WashingtonDistrict of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.IdahoMarylandOregonWorkers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.United StatesAzinphosmethyl: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.MissouriRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.MontanaPerinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Mastodons: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Mammutidae, that fed by browsing on tall plants. Eurasian species died out three million years ago, but some specimens of the American Mastodon survived the last Ice Age.Phosmet: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Methylophilaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.

*  Puget Sound Shorelines: Species - Geoduck

Recreational Shellfish Safety Information, Washington State Department of Health. Before you dig for shellfish, visit this web ... Shellfish Rules and Regulations, Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife. Regulations and general information on shellfish ... Clam Diggers: Why Fill in Your Holes? Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife. ... Shellfish Committee Information - The 2007 Washington State Legislature passed SSHB 2220 relating to shellfish aquaculture. ...
ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/pugetsound/species/geoduck.html

*  PPT - DIPTERAN DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF PEST DIPTERA IN WASHINGTON STATE CATTLE PASTURES, 2006-2007 PowerPoint...

Holly Ferguson, Richard Zack, Sally O'Neal, and Douglas Walsh Washington State University Irrigated Agriculture Research & ... Extension Center 24106 N. Bunn Road, Prosser, WA 99350. Slideshow 623219 by dannon ... DIPTERAN DIVERSITY AND SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF PEST DIPTERA IN WASHINGTON STATE CATTLE PASTURES, 2006-2007. ... Washington State Patrol Office of the State Fire Marshal -Washington state patrol office of the state fire marshal. unit 3: ...
slideserve.com/dannon/dipteran-diversity-and-seasonal-abundance-of-pest-diptera-in-washington-state-cattle-pastures-2006-2007

*  Upcoming EventsMount Vernon NW Washington Research & Extension Center | Washington State University

Sakuma Auditorium, 16650 WA-536 Mt Vernon, WA 98273 United States + Google Map ... David R. Montgomery, MacArthur Fellow and Professor of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, will discuss ...
mtvernon.wsu.edu/events/category/brown-bag-seminars/list/?tribe_event_display=list&tribe_paged=1

*  Mushroom - Host Defense - Turkey Tail (Trametes Versicolor) Capsules - 120 count

Certified Organic by the Washington State Department of Agriculture NON GMO Project Verified Host Defense Turkey Tail uses ... Certified Organic by the Washington State Department of Agriculture. NON GMO Project Verified ...
https://totaldiscountvitamins.com/product/57344/mushroom

*  Rodent and Insect Control in Woodinville - Cascade Pest Control

Woodinville is a city in King County, Washington, United States. The population was 10,938 at the 2010 census. It is part of ... Black widow spiders are plentiful in eastern Washington but rare in the Puget sound region. Brown recluse spiders-also famous ... http://www.ci.woodinville.wa.us/Documents/CityHall/Ordinances/Ordinance%20382.pdf ...
cascadepest.com/woodinville/

*  Alumni US | University of Washington, Greater Seattle Area

Information on the University of Washington - contacts, students, faculty, finances. ... Graduates of University of Washington - the names, photos, skill, job, location. ... University of Washington January 2008 - May 2010 University of Washington April 2009 - April 2010 University of Washington ... University of Washington August 2011 - Present University of Washington June 2011 - Present University of Washington November ...
alumnius.net/university_of_washin-9658-1097

*  Water Quality Activities | Sound Science | Puget Sound | Washington Department of Ecology

Copyright © Washington State Department of Ecology. Privacy Notice , Site Info , Accessibility , Contact the web team , ... While the Salish Sea model covers both U.S. and Canadian waters, we will be focusing on Puget Sound and Washington nutrient ... There are over 4 million people currently living in the Puget Sound region, and the Washington Office of Financial Management ...
ecy.wa.gov/puget_sound/reducing-nutrients.html

*  PS-AHAB: Puget Sound Alexan... - Team

Cheryl Greengrove has led numerous research cruises from Washington to Alaska. She and Associate Researcher Julie Masura will ... directs the oceanographic modeling component of this program and also of the ECOHAB PNWTOX program on the Washington-Oregon ...
https://catalyst.uw.edu/workspace/banasn/14943/82763

*  DMOZ - Health: Medicine: Facilities: Health Systems: United States: Washington

... of health care organizations providing health care for Pierce and south King counties and much of the southwest Washington ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Medicine/Facilities/Health_Systems/United_States/Washington/

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20044350 - Prioritizing prevention opportunities in the Washington State construction...

Methods: All Washington State workers' compensation compensable claims with date of injury between 2003 and 2007 were ... This study compares construction industry groups in Washington State by injury severity and cost, and ranks industry groups ... Todd Schoonover, Washington State Department of Labor & Industries, PO Box 44330, Olympia, WA 98501 ... Methods: All Washington State workers' compensation compensable claims with date of injury between 2003 and 2007 were ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20044350.html

*  WAGPCS - Washington Area Group for Print Culture Studies (Washington, DC) | AcronymFinder

WAGPCS stands for Washington Area Group for Print Culture Studies (Washington, DC). WAGPCS is defined as Washington Area Group ... How is Washington Area Group for Print Culture Studies (Washington, DC) abbreviated? ... WAGPCS stands for Washington Area Group for Print Culture Studies (Washington, DC). ... Western Association of Gynecologic Oncologists (Washington, DC). *World Alliance of Goan Overseas Associations (Portuguese ...
https://acronymfinder.com/Washington-Area-Group-for-Print-Culture-Studies-

*  Rodent and Insect Control in Seattle / King County - Cascade Pest Control

History of Seattle, WA:. The Seattle area had previously been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the ... Seattle (pronounced see-at-əl) is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an ... Seattle (pronounced see-at-əl) is a coastal seaport city and the seat of King County, in the U.S. state of Washington. With an ... The city is situated on a narrow isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 ...
cascadepest.com/seattle/

*  Housing, health care contribute most to rising costs of living in Washington - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Securing enough income to meet family needs, even at this basic level, is further challenged by the lack of jobs in Washington ... The self-sufficiency standard, created by Pearce and used in 37 states and the cities of New York and Washington, D.C., differs ... Home Public Health and Safety Housing, health care contribute most to rising costs of living in Washington ... The minimum wage in Washington ($8.67 an hour) is the highest in the nation, but Pearce's calculations show that minimum wage ...
https://healthcanal.com/public-health-safety/22244-housing-health-care-contribute-most-to-rising-costs-of-living-in-washington.html

*  Chehalis River: endemic fish and non-native plants | Olden Research Lab

Washington State Department of Ecology. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. Washington State Department of ... With funding from the Washington State Department of Ecology, in 2013 we initiated a field-based project to measure the ... Listed as 'Sensitive' by Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife in 1999, there is nonetheless a very sparse ... The Chehalis River Basin also encompasses a majority of the distribution of Olympic mudminnow (Novumbra hubbsi), Washington ...
depts.washington.edu/oldenlab/chehalis-river-washington-endemic-fish-and-non-native-plants/

*  Data Centers and Air Quality | Business and Industry Requirements | Air Quality Program | Washington State Department of Ecology

Copyright © Washington State Department of Ecology. Privacy Notice , Site Info , Accessibility , Contact the web team , ... Find out about data centers in other areas of Washington *Sign up for email updates about the Quincy data centers. ...
ecy.wa.gov/programs/air/quincydatacenter/

*  Profile of Washington State Department Labor & Industries [WorldCat.org]

Washington, such as address, phone, catalog search and newest items. ... Information from WorldCat about Washington State Department Labor & Industries in Tumwater, ... Washington State Department Labor & Industries L&I Library Services. Tumwater, Washington 98501 Map It United States ... Recent Additions to Worldcat for Washington State Department Labor & Industries August 2017. *All (7) ...
worldcat.org/libraries/87192

*  Carbon Monoxide Poisons 100 in Northwest - washingtonpost.com

... and charcoal grills used for warmth and light during the widespread power outages caused by a major storm in western Washington ... "We're dealing with a carbon-monoxide epidemic in western Washington," said Dr. Neil Hampson of Virginia Mason Medical Center, ... and charcoal grills used for warmth and light during the widespread power outages caused by a major storm in western Washington ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/17/AR2006121700829.html

*  Cottage Lake Phosphorus Reduction Project - King County

Washington. The project was largely funded by a grant by the Washington State Department of Ecology. ... The Cottage Lake Phosphorus Reduction Project was funded by the Washington State Department of Ecology using Centennial Clean ...
kingcounty.gov/services/environment/water-and-land/lakes/lakes-of-king-county/cottage-lake/phosphorus-reduction-project.aspx

*  King County Mental Health Services - King County

Seattle, WA 98104. Office Hours: 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. Get directions ...
kingcounty.gov/depts/community-human-services/mental-health-substance-abuse/services/mental-health.aspx

*  Rabid bat found at Green Lake Park - King County

In Washington state, between 3-10% of bats tested for rabies are positive, though the bats that are tested are usually sick or ... The bat tested positive for rabies at the Washington State Public Health Laboratory on August 19th. ...
kingcounty.gov/depts/health/news/2017/August/19-rabid-bat.aspx

*  FARK.com: (7904789) Health Officials have confirmed a child infected with measles was at a Seattle area restaurant last...

It's being called the largest gathering of blood-sucking parasites anywhere ... outside of Washington, D.C ( cnn.com ) » (4 ... http://www.co.washington.or.us/HHS/News/measles-august-2013.cfm ...
fark.com/comments/7904789?tt=voteresults1&startid=86116424

*  UW Homepage

The University of Washington is No. 25 in the world - No. 6 among U.S. public institutions - according to a new list by the ... Following a successful kidney transplant, Wade Washington resolved to become a transplant surgeon himself. Now he's pursuing ...
washington.edu

*  The Washington Post

GovBeat , Kathryn Boyd-Batstone, News21 and Nick Swyter and News21 ...
https://washingtonpost.com/local/burial-for-army-corporal-frank-buckles-at-arlington-national-cemetery--washington-dc/2011/03/15/ABQQnaa_photo.html

*  The Washington Post

This commenter is a Washington Post contributor. Post contributors aren't staff, but may write articles or columns. In some ... Washingtologists consistently post thought-provoking, timely comments on events, communities, and trends in the Washington area ... SuperFan badge holders consistently post smart, timely comments about Washington area sports and teams. ...
https://washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/tag/election-2012/page/2/

*  The Washington Post

Post Politics , Anne Gearan and Kristine Phillips ...
https://washingtonpost.com/local/local-drone-enthusiasts-gather-for-the-maryland-fly-in-in-laytonsville-md/2013/08/08/71f0b82c-006a-11e3-8294-0ee5075b840d_photo.html

Environmental issues in Puget Sound: Puget Sound is a deep inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Washington, extending south from the Strait of Juan de Fuca through Admiralty Inlet. It was explored and named by Captain George Vancouver for his aide, Peter Puget, in 1792.Howard University College of DentistryPhyllodoce empetriformis: Phyllodoce empetriformis, the pink mountain-heather or pink mountain-heath, is found in mountainous regions of western North America in the Northwestern United States and Western Canada. Its southern range includes the Klamath Range in northern California and Oregon.Lost streams of IdahoList of hospitals in Maryland: This is a list of hospitals in the State of Maryland (U.S.List of waterfalls in Oregon: There are at least 238 waterfalls in the U.S.Office of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,University of Missouri Health Care: University of Missouri Health System is an academic health system located in Columbia, Missouri. It is owned by the University of Missouri System.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Waterfalls of Montana: There are at least 120 named waterfalls in Montana.Emerson HospitalPseudotsuga lindleyana: Pseudotsuga lindleyana, commonly known as the Mexican Douglas-fir, is a conifer in the genus Pseudotsuga that is endemic to Mexico. DNA sequence and morphological evidence suggests it is most closely related to Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (P.Heritage Hunter Tour: The Heritage Hunter Tour was a joint concert tour by American sludge metal band Mastodon and Swedish progressive metal band Opeth.http://www.ATCvet code QP53: ==QP53A Ectoparasiticides for topical use, including insecticides==Andrew Dickson WhiteNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Sooty blotch and flyspeck: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) or 'apple summer disease' is a plant disease caused by a complex of saprophytic fungi which colonize the epicuticular wax layer of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

(1/1822) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/1822) Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

(3/1822) Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women.

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

(4/1822) Maternal smoking and Down syndrome: the confounding effect of maternal age.

Inconsistent results have been reported from studies evaluating the association of maternal smoking with birth of a Down syndrome child. Control of known risk factors, particularly maternal age, has also varied across studies. By using a population-based case-control design (775 Down syndrome cases and 7,750 normal controls) and Washington State birth record data for 1984-1994, the authors examined this hypothesized association and found a crude odds ratio of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.98). Controlling for broad categories of maternal age (<35 years, > or =35 years), as described in prior studies, resulted in a negative association (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.07). However, controlling for exact year of maternal age in conjunction with race and parity resulted in no association (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.82-1.24). In this study, the prevalence of Down syndrome births increased with increasing maternal age, whereas among controls the reported prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased with increasing maternal age. There is a substantial potential for residual confounding by maternal age in studies of maternal smoking and Down syndrome. After adequately controlling for maternal age in this study, the authors found no clear relation between maternal smoking and the risk of Down syndrome.  (+info)

(5/1822) Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring.

Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.  (+info)

(6/1822) Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

To investigate whether diuretic medication use increases risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the authors conducted a case-control study of health maintenance organization members in western Washington State. Cases (n = 238) diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1995 were compared with controls (n = 616) selected from health maintenance organization membership files. The computerized health maintenance organization pharmacy database provided information on medications prescribed after March 1977. Additional exposure information was collected from medical records. For women, use of diuretics was associated with increased risk of RCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.1), but the association was not independent of a diagnosis of hypertension (adjusted for hypertension, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.1). Similarly, nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with increased risk, but only when unadjusted for hypertension. For men, neither diuretic nor nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with risk of RCC. A diagnosis of hypertension was clearly associated with RCC risk for women (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), but not men (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.5). High systolic and diastolic blood pressures were associated with increased risk in both sexes. These results do not support the hypothesis that use of diuretic medication increases RCC risk; they are more consistent with an association between RCC and high blood pressure.  (+info)

(7/1822) Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

(8/1822) Waking the health plan giant: Group Health Cooperative stops counting sheep and starts counting key tobacco indicators.

Implementing a comprehensive approach to decreasing tobacco use in a large health plan requires hard work and commitment on the part of many individuals. We found that major organisational change can be accomplished and sustained. Keys to our success included our decision to remove access barriers to our cessation programmes (including cost); obtaining top leadership buy-in; identifying accountable individuals who owned responsibility for change; measuring key processes and outcomes; and finally keeping at it tenaciously through multiple cycles of improvement.  (+info)



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