effects, disasters, pollutants, United States, history, causes, impact, chemicals, industrial,...

Air pollutants transported by precipitation and deposited across the land came to be known as acid rain. The idea that ... Hazardous chemicals were being dumped in Virginia, the Hudson River was heavily contaminated with PCBs, and cows in upper ... In 1962 Rachel Carson's Silent Spring introduced a public dialogue about the impacts of toxic chemicals, specifically DDT, on ... The prospect of danger to human life in the form of pollutants has motivated people from all classes and walks of life to ...
pollutionissues.com/Ec-Fi/Environmental-Movement.html

*  Lifestyle - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, impact, EPA, soil, chemicals, industrial, liquid, toxic,...

Water Pollution Habitat Alteration SOURCE: Brower, M., and Leon, W. (1999). The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental ... water heating), modern appliances, home construction and household water/sewage. Personal transportation, food, and household ... transferred 32 percent more toxic chemicals from 1998 to 2000. These facilities, with chemical releases and transfers up to 110 ... Indeed, the world average eco-footprint is about 2.3 ha while there are fewer than 2 ha of productive land and water on Earth. ...
pollutionissues.com/Ho-Li/Lifestyle.html

*  Ozone - water, effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, EPA, chemicals, industrial, world, human, power, sources, use...

In the arctic polar regions, similar processes occur that have also led to significant chemical depletion of the column ozone ... This ozone is formed in a series of chemical reactions that involve the interaction of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic ... Ozone pollution at the earth's surface is formed within the atmosphere by the interaction of sunlight with chemical precursor ... Despite these improvements, ground-level ozone continues to be one of the most difficult pollutants to manage. An additional, ...
pollutionissues.com/Na-Ph/Ozone.html

*  Drinking Water Pollution Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find drinking water pollution articles on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Chemical pollutants in water emerge Recent advances in contaminant identification methodologies, sampling instrumentation, and ... A water pollutant is a substance that prevents the use of water for a specified purpose. The signs of polluted water are ... drinking water pollution Articles. Related terms for "drinking water pollution ": drinking water articles , water pollution ...
https://environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-drinking-water-pollution-44087

*  adenoma of the oral cavity 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromates; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; C9G6VY6ZZ4 / sodium bichromate ... 7789-12-0) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2008 Jul;(546):1-192. ... Melnick RL, Nyska A, Foster PM, Roycroft JH, Kissling GE: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of the water disinfection byproduct, ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor. *[Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extracranial / Immunohistochemistry / Meningioma / ...
bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenoma of the oral cavity 2005:2010[pubdate]&cxts=100&stmp=b0

*  Water Pollution: Freshwater - effects, environmental, pollutants, United States, causes, EPA, soil, pesticide, chemicals,...

The cleaned water is reinjected into the ground. Pumping out contaminated water and absorbing the pollutant on activated ... and lake water according to the 2000 National Water Quality Inventory. Toxic chemicals, although now regulated, can still be ... Water contained in the pores of soil or in aquifers is called groundwater. About 40 percent of U.S. municipal water comes from ... Once water is contaminated, it is difficult, expensive, and sometimes impossible to remove pollutants. Technologies to remove ...
pollutionissues.com/Ve-Z/Water-Pollution-Freshwater.html

*  OPUS at UTS: Use of duckweed (Lemna disperma) to assess the phytotoxicity of the products of Fenton oxidation of metsulfuron...

Water Pollutants, Chemical. en_US. dc.title. Use of duckweed (Lemna disperma) to assess the phytotoxicity of the products of ... Because of pressure on water supplies world-wide, there is increasing interest in methods of remediating contaminated ground ... Because of pressure on water supplies world-wide, there is increasing interest in methods of remediating contaminated ground ... University of Technology Sydney/Strength - CTWW - Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment. ...
https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/22052

*  The geographic differences in hepatic EROD activity and | Open-i

Organic Chemicals/blood/metabolism*/toxicity. *Porphyrins/metabolism*. *Water Pollutants, Chemical/blood/metabolism*/toxicity ... Properties of blood, porphyrins, and exposure to legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in surf scoters (Melanitta ... Properties of blood, porphyrins, and exposure to legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in surf scoters (Melanitta ...
https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2908456_244_2010_9486_Fig2_HTML&req=4

*  Image Zero Proof Hair Spray, Alcohol Free available in Multiple Sizes/Colors

It corrects pH imbalance caused by chemical services, hard water and pollutants. ...
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*  Pollution Regulation Articles on Environmental XPRT

Chemical pollutants in water emerge Recent advances in contaminant identification methodologies, sampling instrumentation, and ... Chemical Pollutants in Water Emerge Recent advances in contaminant identification methodologies, sampling instrumentation, and ... Water pollution is a huge issue that is made more so by the fact that unfortunately, water is ... ... What classifies as water pollution and why is it an issue? The UN declared 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action ' ...
https://environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-pollution-regulation-25703

*  Chemical Industry Emissions Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find chemical industry emissions articles on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission is considered the most important water pollutant. Using the logarithmic mean Divisia ... Petro-chemical processor meets national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants A multitude of chemical and petroleum ... Decomposition analysis of water consumption-related chemical oxygen demand emission in Chinese industrial sectors Water ...
https://environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-chemical-industry-emissions-26181

*  Nanogrid, activated by sunlight, breaks down pollutants in water, leaving biodegradable compounds | NSF - National Science...

Because they work well both in water and air, they also could be a chemical-free, possibly even water-free, method of cleaning ... "We have made a new catalyst that can break down hydrocarbons in water, and it does not contaminate the water," says Gouma, who ... You won't need a washing machine, or chemicals, or even water," she adds. ... Nanogrid, activated by sunlight, breaks down pollutants in water, leaving biodegradable compounds. ...
https://nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=129566&org=IIP

Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:P-AnisidinePublic water systemBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Ozone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Tissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Jardine Water Purification PlantParticulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.PyromorphiteExhaust gasPrinomastatHighly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Benzo(k)fluorantheneIndoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Biodegradation

(1/2380) 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

(2/2380) Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

(3/2380) Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp.

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

(4/2380) The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate.

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

(5/2380) Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor.

The microbial diversity of a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor was investigated by methods not requiring direct cultivation. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate and high levels of phosphate (P/C weight ratio, 8:100) but failed to completely remove phosphate in the effluent and showed very limited biological phosphorus removal activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA was used to investigate the bacterial diversity. Up to 11 DGGE bands representing at least 11 different sequence types were observed; DNA from the 6 most dominant of these bands was further isolated and sequenced. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA sequences suggested that one sequence type was affiliated with the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, one was associated with the Legionella group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria, and the remaining four formed a novel group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria with no close relationship to any previously described species. The novel group represented approximately 75% of the PCR-amplified DNA, based on the DGGE band intensities. Two oligonucleotide rRNA probes for this novel group were designed and used in a whole-cell hybridization analysis to investigate the abundance of this novel group in situ. The bacteria were coccoid and 3 to 4 microm in diameter and represented approximately 35% of the total population, suggesting a relatively close agreement with the results obtained by the PCR-based DGGE method. Further, based on electron microscopy and standard staining microscopic analysis, this novel group was able to accumulate granule inclusions, possibly consisting of polyhydroxyalkanoate, inside the cells.  (+info)

(6/2380) Quality of water used for haemodialysis: bacteriological and chemical parameters.

BACKGROUND: The bacterial and chemical contamination of dialysate fluids are important problems in haemodialysis therapy and may be caused by the water used for dialysate preparation. METHODS: We performed a survey of the microbiological and chemical quality of the water used in seven dialysis wards. Special attention was paid to the effects of each water treatment step, for example ion exchange, reverse osmosis and UV disinfection, on the number of bacteria (measured as colony forming units, CFU), the amount of endotoxin (endotoxin units, EU) and various chemical parameters, the main focus being on calcium, magnesium, sulphate, aluminium and heavy metals. RESULTS: CFU values exceeding the European Pharmacopeia value, determined at an incubation temperature of 22 degrees C, were found in the samples of raw water (20.0%, n=25), after ion exchange (66.7%, n=12), after reverse osmosis (33.3%, n=18) and also in samples of the dialysis water taken at the inlets (12.5%, n=40) and outlets (50.0%, n=18) of the machines. Whereas all raw water samples from the wards showed high mean values for endotoxin (0.56-9.10 EU/ml) and the endotoxin levels were often enhanced after ion exchange (0.13- >9.49 EU/ml), treatment by reverse osmosis led to a satisfactory decrease in endotoxin in all samples (<0.03 EU/ml). Sufficient reductions in calcium, magnesium and sulphate could only be achieved by the combined application of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Mercury contamination was observed in the samples after ion exchange at three treatment plants, this was possibly caused by polluted regenerants. Increased amounts of aluminium, copper and zinc were found in water samples from different sites in the treatment systems and were caused by materials in contact with the water. CONCLUSIONS: A sufficient chemical water purification treatment system should consist of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Attention has to be paid to the suitability of materials in contact with the water and of the chemicals used, for example regenerants or corrosion inhibitors. From the microbiological point of view, a safety UV disinfection step in the water-treatment system is favourable. To avoid bacterial recontamination periodic cleaning and disinfecting of the water-treatment and distribution systems, as well as the dialysis machine are essential. There is the need for complete guidelines regarding dialysis water that include all relevant chemical and microbiological parameters. Based on this standard, periodic examination of the water after each treatment step has to be performed.  (+info)

(7/2380) Increased chromosome-type chromosome aberration frequencies as biomarkers of cancer risk in a blackfoot endemic area.

To examine whether biomarkers such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations (CAs) can predict cancer development, a nested case-control study was performed in a blackfoot endemic area with a known high cancer risk. A cohort of 686 residents was recruited from three villages in the blackfoot endemic area. Personal characteristics were collected, and venous blood was drawn for lymphocyte culture and stored in a refrigerator. The vital status and cancer development were followed using the National Death Registry, Cancer Registry, and Blackfoot Disease Registry. The follow-up period was from August 1991 to July 1995. During this 4-year period, 31 residents developed various types of cancer. Blood culture samples from nine of these subjects were unsuitable for experiments due to improper storage. Finally, a total of 22 cancer cases had cytogenetic samples that could be analyzed. Twenty-two control subjects were selected from those who did not develop cancer in the study period, and these subjects were matched to cases by sex, age, smoking habits, and residential area. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the frequencies of SCE and chromatid-type CAs between the case and control groups. However, the frequencies of chromosome-type CAs, e.g., chromosome-type gaps, chromosome-type breaks, chromosome-type breaks plus exchanges, total chromosome-type aberrations, and total frequencies of CAs in the case group, were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The odds ratio of cancer risk in subjects with more than zero chromosome-type breaks was 5.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-22.82) compared to those with zero chromosomal breaks. The odds ratios for more than zero chromosome-type breaks plus exchanges and a frequency of total chromosome-type aberrations of >1.007% were 11.0 and 12.0, respectively (P < 0.05). Subjects with a total CA frequency of >4.023% had a 9-fold increase for cancer risk. These results indicate that chromosome-type CAs are good biomarkers for the prediction of cancer development, whereas SCEs and chromatid-type CAs cannot predict cancer risk.  (+info)

(8/2380) Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption?

Historical aerial applications of the insecticide Matacil 1.8D provide an opportunity to look for potential effects of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Matacil 1.8D contained the carbamate insecticide aminocarb, with 4-NP as primary solvent. Between 1975 and 1985 Matacil 1.8D was applied to forests in Atlantic Canada to control damage from the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). After spraying, estimated concentrations of 4-NP in water fell within a range in which estrogenic effects might be anticipated. The spraying coincided with final stages of smolt development in salmon. Salmon catch data were evaluated considering effects on survival of the smolt stage. There was a significant negative relationship between the returns of salmon and the proportion of tributaries sprayed within the Restigouche River drainage basin in 1977. There was also a broader event of unusually heavy salmon smolt mortality in 1977, which contains a significant relationship indicating that where Matacil 1.8D spraying occurred, the smolt mortality increased. For 16 rivers exposed to spraying between 1973 and 1990, a significant proportion (p<0.005) of the lowest salmon catches coincided with Matacil 1.8D spraying. A decline coinciding with the use of Matacil 1.8D was also apparent in blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) catches in New Brunswick. Because similar relationships were not evident for Matacil 1.8F or fenitrothion, neither of which were formulated with 4-NP, we hypothesize that the 4-NP in Matacil 1.8D was the causal agent. Concentrations of 4-NP described here are within current ranges encountered in industrial effluents and municipal sewage outfalls.  (+info)



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