Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.

*  Eddy County Ag News: NMSU Professor Working to Remove Water Pollutants

NMSU Professor Working to Remove Water Pollutants by Billy Huntsman, Media Relations, NMSU College of Engineering Editor's note: Dr. Catherine Brewer has received a 2016 grant through NM WRRI entitled, Biochar for Desalination Concentrate Management, a project funded by the NMSU/Bureau of Reclamation Cooperative Agreement An assistant professor in NMSU's Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering recently received a $373,000 grant from NASA and a $50,000 grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Catherine Brewer's three-year NASA grant is for research pertaining to the absorption of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from the water beneath the White Sands Test Facility. "NDMA is a probable human carcinogen," Brewer said. "In the 1960s and '70s, NASA tested a series of rocket fuels for the Apollo program at the WSTF. After each test, the test engine and fuel lines had to be cleaned and flushed. The wastewater from those flushes was ...

*  Brazil Flavored and Functional Water Market: Decline in Demand for Sugar-sweetened Carbonated Beverages to Ensure Steady Growth...

The Brazil flavored and functional water market is expected to rise from a valuation of US$5.0 bn to reach US$9.4 bn by 2024, expanding at a 7.3% CAGR therein.. Vitamins and Minerals Widely Used Ingredients in Flavored and Functional Water. In 2015, the vitamins and minerals segment accounted for a share of around 90% in terms of volume. Exhibiting a 7.1% CAGR by volume, the segment is also projected to emerge as one of the most lucrative investment options for players in the Brazil flavored and functional water market. Based on the nature of flavored and functional water, non-carbonated beverages are likely to retain their dominance in the market, registering a high growth rate in terms of value as well as volume.. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=16133. On the basis of distribution channel, the retail store segment is expected to lead the Brazil flavored and functional ...

*  "Patterns of Water Uptake and Rhizosphere Salinity in Casuarina Obesa M" by Patrick J. Mitchell

Lake Toolibin is one of a few remaining freshwater lakes in the central wheatbelt of Western Australia. Since monitoring began at Lake Toolibin in the early 1970's groundwater levels have risen to within 1-2 m of the lakebed with an accompanying migration of salt. The site-specific nature of water uptake in Casuarina obesa Miq. (the dominant lakebed tree species) and rhizosphere salinity were explored spatially through analyses of soil properties (groundwater depth and salinity, particle size and components of soil water potential ψ1). Plant water sources (using δ2H signatures) and water availability (based on ψleaf and ψt) were measured to define water uptake within the rhizosphere. Plant response to these conditions was determined using critical indicators of plant water relations such as stomatal conductance (gs) and water use. This ...

*  4 Different types of Water Filter to get pure water <span class='post-format-icon minor-meta'>...

Water is the most important part of a human and animal body. It is said that water is the life of a human. About 60% of human body is made of water. 97% of water is available in a sea, 2% of water is frozen and remaining 1% of water is drinkable. So, you can analyze how much water we have? Remaining 1% of water is available in lakes, rivers, and below the earth. So, we have to bring the water from these resources. Different types of water resources include a number of organic and inorganic matters. It is needless to say that the problem of polluted water is increasing. One of the ways to avoid this unwanted dirt and minerals is using a water filter ...

*  Understanding the water and energy relationship

The truth is that energy and water are related in just about every way you can imagine. The water supply sector utilizes large amounts of energy to transport, treat, and deliver water. On the flip side, vast quantities of water are required to generate power.. As Texas continues to grow and pressure increases on our water and energy resources, the linkages between water and energy become more important. The cycle goes like this: A growing community needs more power, which requires more water, which uses more power, and so on.. Understanding this relationship highlights the importance of conserving water and practicing energy efficiency. For every kilowatt saved, water is also saved. For every gallon of water not used, energy demand is reduced. Investments in and incentives for energy and water conservation must be our ...

*  NWA 2012 : Ord : Notes : Water accounting policies

Only water that is held or managed by the state licensing authority or the urban utilities and is part of the entitlement system is defined as a water asset. Provided its volume can be quantified in a way that is complete, neutral and free from material error, the volume of the water asset or water liability is recognised in the Statement of Water Assets and Water Liabilities. Water held in storages that has already been abstracted from the entitlement system is deemed not to be part of the region (regardless of the size of the storage or its physical connection to the system). This is because the attendant water right has already been exercised. The regulated channel of the lower Ord River is recognised as a water asset when the electrical conductivity is below 1,500 μS/cm. Water in the regulated channel above this salinity level is not ...

*  Retrofit of water network with optimization of existing regeneration units - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional...

Grassroots synthesis of a maximum water recovery network based on pinch analysis has been rather well-established. In contrast, less work has been done on water network retrofit, particularly those involving the optimization of regeneration units. Optimization of the regeneration units provides room for further utility savings and avoids the installation of new regeneration units. This paper presents a new systematic methodology for water network retrofit involving the optimization of existing regeneration units. The procedure begins with setting the minimum utility targets for a water network, and application of some process changes heuristics to choose the best optimization scheme for existing regeneration units. Next, utility savings and capital investment targets were established for the chosen optimization scheme. The existing water network was finally retrofitted to realize the economic targets. ...

*  Global Market for Water Treatment Equipment and Supplies to Reach $48.2 Billion by 2018 | SYS-CON CANADA

FARMINGTON, Conn., Dec. 4, 2012 /PRNewswire-iReach/ -- Water is the most essential of all fundamental needs of human life. Global water demand continues to escalate driven by burgeoning population, rapid economic activity in emerging economies, and the continuous rise in per capita water consumption. The severe shortage of water across several parts of the world is driving Governments to lay emphasis on measures such as water conservation, environmental preservation, and water treatment. Worldwide market for water and wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse achieved considerable growth in the last few years, due largely to the increasing demand for high quality water and stringent regulations that limit waste discharge into the environment. The shifting demand-supply drivers for freshwater are causing a transformation in ...

*  Water in Biology: September 2009

Feng Guo and Joel Friedman at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have probed Hofmeister effects by looking at the effect of adding anions and cations to a solution of gadolinium (III) ions, both free and coordinated to organic and biological molecules (JACS 131, 11010; 2009 - paper here). The idea is that changes in the OH stretching mode of waters in the Gd hydration shell offer a sign of what is happening elsewhere in the solution. It's not entirely clear how the former changes relate to the latter, but Guo and Friedman suggest two possibilities. For example, the tight hydration clusters of high-charge-density cations might both alter water structure quite generally, and might sequester water molecules in a way that frees up anions to interact with the Gd hydration shell. In the first of these cases, the interpretation is predicated on a notion of inhomogeneous bulk water structure composed of a mixture of high- and low-density ...

*  Real-time monitoring and control for efficient management of drinking water networks: Barcelona case study

Drinking water utilities in urban areas are facing new challenges in their real-time operation: limited water resources, intensive energy requirements, a growing population, a costly and ageing infrastructure, increasingly stringent regulations, and increased attention towards the environmental impact of water use. The efficient use of resources is becoming a priority for water managers and the recent advances in ICT technologies can provide solutions to this end. Real-time management in water networks may be considered as a process comprising two different levels: (i) Monitoring, which is concerned with the observation and estimation of the current state of a system and the detection/diagnosis of abnormal situations. It is achieved through sensors and communications technology, together with mathematical models; and (ii) Control, related to computing and applying the best admissible control strategies for network actuators. ...

*  Gov Cuomo 2017 State of State - Invest $2 Billion in Clean Water Infrastructure and Water Quality Protection | nyruralwater.org

Addressing Contaminants. Prioritize Regional Collaboration and Watershed Level Solutions. Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced the Clean Water Infrastructure Act of 2017 to invest a record $2 billion in critical water infrastructure across New York State. This historic investment in drinking water infrastructure, wastewater infrastructure and source water protection actions will enhance community health and wellness, safeguard our most important water resources, and create jobs. Funding for projects will prioritize regional and watershed level solutions, and incentivize consolidation and sharing of water and wastewater services. "Investing in water infrastructure is critical to fostering growth in our communities and our state," Governor Cuomo said. "This Act will continue our historic commitment to protecting and ...

*  Water in Biology: November 2013

Water dynamics generally found to be retarded in the vicinity of proteins. But NMR measurements on crystals of the protein Crh (protein catabolite repression Hpr) have indicated that water in the crystals may remain mobile down to at least -30 C - in other words, it seems more mobile than bulk water at these temperatures (Böckmann et al., J. Biomol. NMR 45, 319; 2009). How can this be? To answer that question, Anja Böckmann of the University of Lyon, who did the NMR wirk, has collaborated with Wilfred van Gunsteren at ETH Zurich and colleagues to conduct MD simulations of the crystalline form of Crh (D. Wang et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 11433; 2013 - paper here). They find that indeed while retarded dynamics of hydration water are seen at 291 K, at 200 K (close to the glass transition) the rotational and translational mobility of this water is greater than in bulk. But while introducing artificial perturbations such as ...

*  Traveling on a Rotating Sphere: Teacher

1. What sort of motion happens in the water?. As the liquid on the bottom becomes hot, the water rises from the bottom of the pot to the top. This movement is called convection. It mixes the water so its temperature becomes more uniform. 2. Why does this kind of water motion occur?. The water on the bottom is heated directly by the stove burners so its temperature rises quickly compared to the cooler water above. The heated water has a lower density than the water above so the hot water moves up and the cooler water moves down.. 3. Imagine now that you put the same pot of water into an oven with a top broiler (heat source above the water surface). How would you expect the water to move?. The top surface of the liquid is closest to the broiler and you would expect this surface to heat ...


Crop protection agents are often administered in the form of aqueous systems. Water-based formulations are obtained by dissolving, emulsifying and/or suspending pesticide technical materials in water. The efficient use of aqueous systems with certain crop protection agents, however, may be restricted due to their poor water-solubility. Aqueous systems containing solid pesticide technical materials may be formulated as suspension concentrates or suspoemulsion formulations. However, these formulation types can suffer from a variety of problems such as agglomeration of solid particles, irreversible thickening, serum formation or sedimentation of solids as a hard packed precipitate. In the case of suspoemulsions, the presence of an emulsified oil layer increases the risk of formulation failure due to the intrinsic instability of oil-in-water emulsions. Due to the relatively complex supply chain for crop protection agents, the formulations can be ...

*  9 Hidden Dangers Lurking in Your Tap Water

If you thought public awareness on the health hazards of lead poisoning and government endorsements would have long resulted in the elimination of this heavy metal from our tap water, you are wrong. Lead continues to be present in drinking water supplies in many states by the Centre for Disease Control's own admission.. Lead in tap water is blamed mainly on the old metal fixtures connecting the house supply to the mains. CDC recommends testing the tap water supply to your home to rule out lead contamination. However, it neither offers any permanent solution to the problem nor promises immediate remedial action.. Unlike chlorine, lead dissolved in water does not cause any changes in color, smell, or taste, so the only option is to get the tap water tested as recommended by CDC. There are no scientifically validated safe levels of this toxic substance, but 15 parts per billion has been fixed as Environmental ...

*  Body found in water near MMMBT in Suffolk | WTKR.com

A death investigation is underway in Suffolk after a body was found in the water near the base of the Monitor Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel on Wednesday morning.

*  Water in Biology: January 2012

Confinement will, of course, do other things to water itself. Ivan Brovchenko and Alla Oleinikova have predicted that water in slit-like pores just 2.4 nm wide might undergo the liquid-liquid transition predicted in the metastable bulk at low temperature and high pressure (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 214701; 2007). Limei Xu and Valeria Molinero at Utah have now examined that idea in simulations using their mW model of water held within 1.5-nm diameter cylindrical pores (J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 14210; 2011 - paper here). This system is comparable to the pores of MCM-41 nanoporous silica, as used in recent experiments on confined water (e.g. L. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 117802 (2005)). They find no evidence for a first-order liquid-liquid transition, but note that smearing of discontinuous transitions is well known in pores (although not in fact inevitable), and therefore that this doesn't rule out the existence of such a transition in the bulk. ...

*  Press & News | 2013 DRINKING WATER

Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the Environmental Protection Agencys Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791. Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium ...

*  Water in Biology: January 2017

The voltage-dependent proton transport channel Hv1 is implicated in diseases ranging from cancer to some forms of brain damage. This makes it a potential drug target, and some inhibitors seem to expel bound water from the pore when they bind. Because this water forms intermittent hydrogen-bonded clusters and water wires, it seems likely that there's a hydration-related entropic contribution to the binding free energy. With this in mind, Mike Klein at Temple University and colleagues have used modeling and simulations to look at water fluctuations in the pore, so as to identify potential binding sites (E. Gianti et al., PNAS 113, E8359 2016 - paper here). Their analysis reveals two such sites: one the binding site known already, another at the outlet of the proton pathway, both of them associated with maximal fluctuation, apparently on the brink of a drying transition, and in locations where replacement by a hydrophobic ligand is optimal. The ...

*  Tap water campaign to promote health and sustainability in Richmond - Local: In Contra Costa

The 2009 documentary Tapped, screened at Bridge Art Space on May 2 as part of the Richmond Food Policy Council's monthly film series, paints a picture of stark contrasts: bottled water is sold at 1,900 times the cost of tap water. Plastic water bottle manufacturers in the U.S. use 714 millions of gallons of oil per year. And contrary to the bottled water industry's most popular myth - that it's purer than the tap - the EPA's tap water quality regulations are far stricter than the FDA's for bottled water.. ...

*  Osmolarity | Pathway Medicine

The first challenge in understanding osmolarity is appreciating how differences in water "concentration" can be achieved across a water-permeable membrane. Such differences can only occur if the membrane is semi-permeable, meaning that it is permeable to water but not to some type of solute dissolved within the water. Importantly, solute molecules, regardless of their chemical nature, take up space; consequently, any given unit of fluid volume is composed of the summed volumes of the water and solute molecules. If the concentration of the solute is very high, in consequence the amount of water molecules per unit volume is lower, meaning that the water "concentration" is low. However, if the concentration of solute is very low, in consequence the amount of water molecules per unit volume is higher, meaning that the water "concentration" is high. Given these ...

*  Water in Biology: What to think about Kauzmann

Restoring Kauzmann's 1959 explanation of how the hydrophobic factor drives protein folding" is quite a big claim. But what Robert Baldwin at Stanford means by making this claim in the title of his PNAS paper (PNAS 111, 13052; 2014 - paper here) is not that, as Kauzmann argued, hydration water is a kind of ordered, ice-like clathrate, but rather that the driving force of hydrophobic attraction is ultimately entropic, being due to the release of relatively constrained waters. Baldwin argues that a dynamic but relatively ordered hydration shell due primarily to van der Waals attraction can equally account for the hydration energetics: why, for example, the hydrophobic free energy depends on the solvent-accessible surface area of the nonpolar interface of hydrophobes. What I still find a little puzzling about this analysis, however, is the apparent implication that there was any doubt about the existence of non-bulk-like hydration shells around hydrophobic groups. That, surely, ...

*  Bacterial source tracking and survival of Escherichia coli

Surface water is used for drinking by many people around the world. E. coli is the most frequently used bacterial indicator used for assessing water quality. The survival, sources, and concentrations of E. coli were examined through a series of experiments that investigated the survival of beef cattle E. coli on land and in water, and used bacterial source tracking (BST) to determine the sources of fecal contamination diurnally and annually in multiple watersheds in British Columbia. A fecal pat experiment was conducted to examine the survival of E. coli under 4 levels of solar exposure. E. coli survived longer with increasing shade. Age of fecal pats, as well as exposure to solar radiation negatively influenced the survival of E. coli. The survival of E. coli in stream water was examined in filtered and unfiltered stream water at 3 different temperatures (6, 20 and 26 ºC). There was no significant ...

*  Minerals with metal-organic framework structures | Science Advances

Thermal stability of zhemchuzhnikovite and stepanovite is consistent with the properties of proton-conducting oxalate MOFs reported by Sadakiyo et al. (11), with mild heating (90°C) leading to partial dehydration, which is reversed upon exposure to saturated water vapor at room temperature. TGA after thermal dehydration reveals that stepanovite loses 3 equiv of water upon heating, consistent with removal of water between the hcb layers. For zhemchuzhnikovite, heating leads to the loss of crystallinity and removal of 6 equiv of water, indicating the loss of at least 50% of coordinated water guests in MOF channels. Upon exposure to saturated water vapor at room temperature, both stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite regain the original structure and water content (figs. S6 to S10). The removal and absorption of water can be repeated at least three times (Fig. 4C and fig. S6) for ...

*  How Do Vascular Plants Transport Water & Nutrients to All Parts of the Plant? | eHow

How Do Vascular Plants Transport Water & Nutrients to All Parts of the Plant?. Vascular plants comprise most of the plants people see everyday. From the tallest trees to the tiniest flowers, they are complex structures with roots for gathering water and nutrients and leaves for gathering energy from the sun. For much of Earth's history, plants were...

*  Is your tap water safe to drink?| Latest News Videos | Fox News

Although the United States is thought to have one of the cleanest public water supplies in the world, the Flint crisis has many families wondering whether their drinking water is safe. But with the right water filter, these dangerous pollutants can be reduced and even eliminated. Water expert Michael Cervin shares his water safety tips and filter recommendations

*  Hydrocarbons monitoring for water remediation - Water and Wastewater by Modern Water - Monitoring Division on Environmental XPRT

Modern Water - Monitoring Division offers Hydrocarbons monitoring for water remediation and other solutions for the Water and Wastewater

*  Water Minerals

... is a bottle containing minerals forged using natural elements, which produce a negative ORP to form a well-balanced antioxidant water. Filling Water Minerals with water and allowing the minerals to come in contact is the start of producing the most beneficial glass of water you will ever experience.

*  California Water Action Plan: Analysis & Findings by the California Roundtable on Water & Food Supply

The California Roundtable on Water & Food Supply (CRWFS) completed an extensive review of the California Water Action Plan (WAP), Governor Brown's five-year roadmap for the state's journey toward long-term, sustainable water management

*  Just Like Old Times: Generating RNA Molecules In Water - Redorbit

Appearing in the Nov. 27, 2009, issue (Vol. 284, No. 48) of JBC. A key question in the origin of biological molecules like RNA and DNA is how they first came together billions of years ago from simple precursors. Now, in a study appearing in this week's JBC, researchers in Italy have reconstructed one of the earliest evolutionary steps yet: generating long chains of RNA from individual subunits using nothing but warm water.. Many researchers believe that RNA was one of the first biological molecules present, before DNA and proteins; however, there has been little success in recreating the formation on RNA from simple "prebiotic" molecules that likely were present on primordial earth billions of years ago.. Now, Ernesto Di Mauro and colleagues found that ancient molecules called cyclic nucleotides can merge together in water and form polymers over 100 nucleotides long in water ranging from 40-90 °C ""similar to water temperatures on ancient ...

*  Palaeos Eukarya: Glossary L-O

Osmotic pressure Most biological membranes are impermeable to many of the solutes found in the cell. If this were not so, all of the valuable biomolecules in the cell would simply diffuse out and be lost. However, the same membranes are often more or less permeable to water. Since there are many solutes trapped in the cell, the "concentration" of water is lower in the cell than outside, i.e., there are more water molecules per unit volume outside the cell than inside. Diffusion of water through the membrane works both ways and is completely random. However, water "concentration" is higher outside the cell. That is, there are more water molecules in contact with the membrane on the outside than on the inside. So, there will be a net flux of water into the cytoplasm until the concentrations equalize. The osmotic potential is the measure of the net tendency of water to enter ...

*  Minerals From Water - Good Giving Guide

You have probably heard so many times that drinking water is really important. There are numerous reasons why people should drink water regularly, and there are numerous ways in which water can help boost our health. You have probably heard about detox plans that involve drinking plenty of water. .... READ MORE + ...

*  Over-wintering Water Features

Folks who live in areas of temperate weather all year long may find the following information difficult to fathom, but in areas where the temperatures go below freezing, consideration must be given to the 'winterizing' of water-effects' basins and equipment.. A properly designed and built water feature will suffer no ill effects if maintained properly before, during and after freezing weather. This Section attempts to detail what can be done to resist the influences of winter on aquatic gardens.. Design & Construction:. The pond, fountain, stream, water fall and related equipment should be planned and built with the seasons in mind.. Water -Holding Basins: themselves should be as deep as possible with nearly vertical sides to resist cracking and even the possibility of being 'popped-out' of the freezing ground.. The basin/s should not be drained and left empty, as this will present more risk of damage from crushing or being forced out of the ...

*  California Water Efficiency Partnership (formerly CUWCC) > News > Council...

The California Water Efficiency Partnership (formerly the California Urban Water Conservation Council) is an innovative leader, voice and expert on water efficiency in California that fosters collaboration among a wide variety of stakeholders.

*  California Water Efficiency Partnership (formerly CUWCC) > News > Council...

The California Water Efficiency Partnership (formerly the California Urban Water Conservation Council) is an innovative leader, voice and expert on water efficiency in California that fosters collaboration among a wide variety of stakeholders.

*  Plus it

In the deeper basalts and sediments, at depths of 17 m or greater, temporal trends were mixed. The majority (15 of 25) of these deeper locations indicated steady-state conditions (Fig. 6), but long-term water potential changes were observed at nine of the 25 locations. One location, I5S-30, was indeterminate. Water potentials were stable in basalt at 772-17, 772-27, 765-24, 765-30, I2D-54, O3-27, and O7-74 (Fig. 6a). Two data spikes do occur in 772-27, in March 2001 and December 2002, but these spikes may be artificially induced. This depth (772-27) is monitored by a portable tensiometer in an open standpipe, and there is a possibility condensation formed in the borehole, resulting in a temporary rise that dissipated quickly. In the BC sedimentary interbed (Fig. 6b), water potentials were stable at 765-31, I1S-31, I2S-29, O2-33, O5-32, and O7-37. In the CD sedimentary interbed (Fig. 6c), water potentials were stable at I2D-68 and O3-67. The ...

*  3 Ways to Freeze Mushrooms - wikiHow

How to Freeze Mushrooms. Raw mushrooms will turn to unappealing mush in the freezer, as the water molecules inside them turn to ice crystals and rupture the cell walls.http://www.extension.umn.edu/food/food-safety/preserving/freezing/the...

*  Packaged Drinking Water Plant - Buy Packaged Drinking Water Plant Product on Alibaba.com

Packaged Drinking Water Plant , Find Complete Details about Packaged Drinking Water Plant,Packaged Drinking Water Plant from Other Beverage & Wine Machines Supplier or Manufacturer-DOWAC SYSTEMS & PROJECTS INDIA PVT.LTD

*  Hearne making repairs to water supply

The city of Hearne is almost done repairing a water well that was putting out brown and orange colored water. In May, News 3 talked to water customers in Hearne about the discolored water coming out of their faucets. The City of Hearne is finishing up repairs.

*  Where the Water Goes - David Owen

Where the Water Goes (ISBN 978-1-59463-377-5), published by Riverhead Books. You can order a copy from Amazon, Barnes and Noble, IndieBound, Books-A-Million, iBooks, and other sellers. From Where the Water Goes: I had decided that a useful way to think about water issues of all kinds would be to trace the course of a single river, to see where the water came from and where it went. The Colorado is an ideal subject for such a study, both because of its economic importance-it has been called

*  Experts in public health suggest steps to address lead in drinking water

Concerns about lead in District drinking water resurfaced this month with the publication of a new study that concluded that nearly 15,000 District homes where service pipes were replaced between 2004 and 2006 may still have some lead in their water. Officials with DC Water say the general water ...

*  Conductivity: Pure Water + Acetic Acid

In this video, Dr. David Hobbs observes the conductivity of pure water plus acetic acid. Right-click or ctrl-click this link to download.

*  Does sugar dissolve in water? | Reference.com

Water molecules break bonds and insert themselves between sugar molecules, causing sugar cubes to dissolve in water. The positively charged oxygen ions in water combine with the negatively charged...

*  Drinking Water

While boiling water is an effective way to kill most microbial pathogens, research performed in the United Kingdom has shown that people do not necessarily comply with boil water advisories. Similarly, in Walkerton, Ontario in 2000, only 44% of respondents reported that they were aware of the order to boil water when it was first issued on the local radio at the start of the outbreak and in... ...

*  Water Plants for Shallow Water and Bogs - Dave's Garden

Most people really get into the water garden thing one step at a time. The first step into this wonderful world is getting into plants for shallow water and bog plants. This is a stunning and easy ...

*  When Water Flows Uphill : NPR

In the Leidenfrost Effect, a water droplet will float on a layer of its own vapor if heated to a certain temperature. This common cooking phenomenon takes center stage in a series of playful experiments by physicists at England's University of Bath, who discovered new and fun means to manipulate the movement of water.

*  Water in Biology: May 2014

I'd not previously come across guanine quadruplexes (GQs) before seeing the paper by Van Ngo and colleagues of the University of Southern California (J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 864; 2014 - paper here). These structures have been seen in human telomeres, where they can form from single-stranded DNA, but their biological role is still unclear. Telomeric GQs are stabilized by monovalent cations such as sodium, potassium and ammonium, and they have been shown capable of conducting such ions along their axis, suggesting that they can be exploited as artificial ion(-selective) channels. Ngo and colleagues investigate this process of ion conduction using MD. They find that the central channel of a GQ can host a single-file chain of water molecules, and that the passage of ions along this channel is accompanied by water molecules being "knocked out" of the chain and escaping the channel. It seems that sodium ions can move along the axis at scarcely any energetic cost, whereas for ...

*  World Water Council - World Water Council

The World Water Council is an international and independent organization which fight for better water management across the world.

*  Discharge Monitoring equipment (Water and Wastewater) | Water and Wastewater - Environmental XPRT

Results for discharge monitoring equipment from Quantum, Leakwise, Tektor and other leading brands for water and wastewater. Compare and contact a supplier near you on (water and wastewater) - Environmental XPRT

*  Shortage of Water - latimes

Perhaps the purpose of the current cosmetic water conservation program is to educate Los Angeles residents about what many native Californians are already aware of: that water is a precious and

*  3 Ways to Keep Aquarium Water Clear - wikiHow

How to Keep Aquarium Water Clear. An aquarium with clear water is a sign of a healthy environment. Fish need clean and healthy water in order to thrive and live. Uneaten food, fish waste, and plant debris raise the pH level of the tank and...

*  Unit pumps the water out in wash cycle? - Appliance Repair Forum

This Kemore Ultra Fills with water just fine the water is hot then goes into the wash cycle and immediately pumps out all the water. What is the most likely cause of this?

*  13 Beautiful Plastic-Free Water Bottles for Kids, Teens and Adults | Inhabitots

With all the beautiful plastic-free water bottles on the market, there's no reason to buy disposable water bottles anymore. Here are 13 of our favorite reusable water bottles.

*  What is a Water Rat? (with picture)

A water rat is a type of mammal that hunts and lives near water. There are many different types of water rat, with the main ones...

*  NCSU warns against drinking campus water :: WRAL.com

N.C. State officials said an odor in the water was identified at three locations near Cates Avenue, and they said they want to test the water to determine the source of the odor before flushing the system and determining if the water is safe for consumption.

*  Consumer Council for Water

The Consumer Council for Water (CCWater) is a statutory consumer body for the water industry in England and Wales. We offer independent advice about your water company. If its service has been poor, we may investigate your complaint.

*  Did You Know | BruceVoigt's WunderBlog | Weather Underground

A L G A E A water molecule or chip has a nucleus containing info cells of a species not necessarily of our earth or universe. Water in itself is a life species and is a product of evolution. Being that there is no such thing as a beginning or an end, let's just jump in. EXPERIMENT 609: Smear the bottom of two containers with lard or butter, fill both with water leaving one exposed to sunlight, and black out the other so that it doesn't receive light. Neutrinos (particles) of our sun collide with earths aura (particles known as magnetism) atomically producing heat and light. Water cells in the container have ingested cells of the fat. Orbiting chips of this fat water cell collide with orbiting chips of the light cells atomically creating heat. This heat changes water molecules or chips to gas. Within the membrane small gas chips, the likes of oxygen are released. The trapped gasses without oxygen turn green. ...

*  How Much Water to Drink per Day by Body Weight | LIVESTRONG.COM

Every system of the human body depends on water. Failing to drink enough water can lead to tiredness through dehydration and possibly kidney stones, but...

*  Simply Hidalgo: April 2013

I can still taste the chemo in my mouth sometimes. Anything that resembles red kool-aid (one of my chemo drugs looked like it) makes me want to vomit. Since we moved I'll never have to step foot in the oncology office where I received treatment, thank God. Just being there for a check up made me feel ill. I can no longer drink water out of my camelbak water bottle. It was the water bottle I took with me to chemo and I would drink as much water as possible out of it in an effort to flush the poison out of my body. Just drinking out of it makes me sick. So I finally bought a new water bottle ...

*  Land-use-based sources of pollutants in urban storm water on Environmental XPRT

Article Land-use-based sources of pollutants in urban storm water. ABSTRACT Urban storm water is recognized as a major source of pollution to many of the nation's waterways. However, little is known about the mechanisms and processes that influence ...

*  Parasites Found in Drinking Water

Find out how parasites found in drinking water can wreak havoc on your health. Learn about the different classifications and types, as well as the specific names, of parasites that can make you sick when ingested through drinking water.

*  "Two component integrable systems modelling shallow water waves: the co" by Rossen Ivanov

In this contribution we describe the role of several two-component integrable systems in the classical problem of shallow water waves. The starting point in our derivation is the Euler equation for an incompressible fluid, the equation of mass conservation, the simplest bottom and surface conditions and the constant vorticity condition. The approximate model equations are generated by introduction of suitable scalings and by truncating asymptotic expansions of the quantities to appropriate order. The so obtained equations can be related to three different integrable systems: a two component generalization of the Camassa-Holm equation, the Zakharov-Ito system and the Kaup-Boussinesq system. The significance of the results is the inclusion of vorticity, an important feature of water waves that has been given increasing attention during the last decade. The presented investigation shows how - up to a certain order - the model equations relate to the shear flow upon which the ...

*  Nutrihealth: Types of nutrients in human body

About 70% of the non-fat mass of our bodies system is water. Nobody is completely sure how much water our bodies system needs - statements vary from between one to seven liters per day to drink lots of water. We do know that water specifications are very closely linked to bodily proportions, age, environmental conditions, actual exercise, different states of health, and dietary habits. Somebody who takes in a lot of sodium will require more water than another individual of the same height, age and weight, exposed to the same stages of outside conditions, and similar stages of movements who takes in less sodium. Most cover statements that 'the more water you drink the healthier your are' are not backed with scientific evidence. The variables that influence water specifications are so vast that accurate advice on drinking habits would only be valid after assessing each individual individually ...

*  The Art of Phil the Forecaster: May 2015

A bright line can also occur along a lake shore even with the sun to your back! The distant area is bright because of the surface area effect caused by looking at a distant area of a flat and highly reflective surface - water. In order to be bright these areas must reflect the colour of the sky. Typically the lake surface will be rippled by wind action caused by drainage winds flowing down the river channel leading into the lake. The rippled water surface will tilt some surfaces of the small waves to reflect light from the sky which "glints" to your eye. The adjacent smooth water surface will be the darker colours of pure reflection from the distant shore. The contrast between the dark reflection of the shoreline and the brighter reflection of the sky from the rippled water surface creates the "blue line ...

*  It's a busy time in Logan for water witchers and well diggers | HPPR

LOGAN -- Quests for water during years of dry conditions have kept two Logan men busy. Terry Gottschalk, a well driller, and Phil Altman, a water witcher, often are colleagues on the same job. "I tell people I would not drill a well without having it witched. Otherwise, you're just shooting .... ...

*  Dynamics of water confined in self-assembled monoglyceride-water-oil phases - Soft Matter (RSC Publishing)

The dynamics of water confined in various self-assembled liquid-crystalline phases of the system Dimodan U/J-R(+)-limonene-water have been investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) over a wide range of frequencies (0.2 ≤ ν/GHz ≤ 50). For all phases, two water-related Debye processes were detec

*  After hotels, no supply for bottled water, aerated drink factories? | india | Hindustan Times

After imposing water restrictions on hotels, clubs and petrol pumps, aerated drink and bottled water factories are next on the civic corporation's list.

*  Adjustable Hot Water Temperature 2 Way Heat System Control Valve

Buy Adjustable Hot Water Temperature 2 Way Heat System Control Valve from sourcingmap,you can get reasonable price and fast response worldwide. Please be assured all the products here are quality garanteed.

*  Norm's Nursery: Container Water Gardens talk

I was pleased to be able to give a talk recently at the Montelindo Garden Club. The topic was container water gardening and it was spurred by an article I'd had published in the SF Chronicle on that topic back in June of this year. For those of you who missed the article the first time, or who might want to look at some of the photos that appeared with the article (more online than in the paper itself), here is the link to the container water gardens story. ...

*  Tips Slim Back After Childbirth | diet tips

Water is good for health trustworthy. In addition to refreshing, water can remove toxins from the body. If your urine is yellow, you're out of water consumed. Therefore, drink at least 10 to 12 glasses of water per day. Water also helps you lose weight because it makes the stomach feel full so that the desire to eat more controlled ...

*  The selective addition of water to C [[double bond, length as m-dash]] C bonds; enzymes are the best chemists - Chemical...

Water is the liquid of life. Nature has therefore evolved countless enzymes that catalyse the addition of water to C [[double bond, length as m-dash]] C bonds, isolated or conjugated. These reactions are regio- and enantioselective, they are part of primary metabolism as well as the secondary metabolism. The en...

*  In which organ does obligatory reabsorption of water occur? | Reference.com

Obligatory reabsorption of water occurs in the kidneys. The reabsorption of water is a part of the process that the kidneys perform of filtering and returning to the bloodstream about 200 quarts of...

*  The song of killer electrons

Here's a long-winded answer which may provide additional clarity (or may just be boring, I dunno). One should start by asking the question "what is a wave?" Strictly speaking, a wave is anything that moves through space. Best illustrated with examples.. When one talks about a wave on the surface of a lake, for example, the water is moving up and down, but the wave is moving across the lake (i.e., the direction of motion of the water molecules is perpendicular to the motion of the wave). So what is moving? Energy is moving across the surface of the lake, because the wave transports energy. That energy is transmitted by the motion of water, so you could not have a water wave without a body of water. Seems sensible enough.. With EM waves, the situation is more subtle because you have to wrap your mind around the concept of a 'field'. The electric field is a quantity that is defined at every point in space. It is, in essence, a ...

*  Coliban Water - Welcome

Choose Tap is an initiative that promotes the benefits of drinking tap water as part of a healthy lifestyle and as a positive alternative to bottled water.. ...

*  The Hidden Toxins in Our Water

Our water supply is loaded with toxic contaminants. Here are the poisons we all need to be aware of and take measures to avoid these toxins in our water.

*  Ellington Residents Ask Town's Help With Water - tribunedigital-thecourant

Some frustrated Glenwood Road residents, whose water supplies have become contaminated, said the town should cover at least part of the cost of connecting their homes to public water.``There's no

*  Home - American Water Works Association

Established in 1881, the American Water Works Association is the largest nonprofit, scientific and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world's most important resource. With approximately 50,000 members, AWWA provides solutions to improve public health, protect the environment, strengthen the economy and enhance our quality of life.

*  awe, fashion in the water, floating, girl, movement, - image #951 on Favim.com

Inspiring image awe, fashion in the water, floating, girl, movement, photography, underwater, water, white, zena holloway #951 - Resolution 479x649px - Find the image to your taste

*  Water Drop Science: 8 Explorations: 8 Steps (with Pictures)

Water you waiting for? There's an ocean of knowledge and experience lying in every wee drop water, and it's now you can start checking it out. From looking at sur...

*  We are drinking too much water | EurekAlert! Science News

Our bodies need about two liters of fluids per day, not two liters of water specifically. In an editorial in the June issue of Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Spero Tsindos from La Trobe University, examined why we consume so much water.

*  Carbonated Water | A Key To Brighter & Glowing Face - Trendy Thoughts

The skin experts were keen enough to use carbonated water as an ingredient in many beauty products which guaranteed to maintain the benefits of carbonated water used alone.

*  City of Scottsdale - Rebates

Recycled water is an essential part of Scottsdale's total water supply. In 2014 alone, Scottsdale Water delivered almost 2.1 billion gallons of recycled water for turf irrigation and recharged over 1.3 billion gallons of highly treated recycled water into the aquifer.

*  Buy Hand Chemistry Triple-Function Hyaluronic-Rich Hydrator at Well.ca | Free Shipping $35+ in Canada

The Chemistry Brand HA3 Hand Hydrator - Unlike traditional creams that offer merely surface hydration, this triple-function hydrator offers

*  Biology-Online • View topic - What happened?

well, the water flows from an area of less solute to more solute(salt water). So the cells immediately affected would be the ones in the alimentary canal since they are closest, and they will lose water. But since there is more water in other parts of the body than the cells that experienced the loss, water would flow to them. In short, every cell would be affected ...

*  water - BGR

Jesus may have walked on water on his own, but the rest of us would need some help to manage that kind of miraculous behavior. And as it turns out, one architecture firm came up with >>. ...

*  Apology, Proposition 12

the 'antitype' or the thing figured, whereas it is usually translated as if the like figure did now save us, thereby insinuating, that, as they were saved by water in the ark, so are we now by water-baptism. But this interpretation crosseth his sense, he presently after declaring the contrary, as hath above been observed: and likewise it would contradict the opinion of all our opposers. For Protestants deny it to be absolutely necessary to salvation. And though Papists say none are saved without it, yet in this they admit an exception, as of martyrs, &c., and they will not say that all that have it are saved by water baptism:2 for seeing we are saved by this baptism, as those that were in the ark were 'saved by water,' and that all those that were in the ark were saved by water, it would then follow that all those that have this baptism are saved by it. Now this consequence would be false if it were understood of ...

*  Measuring Humidity Using Sensor (DHT11): 5 Steps

The percentage of water present in the air is termed as humidity. Water as gaseous state called vapor. As the temperature of the air increases ...

*  The Importance of Cell Water

Prof. Martin Chaplin presents a new theory on the structure of water in the cell that switches between low-density and high-density clusters

*  PMC works near water bodies face MoEF test - News

Panned for ad hoc development near water bodies, civic body may now be forced to stall all works till Ministry of Environment and Forests completes court-ordered inspections, report

*  Water and Wastewater Equipment - Building Product and Material Manufacturers

Material and product manufacturers relating to Water and Wastewater Equipment are organized by the product or the material into CSI sections. Explore the sections below to gather product data and access downloadable content including CAD files, BIM objects, specifications and much more.

*  Pipe Testing (Pipe Plugs - Water and Wastewater) Downloads on Environmental XPRT

Find and compare a variety of pipe testing (pipe plugs - water and wastewater) downloads on environmental xprt on the world's largest environmental portal. View product and services catalogs, brochures, case studies, company news and more. Contact ...

*  Crystal Waters Gypsy Woman Original Video Mix

Crystal Waters - Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless) [Basement Boys Strip to the Bone Mix] Video Original Mix Sorry by The Quality Please Rate And Post

*  Post-storm, control standing water to keep mosquitoes away :: WRAL.com

After the heavy rain brought on by Post-Tropical Storm Hermine, public health officials are reminding everyone to minimize standing outdoor water around their homes to keep disease-carrying mosquitoes at bay.

*  Water Aeration Articles on Environmental XPRT

Find water aeration articles on Environmental XPRT, the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.

*  Homeowners Pressure City After Plastic Water Pipes Burst - latimes

Palisades Highlands homeowner Tony Alden realized something was very wrong one morning last month when he peered out the front door to find his lawn under water.'His whole front yard was under six

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Food and Water Borne: Toxins

Toxins in the context of this category are chemicals, plants or their parts, and animal parts that are poisonous to people when ingested in food or water.

*  How to Remove Rust From Drinking Water | LIVESTRONG.COM

Rust is the common term for various compounds that consist of iron and oxygen. It generally forms when free iron is exposed to the oxygen in air and water....

*  OriginOil forms agreement with World Water Works | Biomassmagazine.com

California-based OriginOil Inc. has announced that its process partner World Water Works Inc. has agreed in principle to distribute OriginOil's dewatering and extraction systems to its global customer base.

*  Drinking water tips

Try and replace some of your traditional drinks with a glass of chilled water you could start of by replacing one of your drinks once a day and then build on this until your are drinking your 6-8 glasses each day ...

*  International Water Association Publications | IWA Publishing

IWA Publishing, a leading international publisher of water, wastewater and environmental publications, offers a high-quality service in print and digital format.

Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:P-AnisidinePublic water systemBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Ozone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Tissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Jardine Water Purification PlantPyromorphiteExhaust gasHydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.

(1/492) The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario.

The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed.  (+info)

(2/492) A comparison of the reproductive physiology of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, collected from the Escambia and Blackwater Rivers in Florida.

Largemouth bass (LMB), Micropterus salmoides, were taken from the Escambia River (contaminated site) and the Blackwater River (reference site) near Pensacola, Florida. The Escambia River collection occurred downstream of the effluent from two identified point sources of pollution. These point sources included a coal-fired electric power plant and a chemical company. Conversely, the Blackwater River's headwaters and most of its length flow within a state park. Although there is some development on the lower part of the Blackwater River, fish were collected in the more pristine upper regions. Fish were captured by electroshocking and were maintained in aerated coolers. Physical measurements were obtained, blood was taken, and liver and gonads were removed. LMB plasma was assayed for the concentration of 17ss-estradiol (E2) and testosterone using validated radioimmunoassays. The presence of vitellogenin was determined by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody validated for largemouth bass vitellogenin. No differences in plasma concentrations of E2 or testosterone were observed in females from the two sites. Similarly, males exhibited no difference in plasma E2. However, plasma testosterone was lower in the males from the contaminated site, as compared to the reference site. Vitellogenic males occurred only at the contaminated site. Additionally, liver mass was proportionately higher in males from the contaminated site, as compared to males from the reference site. These data suggest that reproductive steroid levels may have been altered by increased hepatic enzyme activity, and the presence of vitellogenic males indicates that an exogenous source of estrogen was present in the Escambia River.  (+info)

(3/492) The role of humic substances in drinking water in Kashin-Beck disease in China.

We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays in a selenium-deficient system to determine if organic matter (mainly fulvic acid; FA) is involved in a free radical mechanism of action for Kashin-Beck disease. Cartilage cell culture experiments indicated that the oxy or hydroxy functional groups in FA may interfere with the cell membrane and result in enhancement of lipid peroxidation. Experiments with rats demonstrated that toxicity from FA was reduced when the hydroxy group was blocked. Induction of lipid peroxidation by FA in liver and blood of rats was similar to that exhibited by acetyl phenyl hydrazine. FA accumulated in bone and cartilage, where selenium rarely concentrates. In addition, selenium supplementation in rats' drinking water inhibited the generation of oxy-free radicals in bone. We hypothesized that FA in drinking water is an etiological factor of Kashin-Beck disease and that the mechanism of action involves the oxy and hydroxy groups in FA for the generation of free radicals. Selenium was confirmed to be a preventive factor for Kashin-Beck disease.  (+info)

(4/492) Microbial communities associated with anaerobic benzene degradation in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer.

Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number-PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However, neither G. fermentans nor V. paradoxus is known to oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III), and there was no apparent enrichment of these organisms in the benzene-degrading sediments. These results suggest that Geobacter spp. play an important role in the anaerobic oxidation of benzene in the Bemidji aquifer and that molecular community analysis may be a powerful tool for predicting a site's capacity for anaerobic benzene degradation.  (+info)

(5/492) Associations between stomach cancer incidence and drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate in Ontario (Canada) agroecosystems, 1987-1991.

BACKGROUND: Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. METHODS: Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drinking water with atrazine and nitrate, and related agricultural practices for the 40 ecodistricts in the province of Ontario. The data were merged into a georelational database for geographical and statistical analyses. Weighted (by population size) least squares regression analyses were conducted while controlling for confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Maximum likelihood spatial error models were estimated when least square regression error terms were found to be spatially autocorrelated using the Moran's I statistic. RESULTS: Atrazine contamination levels (range 50-649 ng/l, maximum acceptable concentration [MAC] = 60000 ng/l) were positively associated (P < 0.05) with stomach cancer incidence and negatively associated with colon cancer incidence. Nitrate levels, (range 0-91 mg/l, MAC = 10 mg/l) were negatively associated with stomach cancer incidence. CONCLUSION: The associations found at the ecodistrict level, both positive and negative, if confirmed by other studies, raise serious questions about maximum allowable limits for atrazine, as well as possibilities of complex trade-offs among disease outcomes, and interactions of biophysical and social mechanisms which might explain them. Although the negative associations appear to have no direct biological explanations, such counter-intuitive outcomes may occur in complex systems where social and biological variables interact.  (+info)

(6/492) Effects of nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol on vitellogenin synthesis and testis morphology in male platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus.

Nonylphenol has been found to exert estrogenic effects in fish and may influence the fertility of male fish. In the present study, the effects of nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol on vitellogenin synthesis and testis morphology in platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus were investigated. Vitellogenin was observed in the plasma of all fish exposed to nonylphenol or 17beta-estradiol. Exposure to 17beta-estradiol resulted in a significant reduction in the gonadosomatic index. A tendency for a dose-dependent reduction in the gonadosomatic index in the nonylphenol exposed groups was observed. Histological examination revealed dose-dependent effects of nonylphenol on the testis structure. The testes of control fish contained numerous cysts with spermatogenetic cells. The testes of fish exposed to nonylphenol or 17beta-estradiol showed a decrease in the number of cysts concomitant with an increase in the amount of hypertrophied Sertoli cells present. Formation of spermatozeugmata is compulsory for this species, but free spermatozoa were observed in the efferent ducts of the treated fish. The study indicates that nonylphenol has estrogenic potency, and that both nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol have marked effects on the testis morphology of X. maculatus. The ambient concentration of nonylphenol was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography during the experiment. The measurements revealed that the actual concentrations of nonylphenol in the water were about 30-40 % of the nominal concentrations.  (+info)

(7/492) Drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between drinking water quality and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia. DESIGN: Within the general population, children and the elderly are at highest risk for gastrointestinal disease. This study investigates the potential association between daily fluctuations in drinking water turbidity and subsequent hospital admissions for gastrointestinal illness of elderly persons, controlling for time trends, seasonal patterns, and temperature using Poisson regression analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All residents of Philadelphia aged 65 and older in 1992-1993 were studied through their MEDICARE records. MAIN RESULTS: For Philadelphia's population aged 65 and older, we found water quality 9 to 11 days before the visit was associated with hospital admissions for gastrointestinal illness, with an interquartile range increase in turbidity being associated with a 9% increase (95% CI 5.3%, 12.7%). In the Belmont service area, there was also an association evident at a lag of 4 to 6 days (9.1% increase, 95% CI 5.2, 13.3). Both associations were stronger in those over 75 than in the population aged 65-74. This association occurred in a filtered water supply in compliance with US standards. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly residents of Philadelphia remain at risk of waterborne gastrointestinal illness under current water treatment practices. Hospitalisations represent a very small percentage of total morbidity.  (+info)

(8/492) Lung function decline in 4-monthly repeated spirometric measurements: due to silt aerosol exposure or decreasing effort?

BACKGROUND: Workers on dredgers and lighters on rivers are exposed to the inhalation of aerosols and dusts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of river silt aerosol and dust exposure on the respiratory health of dredging employees. METHODS: Six examinations were performed over a period of 2 years at 4-monthly intervals in 54 seamen with higher silt aerosol exposure and 36 controls of the same employer. RESULTS: No significant differences could be observed between the groups at any time of the study but there was an unexpected significant decrease in the age-corrected expiratory vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and midexpiratory flow rate (MMEF(25/75)) over the six series in both groups. This may indicate a loss of effort of the participants in re-examinations since biological and technical influences were highly unlikely to be the cause of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Ignoring this possible decline of effort in frequently repeated measurements may result in overestimating potential effects of occupational exposure.  (+info)

plastic pollutants

  • Lab studies suggest that plastic pollutants in the environment could have detrimental effects on animals' physiology. (the-scientist.com)


  • The blood and urine of the "Males" group contained 178-198 of 300 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to brain and nervous system toxicity, reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, and immune system toxicity. (ewg.org)
  • Is your drinking water full of dangerous chemicals? (wpbf.com)
  • Even more disturbing, Leiba said, is that more than 50 percent of chemicals found in U.S. drinking water don't have legal limits, which means they can be present at any level. (wpbf.com)
  • But surface waters are becoming more polluted as we use more chemicals in this country. (wpbf.com)
  • These toxic chemicals are water pollutants. (casperwy.gov)


  • The legal level isn't necessary a safe level, it's a compromise between safety and how easy and costly it is to remove a chemical from water. (wpbf.com)
  • The WFD aims to achieve good ecological and chemical status in surface water bodies by the year 2015. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Urban storm water is recognized as a major source of pollution to many of the nation's waterways. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In addition to the increasing potential of pollution and its adverse effect on the ecosystem, oil spills and relevant implications can severely affect the main source of desalinated water for the Gulf countries due to their limited water resources. (elsevier.com)
  • These issues include identification and documentation of the major sources of oil pollution in the Gulf region, evaluation of the analytical methods used to identify the different types of pollutants, review of the recent advances in oil pollution impact treatment and prevention, develop stronger cooperation ties between interested members of the community, and encourage awareness of the oil pollution as a serious environmental problem in the region. (elsevier.com)
  • monitoring and characterizing oil spills, modeling the fate of pollutants and oil slicks in marine water, environmental effects of oil pollution on the ecosystem components, and combating, prevention and treatment of oil pollution. (elsevier.com)
  • He adds: 'Thanks to the application of clean and recycling technologies promoted in the TANNET research network, water pollution will not only decrease in the tanning and leather industry, but also in other industrial branches . (europa.eu)
  • Most surface water systems tend to have a lot more pollution from agricultural and industrial runoff or urban activity," explains Leiba. (wpbf.com)
  • With support of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "citizen science" grants, two New Jersey community groups have begun their final weeks of summer water pollution monitoring. (environmental-expert.com)
  • US scientists have identified a new hazard linked to global warming: a change in ocean water chemistry causing nitrite pollution that could trigger toxic algal blooms and even dead zones in coastal waters. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Following in real-time any given pollutant emissions data directly from your office, via your computer, your smartphone or your tablet? (environmental-expert.com)


  • Researchers are redesigning the humble brick to produce electricity, to clean water and air, and to harvest valuable compounds. (the-scientist.com)


  • Similarly, these data sets can assist storm water engineers in the design of more effective monitoring programs and better performing treatment practices (i.e. (environmental-expert.com)
  • GE Analytical Instruments released a new Organics Monitoring Practical Guide and other new resources to help the process water industry manage their monitoring needs to best optimize processes, keep costs down, and control the water treatment needs. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Monitoring changes in microscopic organisms called diatoms can assist in evaluating the quality of water over an entire river watershed. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Water gets polluted when waste or toxic substances mix with bodies of water, such as lakes, reservoirs, streams or rivers. (reference.com)


  • About 80 percent of drinking water in the U.S. is considered surface water, which is found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams and creeks. (wpbf.com)
  • A paramecium is a single-celled creature that resembles a slipper and mainly lives in bodies of water such as ponds, lakes and rivers. (reference.com)


  • PBDEs were analyzed by HRGC-MS. More analytical data were obtained by analyzing these same pollutants in fish feed. (biomedsearch.com)


  • The merits of such projects have been to address the issue of water management from a global perspective by putting together, in an integrated manner, different small research projects tackling specific and complementary parts of the water cycle treatment. (europa.eu)


  • With agriculture, it's the same thing - a lot of waste ends up in streams, which are the drinking water sources for millions of Americans. (wpbf.com)


  • Unavoidably, industry consumes water, and waste originating from production processes often has negative impacts on the environment and on human health. (europa.eu)
  • Local water safety affects everyone - the average American consumes 80-100 gallons of water per day, and the typical family uses more than 300 gallons during the same time frame. (wpbf.com)


  • But our precious ground- and surface water resources are also threatened by a legacy of the past, the abandoned industry , by pollutants existing in the soil since years and which are now approaching the water bodies. (europa.eu)
  • Wetlands are standing water bodies that include swamps, bogs and marshes. (reference.com)


  • The JRC released two new certified reference materials (CRMs) to support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD). (environmental-expert.com)


  • A three-dimensional simulation of pollutants transport in the Abu-Qir Bay, East Alexandria, Egypt (E. El-Hogaraty et al. ). (elsevier.com)


  • The EWG identified 267 different pollutants in data from U.S. water utilities. (wpbf.com)


  • However, little is known about the mechanisms and processes that influence pollutant loadings from specific land-use types. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on hydrological processes and water resources are mainly reflected in changes in runoff and pollutant variations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Some of the processes used to treat water can also create harmful by-products. (wpbf.com)


  • Fate modeling of benzo(a)pyrene near a refinery outfall in the coastal water of United Arab Emirates (M. Azzam, W. Elshorbagy, M.A. Karim). (elsevier.com)


  • Pollutant concentrations and flow were measured over the entire storm duration from eight different landuse types over 11 storm events in five southern California watersheds during the 2000/01 through 2004/05 storm seasons. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The combination of the three different research approaches of 'TANNET', 'WASTE WATER CLUSTER' and 'INCORE' provides an extremely powerful tool to support the long-term provision of drinking water of high quality. (europa.eu)
  • At the mouth where water is often cloudy from sediments, there may be less oxygen, and there are less diverse life forms and different types of organisms, such as carp and catfish. (reference.com)


  • Permanent observation of water, soil and land consumption is essential in order to identify the most critical parts of the overall system and to reverse negative trends into positive ones. (europa.eu)


  • The goals of this study were (1) to examine event mean concentrations (EMC) and fluxes of TSS, metals, PAHs, and bacteria associated with storm water runoff from representative land-uses and (2) to investigate within storm and within season patterns in order to identify mechanisms that influence constituent loading. (environmental-expert.com)


  • As pointed out by Philippe Busquin , Commisioner for Research, "Water management has been on the agenda of industry for at least a decade, and thanks to the advances of scientific and technological research, significant progress has already been achieved by European industry in the sustainable use of this precious resource. (europa.eu)
  • Sustainable water use is critical for the development of the tanning and leather industry' said Gustavo Gonzalez-Quijano, Secretary General of the Confederation of National Associations of Tanners and Dressers of the European Community. (europa.eu)


  • The deleterious impacts of marine pollutants on reef corals and their symbiotic algae are an important element of global coral reef decline. (biomedsearch.com)


  • We take our commitment to protecting public health seriously and when issues arise, we work closely with states, local governments, and water suppliers to review and address, as appropriate. (wpbf.com)


  • Additionally, the Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization tracks the levels of contaminants found in local water sources. (wpbf.com)
  • They can also request a copy of their local Consumer Confidence Report , which lists levels of contaminants detected in water sources - and if they meet state and EPA regulations. (wpbf.com)


  • Three projects will be presented to the press, addressing the challenging issues of tanneries (TANNET), the abandoned industrial sites (INCORE) and the treatment of waste water (WASTE WATER CLUSTER) to guarantee overall quality drinking water. (europa.eu)


  • In this study, the impact of LUCC on runoff and pollutants in an urbanizing catchment of Guang-Ming New District in Shenzhen, China, were quantified using a dynamic rainfall-runoff model with the EPA Storm. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Since shortly after World War II, fluoride has been added to water in the US to help strengthen children's teeth. (pri.org)
  • Researchers from France have developed a new index that could help Member States fulfill the EU's Water Framework Directive 2000 (WFD). (environmental-expert.com)


  • And, although CCRs contain heavy metals and other pollutants including arsenic, selenium, and cadmium, the EPA notes that the amounts that leach out "rarely reach the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste characteristic levels. (bizjournals.com)


  • If synthetic fibers are in tap water, they're also likely in foods prepared with water, such as bread, pasta, soup and baby formula, researchers say. (pri.org)

storm water

  • Aquatech Dewatering Company, Inc (Aquatech) was called upon to join an assembled project team on an ongoing construction contract in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to facilitate a means of addressing an urgent requirement to intercept, bypass and filter exceedingly turbid surface and storm water entering an environmentally sensitive creek. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Water is used to sluice the ash out of the plant and into the pond. (bizjournals.com)
  • Plant and animal life of freshwater ecosystems do not survive in salt water. (reference.com)


  • The New York/New Jersey Baykeeper and Friends of the Bonsal Preserve have been using $25,000 grants to monitor water quality on tributaries of the New York/New Jersey Harbor. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Bronx River Alliance and the Sparkill Creek Watershed Alliance have been using $25,000 grants to monitor water quality on tributaries of the New York/New Jersey Harbor. (environmental-expert.com)


  • Database identifies pollutants in 50,000 utilities across U.S. (wpbf.com)
  • The Environmental Working Group (EWG) on Wednesday launched its drinking water database , which allows anyone in the U.S. to enter a zip code and find out which contaminants can be found in local water supplies. (wpbf.com)


  • At the mouth, the river empties into another body of water, sometimes another river or a sea or ocean. (reference.com)


  • These household products placed in the trash might leach out and contaminate surface and ground water supplies. (casperwy.gov)


  • The EWG recommends reaching out to elected community officials and urging them to support source water protection programs. (wpbf.com)


  • Research and Water: Global visions, local actions. (europa.eu)


  • Freshwater means the body of water has a salt concentration of less than 1 percent. (reference.com)


  • Water is and has been determinant for life. (europa.eu)