Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicWater Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningEquipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Communicable DiseasesMycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.MycosesDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.History of MedicineHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.PhenazinesDrug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Streptococcus milleri Group: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.United StatesOxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Morganella morganii: A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.ComputersFasciitis, Necrotizing: A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

*  Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry: FH Chapelle | NHBS Book Shop

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*  LPS isolation by hot phenol/water method - Microbiology

Top : New Forum Archives (2009-): : Microbiology. LPS isolation by hot phenol/water method - (Mar/27/2009 ). Resently, I want ... Resently, I want to isolate LPS from E.coli by hot phenol/water method which was described by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) ... Resently, I want to isolate LPS from E.coli by hot phenol/water method which was described by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) ... extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. I have an ergent need to get it. Is there anybody who ...

*  Recent Articles | Water Vole, Microbiology And Developmental Biology | The Scientist Magazine®

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*  Peptone Water, phosphate-buffered for microbiology | Sigma-Aldrich

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*  Microbiology Team Probes Bacterium's Surprising Survival Tactics | Water & Wastes Digest

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*  Laboratory Services | Norwalk, CT - Official Website

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*  Microbiology - Lophelia.org, the Cold-water coral, deep-sea coral and deep-water coral resource

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*  Water Quality in Rainwater Tanks - Microbiology - UWCS

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*  Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier ATCC ® 7966™

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*  Citrobacter freundii (Braak) Werkman and Gillen ATCC ® 8090™

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*  Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes and Horder) Schleifer and Kilpper-Balz

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*  Outbreak of Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteraemia due to contaminated water supply in a paediatric haematology-oncology...

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*  Lethality of shock pressures to a marine Vibrio sp. isolated from a ship's ballast water.

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*  Detection of low numbers of Salmonella in environmental water, sewage and food samples by a nested polymerase chain reaction...

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*  FISH shows that Desulfotomaculum spp. are the dominating sulfate-reducing bacteria in a pristine aquifer.

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*  Yeast diversity in the acidic Rio Agrio-Lake Caviahue volcanic environment (Patagonia, Argentina).

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*  African Journal of Microbiology Research - coliform bacterial estimation: a tool for assessing water quality of manasbal lake...

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*  ATCC 9144 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

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*  Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards ATCC ® 13048™

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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: The Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Medical Microbiology. The journal publishes articles on medical microbiology including bacteriology, virology, phycology, mycology, parasitology, and protozoology.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Public water systemBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Tissue hydration: Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.Buchanan (horse): Buchanan (1881 – c.1898) was an American thoroughbred racehorse and was the winner of the 1884 Kentucky Derby, Ripple Stakes and Clark Stakes.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Jardine Water Purification PlantElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Pasteur point: The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.BacitracinJohn Howie (businessman): John Howie (12 March 1833 – 20 September 1895) was a wealthy Victorian captain of industry and investor, the proprietor of the renowned J & R Howie Hurlford Fireclay Works. He would have been about 350th on a notional Rich List of Britain at the time, with a fortune equal to over £200 million today.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Fabric softener: A Fabric softener (also called fabric conditioner) is a chemical compound that is typically applied to laundry during the rinse cycle in a washing machine. Fabric softeners are available as solutions and solids, and may also be impregnated in dryer sheets used in a clothes dryer.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.XAP Home Automation protocol: xAP is an open protocol used for home automation and supports integration of telemetry and control devices primarily within the home. Common communications networks include RS232, RS485, Ethernet& wireless.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Mycology: Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, wine, cheese, (edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Agilent ChemStation: Agilent ChemStation is a software package to control Agilent liquid chromatography and gas chromatography systems such as the 1050, 1100 and 1200 Series HPLC system. It is an evolution of the Hewlett-Packard ChemStation System.Staphylococcus cohnii: Staphylococcus cohnii is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. The species commonly lives on human skin; clinical isolates have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance.The Flash ChroniclesAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Bacteremia: (NOS) |Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.MycosisResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.ErtapenemThermal cyclerPancreatic abscessAquaporinTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBeaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchGemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Methyl violetUniversity of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.Trypticase soy agar: Trypticase soy agar or Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) and trypticase soy broth or Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria. They are general-purpose media, providing enough nutrients to allow for a wide variety of microorganisms to grow.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Dispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.GeneXpert MTB/RIFFull mouth disinfection: Full mouth disinfection typically refers to an intense course of treatment for periodontitis typically involving scaling and root planing in combination with adjunctive use of local antimicrobial adjuncts to periodontal treatment such as chlorhexidine in various ways of application. The aim is to complete debridement of all periodontal pocket areas within a short time frame such as 24 hours, in order to minimize the chance of reinfection of the pockets with pathogens coming from another oral niches like the tongue, tonsils and non-treated periodontal pocket.GA module: In molecular biology, the GA module, or protein G-related albumin-binding module, is a protein domain which occurs on the surface of numerous Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Protein G of group C and G Streptococci interacts with the constant region of IgG and with human serum albumin.Angang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.EcosystemSterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.CoagulaseNational Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Warwick Corvette: Warwick Corvette is a line of bass guitars manufactured by the German Warwick bass company. The Corvette is one of the most popular Warwick basses.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.SputumOsmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Neisseria subflava: Neisseria subflava is a common inhabitant found in the human upper respiratory tract. It is considered non-pathogenic, although in rare case it can be the causative agent of postoperative meningitis (after a neurological surgery), which is called surgical site infection (SSI).Prescription cascade: Prescription cascade refers to the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions. This may lead to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms.Casing hanger: In petroleum production, the casing hanger is that portion of a wellhead assembly which provides support for the casing string when it is lowered into the wellbore. It serves to ensure that the casing is properly located.Enterococcus avium: Enterococcus avium, a species of Enterococcus, is most commonly found in birds. Rarely, it is also a cause of infection in humans, and in such cases, may be vancomycin-reistant, and is referred to as VREA.

(1/5672) Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water using membrane filters.

A modified mPA medium, designated mPA-C, was shown to recover Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a variety of water sources with results comparable to those with mPA-B and within the confidence limits of a most-probable-number technique. Enumeration of P. aeruginosa on mPA-C was possible after only 24 h of incubation at 41.5 degrees C, compared with 72 h of incubation required for mPA-B and 96 h of incubation for a presumptive most probable number.  (+info)

(2/5672) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(3/5672) Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis.

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

(4/5672) How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air.

Fungi are well known to the casual observer for producing water-repelling aerial moulds and elaborate fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and polypores. Filamentous fungi colonize moist substrates (such as wood) and have to breach the water-air interface to grow into the air. Animals and plants breach this interface by mechanical force. Here, we show that a filamentous fungus such as Schizophyllum commune first has to reduce the water surface tension before its hyphae can escape the aqueous phase to form aerial structures such as aerial hyphae or fruiting bodies. The large drop in surface tension (from 72 to 24 mJ m-2) results from self-assembly of a secreted hydrophobin (SC3) into a stable amphipathic protein film at the water-air interface. Other, but not all, surface-active molecules (that is, other class I hydrophobins and streptofactin from Streptomyces tendae) can substitute for SC3 in the medium. This demonstrates that hydrophobins not only have a function at the hyphal surface but also at the medium-air interface, which explains why fungi secrete large amounts of hydrophobin into their aqueous surroundings.  (+info)

(5/5672) Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

(6/5672) Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter.

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

(7/5672) Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake.

Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, pointed and budding bacteria were isolated from various depths of the hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic Ekho Lake (Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica). The cells contained storage granules and daughter cells could be motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a was sometimes produced, but production was repressed by constant dim light. The strains tolerated a wide range of temperature, pH, concentrations of artificial seawater and NaCl, but had an absolute requirement for sodium ions. Glutamate was metabolized with and without an additional source of combined nitrogen. The dominant fatty acid was C18:1; other characteristic fatty acids were C18:2, C12:0 2-OH, C12:1 3-OH, C16:1, C16:0 and C18:0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C base composition was 62-64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolates were phylogenetically close to the genera Antarctobacter, 'Marinosulfonomonas', Octadecabacter, Sagittula, Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences to these previously described and distinct genera support the description of a new genus and a new species, Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is EL-172T (= DSM 11457T).  (+info)

(8/5672) Phylogeny of marine and freshwater Shewanella: reclassification of Shewanella putrefaciens NCIMB 400 as Shewanella frigidimarina.

Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens and related species has generated considerable interest in biochemical characterization of the pathways for anaerobic electron transfer in this organism. Two strains, MR-1 and NCIMB 400, have been extensively used, and several respiratory enzymes have been isolated from each. It has become apparent that significant sequence differences exist between homologous proteins from these strains. The 16S rRNA from NCIMB 400 was sequenced and compared to the sequences from MR-1 and other Shewanella strains. The results indicate that NCIMB 400 is significantly more closely related to the newly identified Shewanella frigidimarina than to the S. putrefaciens type strain. It is therefore proposed that NCIMB 400 should be reclassified as S. frigidimarina.  (+info)


  • Pseudalert detects Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1 CFU in either 100-ml or 250-ml water samples, and gives a confirmed result within 24 hours now specified in 'The Microbiology of Drinking Water (MoDW) - Part 8 - Methods for the isolation and enumeration of Aeromonas and P. aeruginosa. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • The Aquadien™ Bacterial DNA Extraction and Purification Kit extracts and purifies bacteria present in water samples for real-time PCR detection, this video demonstrates the filtration and DNA extraction technique. (rapidmicrobiology.com)
  • Study found the IDEXX Legiolert/Quanti-Tray MPN method, gave on average higher counts of L. pneumophilia from 100 ml potable water and related samples when compared with the ISO 11731-2 membrane filtration method. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs--Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media-- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media. (atcc.org)
  • Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Guidelines on preparation and production of culture media --- Part 2: Practical guidelines on performance testing of culture media - Annex B: Recommended test microorganisms for commonly used culture media. (atcc.org)


  • The concept that domestic rainwater storage tanks may host sustainable microbial ecosystems that improve water quality has not previously been addressed. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)
  • Dr Coombes has spent more than 30 years dedicated to the development of systems understanding of the urban, rural and natural water cycles with a view to finding optimum solutions for the sustainable use of ecosystem services, provision of infrastructure and urban planning. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)


  • The PURELAB® Chorus range of laboratory water purifiers provides a scaleable and versatile solution to all your laboratory water requirements, the only system on the market that is able to fully recirculate to maintain >15 MΩ.cm to ensure that there is no deterioration in purified water quality over time. (rapidmicrobiology.com)
  • Water quality testing, tick identification, and diagnostic testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are major functions of the laboratory. (norwalkct.org)


  • Resently, I want to isolate LPS from E.coli by hot phenol/water method which was described by Westphal, O. & Jann, K. (1965) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides: extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. (protocol-online.org)
  • Levels of chlorine in the water were intermittently low and may have contributed towards bacterial growth. (biomedsearch.com)


  • bioMérieux offers multiple solutions and evidence documents to simplify tests and reinforce confidence in your food and water analyses. (rapidmicrobiology.com)
  • Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes --- Part 1: Detection method, Annex B [BS 5763-18: (atcc.org)
  • Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs --- Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli -- Part 3: Most probable number techniques using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide. (atcc.org)


  • In combination with low abundance of bacteria associated with faecal contamination, the results indicate high quality water and beneficial ecosystem processes. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)


  • Describes microbial processes in ground-water systems from the perspective of how they impact water chemistry and quality. (nhbs.com)
  • Longitudinal sampling from rainwater tanks throughout Australia was employed to analyse the microbial ecosystems in water supplies. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)


  • In total, 15 Norwalk beaches are tested for bacteriological water quality weekly (and more often as necessary) from Memorial Day through Labor Day. (norwalkct.org)
  • A recent presentation to the RHAA on water quality processes in rainwater harvesting systems is also provided. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)


  • Buffered peptone water being suitable as first diluent is helpful since the same homogenate can be used for detection of other microorganisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)


  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have issued new requirements that any Medicare-certified facility must have a water management plan that includes routine testing for waterborne pathogens such as Legionella. (rapidmicrobiology.com)
  • This investigation emphasises the three major factors that should be investigated in outbreaks due to a waterborne pathogen: source of the infection, water supply and infection control practices. (biomedsearch.com)


  • Following a six month comparison study between Colilert-18 and traditional agar plating has resulted in South West Water moving to replacing plates with the Colilert-18 system as it was found to be faster and more accurate. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • Deep-sea or cold-water corals live in dark, cold, high-pressure environments. (lophelia.org)


  • Pre-enrichment of the culture media is performed using buffered peptone water to increase target concentration and improve sensitivity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Medical microbiology-- Culture media -- Part 3: Dip slides for microbiological urine analysis. (atcc.org)


  • Benevolent response and active participations were received from the Editorial Board Members of Conference Series LLC Journals as well as from the Scientists, Doctors, Researchers, Students and Leaders from the fields of Water Microbiology Research, who made this event inspiringly successful. (conferenceseries.com)
  • Conference Series LLC on behalf of Organizing Committee Members, Editorial Board Members and Poster Judge congratulates the Best Poster Award for their outstanding contribution in the field of Water Microbiology and simultaneously encourage all the participants who tried to put their efforts in poster presentations and wish them success in their future research. (conferenceseries.com)
  • Dr Peter Coombes is the managing director of Urban Water Cycle Solutions that operates as an independent research think tank. (urbanwatercyclesolutions.com)


  • Also, well water is tested for potability on a fee-for-service basis. (norwalkct.org)


  • He has also been active in the movement to establish a firm, scientific basis for applying bioremediation strategies to contaminated ground-water systems. (nhbs.com)


  • Come check out our display of chromogenic media, serological tests, water testing solutions, and PCR assays including automation. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • Get the rapidmicrobiology eNewsletter every week, for focused microbiology products and services for your lab plus the latest training courses and conferences. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • LiquiTech have an easy online ordering system for water testing and management plans. (rapidmicrobiology.com)


  • Buffered peptone water may be used to homogenize poultry samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)