Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.ShoesElectromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.AmputeesPeripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Foot Orthoses: Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

*  Time Spent Walking or Exercising and Blood Levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3):...

The corresponding figures among those rarely walked were 147.4 ng/mland 2.99 μg/ml in men and 132.3 ng/ml and 3.21 μg/ml in ... The age- and bodymass index (BMI)- adjusted serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower among those who walked for longertimes ... with a significant trend in both sexes (trend P , 0.01). Among participants who walked one hour or moreper day, the mean levels ... "Time Spent Walking or Exercising and Blood Levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3): ...

*  Walking on Air - Wikipedia

Walking on Air (radio edit) - 3:47 Walking on Air (versione integrale) - 4:27 Walking on Air (Ralphi Rosario & Craig J Club Mix ... 9:46 Walking on Air (Josh Harris Club Mix) - 8:06 Walking on Air (Lindbergh Palace Full Mix) - 6:23 Walking on Air (Armin van ... EN) Walking on Air, su Discogs, Zink Media. (EN) Walking on Air, su MusicBrainz, MetaBrainz Foundation.. ... Walking on Air è il secondo singolo estratto dall'album Love Is Dead della cantante estone Kerli. Il video è stato diretto ...

*  Walking on Air - Wikipedia

Walking on Air pode referir-se a: "Walking on Air" (canção de Katy Perry) "Walking on Air" (canção de Kerli) Walking in the Air ...

*  Walking Wounded - Wikipedia

45 Walking Wounded (Omni Trio mix) - 6:43 Tracey Thorn Ben Watt (EN) Walking Wounded, su AllMusic, All Media Network.. ... Walking Wounded è il nono album in studio del gruppo musicale britannico Everything but the Girl, pubblicato nel 1996. Before ... Today - 4:18 Wrong - 4:36 Single - 4:38 The Heart Remains a Child - 3:50 Walking Wounded - 6:05 Flipside - 4:33 Big Deal - 4:29 ...

*  Abstract 19709: Lower Ankle-Brachial Index Within the Normal Range is Associated With Reduced Mitochondrial Energy Production,...

Hypothesis: Poor walking endurance in individuals with lower ABI in borderline and normal ranges is mediated by impaired ... Introduction: Reduced walking endurance in peripheral arterial disease, defined as ABI ,0.9, has been attributed to impaired ... Walking endurance was assessed by 400 meter rapid gate speed (RGS-400). Muscle mitochondrial energy production was assessed by ... Conclusion: The association between lower ABI in the normal range and poorer walking endurance is mediated by lower ...

*  Functional role of muscle reflexes for force generation in the decerebrate walking cat.

... we studied high decerebrate cats that walked on a treadmill. One leg was denervated except for the triceps surae and a few ... To quantify the importance of reflexes due to muscle length changes in generating force during walking, ... either isometrically or during simulated walking movements. By combining data from the walking and control experiments, we ... Since a substantial percentage of the force in the stance phase of walking is normally produced by muscle reflexes, this force ...

*  How Many Calories Are You Really Burning? | Runner's World

Run Slow or Walk Fast?. I didn't come here to bash walking, however. Walking is an excellent form of exercise that builds ... At faster paces, walking is harder than running.. How to explain this? It's not easy, except to say that walking at very fast ... And since walking a mile requires you to move the same body weight over the same distance, walking should also burn about 100 ... Running and walking aren't as comparable as I had imagined. When you walk, you keep your legs mostly straight, and your center ...

*  China Electronic Walking Stick suppliers on Alibaba.com

Find Variety Electronic Walking Stick from wooden walking stick ,canes and walking sticks ,curved walking stick, Walking Sticks ... China Electronic Walking Stick, Electronic Walking Stick from China Supplier - ... Suppliers Located in China, Buy Electronic Walking Stick Made in China on Alibaba.com ... folding walking sticks, alpenstock walking stick, blind walking stick, hand made walking sticks, bamboo walking stick, walking ...

*  Walking distance to Cooper Creek trout stre... - VRBO

Walking distance to Cooper Creek trout stream with mountain views and waterfall!. Furnished with for 2 queen beds, 2 double ... Walking distance to Cooper Creek trout stream with mountain views and waterfall!. Furnished with for 2 queen beds, 2 double ... Walking distance to Cooper Creek trout stream with mountain views and waterfall! ... Walking distance to Cooper Creek trout stream with mountain views and waterfall! ...

*  Pillow Wizard Orthopaedic 54 X 35Cm - Mobility Scooters - Walking Stick - Elderly Care Equipment

... we carry a wide variety of elderly care supplies including your favorite walking stick, bath chair, folding shower chair & many ...

*  Walking Interventions, Cognitive Remediation and Mild Cognitive Impairment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Subjects able to walk a city block without a walking aid. *Written Informed Consent obtained PRIOR to performing any study ... Experimental: Walking Intervention Group 60 minutes of walking and 30 minutes of reading stimulation three times a week ... Behavioral: Walking Intervention (WI) Group 60 min Walking Intervention + 30 min low interface reading 3x week ... Walking Interventions, Cognitive Remediation and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Further study details as provided by Jeffrey Keller ...

*  Walking pneumonia symptoms: an overview - Bacterial Pneumonia

Tags: walking pneumonia symptoms Post navigation. ← Walking pneumonia,the symptoms and treatment ... Walking pneumonia symptoms are very common. Walking pneumonia is actually the most common form of pneumonia. It is often ... Walking pneumonia is definitely not enjoyable; however, walking pneumonia is not near as dangerous as other varieties of ... If you get a severe cough and it is dry then you may have walking pneumonia. Generally someone with walking pneumonia will have ...

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*  ARTICLES | Journal of Applied Physiology

... step frequency varies considerably with belt speed from 1.5 Hz for slow walking (0.6 m/s) to 2.4 Hz for fast walking (2.2 m/s ... ImaiT, Moore ST, Raphan T, and Cohen B. Interaction of the body, head and eyes during walking and turning. Exp Brain Res136 : 1 ... WatersRL, Lunsford BR, Perry J, and Byrd R. Energy-speed relationship of walking: standard tables. J Orthop Res6 : 215-222, ... 2C), a 34-yr-old postgraduate student, walked to Mount Sinai School of Medicine, where he spent the day working at a desk with ...

*  Exercise Bike Vs. Walking | eHow

Riding an exercise bike and walking are both effective types of exercise that provide a number of benefits. While you can ... Walking. When you're trying to choose a new type of workout to help you keep active, it's important to consider the prospective ... Whether you want to walk up and down the halls of your apartment building or around your neighborhood or join a walking group ... Walking is appropriate for people at all levels of fitness. If you want to use an exercise bike, you'll need to access one at ...

*  Dog having trouble walking on rear legs

I can find no apperant injury to either leg but he has real difficulty standing or walking on them, does anyone know why? ... Dog walking [ 12 Answers ] I am a teenager and I want to start a dog walking business around my neighbor to you know, earn a ... Topic ▸ Home & Garden ▸ Pets & Animals ▸ Dogs » Dog having trouble walking on rear legs ... Walking on the bed [ 1 Answers ] My family has lived in this house for about 5 years now. Since we lhave llived in this house ...

*  Intensive Rehabilitation in Peripheral Arterial Disease With Claudication: Effects of a Treadmill Training With Active Recovery...

Walking Constant Test. Walking Graded test. Six minute Walking test. Walking Distance. ... of the max walking test's speed done on the initial walking test speed of the walking recovery fixed at 40% Walking slope : 0% ... Week 2 Walking speed = average of the walking speeds done on week 1 Walking slope = 1% Recovery slope = 0% Increase of the ... Week 3 Walking speed = 70% of the maximal walking test's speed Recovery speed = 40 % of the maximal walking test's speed Slope ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01734603?recr=Open&cond="Peripheral Vascular Diseases"&rank=11

*  Walking Tall - Wikipedia

Walking Tall puede referirse a: Walking Tall, titulada en España Pisando fuerte, película de 1973. Dirigida por Phil Karlson y ... Walking Tall, serie de televisión de 1981. Walking Tall, película de 2004, remake de la película de 1973. Dirigida por Kevin ... Walking Tall Part 2, secuela de la anterior, estrenada el 28 de septiembre de 1975. Protagonizada por Bo Svenson. Walking Tall ... Walking Tall: The Payback, película de 2007, protagonizada por Kevin Sorbo. Walking Tall: Lone Justice, película de 2007, ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20039662 - Recruitment of African American women to a walking program: eligibility,...

... women to a home-based walking program and to examine factors that contribute to attrition, eligibility, and ineligibility ... Recruitment of African American women to a walking program: eligibility, ineligibility, and attrition during screening.. ... women to a home-based walking program and to examine factors that contribute to attrition, eligibility, and ineligibility ...

*  Most recent papers with the keyword 6 minutes walking test | Read by QxMD

... the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed ... Study outcomes included use of the practice walk test, baseline and change in incremental shuttle walk test distance (ISWD) or ... The primary output measure from the six minute walk test is the distance walked, which appears to confer prognostic information ... OBJECTIVE: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: ...

*  Storage Rates of Circulating Free Fatty Acid Into Adipose Tissue During Eating or Walking in Humans | Diabetes

In the walking protocol, the volunteers remained fasting and began walking on the treadmill at ∼2 mph at 0700 h. They continued ... 1 A, C, and D) and walking conditions, the FFA storage pathway allows obese individuals to clear more FFAs into WBSQ fat than ... During walking, UBSQ palmitate storage did not differ between sexes, whereas LBSQ storage was greater in women than men (0.40 ... Walking protocol.. Plasma palmitate storage rates per kilogram UBSQ fat did not differ between sexes, whereas storage rates per ...

*  Walking While Fat and Female | HuffPost

I started walking between 5 and 12 miles a day about a year after I moved to Seattle. The main motivator was a crippling ... Walking became a way for me to take control of my commute. It was my time. Four mile walk to work. Four mile walk back. In the ... I never started walking places to lose weight. I started walking because I like to walk and because it was a chance for me to ... I just kept walking.. That's my automatic response of self-preservation. Just keep walking. Don't react. Don't turn to look at ...

*  walking : NPR


*  Walking by Moonlight | WIRED

Streetlamps are great in that they make you feel safer as you walk home late at night, plus it's nice not to bump into fire ... Walking by Moonlight. Streetlamps are great in that they make you feel safer as you walk home late at night, plus it's nice not ...

*  Walking on Water

Geocaching is a treasure hunting game where you use a GPS to hide and seek containers with other participants in the activity. Geocaching.com is the listing service for geocaches around the world.

Walking on a Dream (song)Ogre (2008 film): Ogre is a 2008 American television horror film directed by Steven R. Monroe.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Lough TaltOrthotics: Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system".Dorsalis pedis artery: In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery.Footballer's ankle: Footballer's Ankle is a pinching or impingement of the ligaments or tendons of the ankle between the bones, particularly the talus and tibia. This results in pain, inflammation and swelling.Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.Johnnie Walker: Johnnie Walker is a brand of Scotch whisky owned by Diageo that originated in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland. It is the most widely distributed brand of blended Scotch whisky in the world, sold in almost every country, with annual sales of over 130 million bottles.Intermittent claudicationPacific ElectricAssistive cane: An assistive cane is a walking stick used as a crutch or mobility aid.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Diabetic shoe: Diabetic shoes, sometimes referred to as extra depth, therapeutic shoes or Sugar Shoes, are specially designed shoes, or shoe inserts, intended to reduce the risk of skin breakdown in diabetics with co-existing foot disease.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Shitaye Gemechu: Shitaye Gemechu (born 17 June 1980) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who specializes in marathon races. Shitaye was the women's winner of the Rock 'n' Roll Arizona Marathon for the years 2004 - 2006.Crutch: A crutch is a mobility aid that transfers weight from the legs to the upper body. It is often used for people who cannot use their legs to support their weight, for reasons ranging from short-term injuries to lifelong disabilities.Utkal Prantiya Marwari Yuva ManchMyokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Cadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Knee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Da Vinci Surgical System: The Da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console.Riding-like sittingBristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Hip resurfacing: 155px|right|thumb|The BHRKurt KossmannAssistive technology service provider: Assistive technology service providers help individuals with disabilities acquire and use appropriate Assistive Technology (AT) to help them participate in activities of daily living, employment and education.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingRespirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Glen Canyon National Recreation AreaPatellar network: The patellar network (circulatory anastomosis around the knee-joint, patellar anastomosis, genicular anastomosis, articular vascular network of knee or rete articulare genushttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder of uncertain etiology, though growing evidence strongly supports mutation of the ATP1A3 gene as the primary cause of this disease.2.Annual Fitness Test: In the British Army, the Annual Fitness Test is designed to assess soldiers' lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formally known as the Combat Fitness Test - and is still colloquially known by soldiers as the CFT.Professional DiscMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Fujiyama (roller coaster)Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Gross Motor Function Classification System: The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities. Particular emphasis in creating and maintaining the GMFCS scale rests on evaluating sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Select MedicalExtended physiological proprioception: Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.

(1/4297) Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat.

In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands.  (+info)

(2/4297) Visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease.

The effect of placing parallel lines on the walking surface on parkinsonian gait was evaluated. To identify the kind of visual cues (static or dynamic) required for the control of locomotion, we tested two visual conditions: normal lighting and stroboscopic illumination (three flashes/s), the latter acting to suppress dynamic visual cues completely. Sixteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (nine males, seven females; mean age 68.8 years) and the same number of age-matched controls (seven males; nine females, mean age 67.5 years) were studied. During the baseline phase, Parkinson's disease patients walked with a short-stepped, slow velocity pattern. The double limb support duration was increased and the step cadence was reduced relative to normal. Under normal lighting, visual cues from the lines on the walking surface induced a significant improvement in gait velocity and stride length in Parkinson's disease patients. With stroboscopic illumination and without lines, both groups reduced their stride length and velocity but the changes were significant only in the Parkinson's disease group, indicating greater dependence on dynamic visual information. When stroboscopic light was used with stripes on the floor, the improvement in gait due to the stripes was suppressed in parkinsonian patients. These results demonstrate that the perceived motion of stripes, induced by the patient's walking, is essential to improve the gait parameters and thus favour the hypothesis of a specific visual-motor pathway which is particularly responsive to rapidly moving targets. Previous studies have proposed a cerebellar circuit, allowing the visual stimuli to by-pass the damaged basal ganglia.  (+info)

(3/4297) The psychometric properties of clinical rating scales used in multiple sclerosis.

OullII;l y Many clinical rating scales have been proposed to assess the impact of multiple sclerosis on patients, but only few have been evaluated formally for reliability, validity and responsiveness. We assessed the psychometric properties of five commonly used scales in multiple sclerosis, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Ambulation Index (AI) and the Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score (CAMBS). The score frequency distributions of all five scales were either bimodal (EDSS and AI) or severely skewed (SNRS, FIM and CAMBS). The reliability of each scale depended on the definition of 'agreement'. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were high when 'agreement' was considered to exist despite a difference of up to 1.0 EDSS point (two 0.5 steps), 13 SNRS points, 9 FIM points, 1 AI point and 1 point on the various CAMBS domains. The FIM, AI, and the relapse and progression domains of the CAMBS were sensitive to clinical change, but the EDSS and the SNRS were unresponsive. The validity of these scales as impairment (SNRS and EDSS) and disability (EDSS, FIM, AI and the disability domain of the CAMBS) measures was established. All scales correlated closely with other measures of handicap and quality of life. None of these scales satisfied the psychometric requirements of outcome measures completely, but each had some desirable properties. The SNRS and the EDSS were reliable and valid measures of impairment and disability, but they were unresponsive. The FIM was a reliable, valid and responsive measure of disability, but it is cumbersome to administer and has a limited content validity. The AI was a reliable and valid ambulation-related disability scale, but it was weakly responsive. The CAMBS was a reliable (all four domains) and responsive (relapse and progression domains) outcome measure, but had a limited validity (handicap domain). These psychometric properties should be considered when designing further clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

(4/4297) Amplitude of the human soleus H reflex during walking and running.

1. The objective of the study was to investigate the amplitude and modulation of the human soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex during walking and during running at different speeds. 2. EMGs were recorded with surface electrodes from the soleus, the medial and lateral head of the gastrocnemius, the vastus lateralis and the anterior tibial muscles. The EMGs and the soleus H reflex were recorded while walking on a treadmill at 4.5 km h-1 and during running at 8, 12 and 15 km h-1. 3. The amplitudes of the M wave and the H reflex were normalized to the amplitude of a maximal M wave elicited by a supramaximal stimulus just after the H reflex to compensate for movements of the recording and stimulus electrodes relative to the nerve and muscle fibres. The stimulus intensity was set to produce M waves that had an amplitude near to 25 % of the maximal M wave measured during the movements. As an alternative, the method of averaging of sweeps in sixteen intervals of the gait cycle was applied to the data. In this case the amplitude of the H reflex was expressed relative to the maximal M wave measured whilst in the standing position. 4. The amplitude of the H reflex was modulated during the gait cycle at all speeds. During the stance phase the reflex was facilitated and during the swing and flight phases it was suppressed. The size of the maximal M wave varied during the gait cycle and this variation was consistent for each subject although different among subjects. 5. The peak amplitude of the H reflex increased significantly (P = 0.04) from walking at 4.5 km h-1 to running at 12 and 15 km h-1 when using the method of correcting for variations of the maximal M wave during the gait cycle. The sweep averaging method showed a small but non-significant decrease (P = 0. 3) from walking to running at 8 km h-1 and a small decrease with running speed (P = 0.3). The amplitude of the EMG increased from walking to running and with running speed. 6. The relatively large H reflex recorded during the stance phase in running indicates that the stretch reflex may influence the muscle mechanics during the stance phase by contributing to the motor output and enhancing muscle stiffness.  (+info)

(5/4297) Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status.  (+info)

(6/4297) Chronic motor neuropathies: response to interferon-beta1a after failure of conventional therapies.

OBJECTIVES: The effect of interferon-beta1a (INF-beta1a; Rebif) was studied in patients with chronic motor neuropathies not improving after conventional treatments such as immunoglobulins, steroids, cyclophosphamide or plasma exchange. METHODS: A prospective open study was performed with a duration of 6-12 months. Three patients with a multifocal motor neuropathy and one patient with a pure motor form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy were enrolled. Three patients had anti-GM1 antibodies. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous injections of IBF-beta1a (6 MIU), three times a week. Primary outcome was assessed at the level of disability using the nine hole peg test, the 10 metres walking test, and the modified Rankin scale. Secondary outcome was measured at the impairment level using a slightly modified MRC sumscore. RESULTS: All patients showed a significant improvement on the modified MRC sumscore. The time required to walk 10 metres and to fulfil the nine hole peg test was also significantly reduced in the first 3 months in most patients. However, the translation of these results to functional improvement on the modified Rankin was only seen in two patients. There were no severe adverse events. Motor conduction blocks were partially restored in one patient only. Anti-GM1 antibody titres did not change. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that severely affected patients with chronic motor neuropathies not responding to conventional therapies may improve when treated with INF-beta1a. From this study it is suggested that INF-beta1a should be administered in patients with chronic motor neuropathies for a period of up to 3 months before deciding to cease treatment. A controlled trial is necessary to confirm these findings.  (+info)

(7/4297) Use of computed tomography and plantar pressure measurement for management of neuropathic ulcers in patients with diabetes.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Total contact casting is effective at healing neuropathic ulcers, but patients have a high rate (30%-57%) of ulcer recurrence when they resume walking without the cast. The purposes of this case report are to describe how data from plantar pressure measurement and spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) were used to help manage a patient with recurrent plantar ulcers and to discuss potential future benefits of this technology. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 62-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of 34 years' duration, peripheral neuropathy, and a recurrent plantar ulcer. Although total contact casting or relieving weight bearing with crutches apparently allowed the ulcer to heal, the ulcer recurred 3 times in an 18-month period. Spiral x-ray computed tomography and simultaneous pressure measurement were conducted to better understand the mechanism of his ulceration. OUTCOMES: The patient had a severe bony deformity that coincided with the location of highest plantar pressures (886 kPa). The results of the SXCT and pressure measurement convinced the patient to wear his prescribed footwear always, even when getting up in the middle of the night. The ulcer healed in 6 weeks, and the patient resumed his work, which required standing and walking for 8 to 10 hours a day. DISCUSSION: Following intervention, the patient's recurrent ulcer healed and remained healed for several months. Future benefits of these methods may include the ability to define how structural changes of the foot relate to increased plantar pressures and to help design and fabricate optimal orthoses.  (+info)

(8/4297) Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur.

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

intermittent claudication

  • Results: Treatment approaches that aim to improve functional outcomes (and walking performance specifically) in individuals with intermittent claudication include exercise training, lower-limb revascularization, and prescription of various drugs, including peripheral vasodilators. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: Supervised walking exercise is a cheap and effective approach for improving walking performance in individuals with intermittent claudication. (northumbria.ac.uk)


  • The functional results regarding walking, standing, and pain control are reported to be equivalent to or better than ankle fusion. (squarespace.com)


  • The ability to move the ankle may also be important for maintaining a normal walking pattern, especially on uneven ground. (squarespace.com)
  • The resultant orthotic device will support your foot in this perfect position while still allowing the normal movements required to walk. (walkwithoutpain.com.au)