Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsLymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: (ILDS D07.120) |PancreatoblastomaCystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms: Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms is a group of tumors.Kidney tumour: Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasmThyroid cancerMyelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases: Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases are a category of hematological malignancies disorders created by the World Health Organization which have characteristics of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative conditions.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Sialoblastoma: A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously been referred to as congenital basal cell adenoma, embryoma, or basaloid adenocarcinoma.Solution precursor plasma spray: Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) is a thermal spray process where a feedstock solution is heated and then deposited onto a substrate. Basic properties of the process are fundamentally similar to other plasma spraying processes.Goblet cell carcinoid: The goblet cell carcinoid, abbreviated GCC and also known as crypt cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumour with goblet cell differentiation, is a rare biphasic gastrointestinal tract tumour that consists of a neuroendocrine component and a conventional carcinoma, histologically arising from Paneth cells.Metastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, also mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystic tumour, is a grouping of cystic neoplasms that arise from the pancreas. They may be benign, malignant or in between.Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Ductal carcinoma: Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland.Vascular tissue neoplasmIntraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisAggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (also known as a digital papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary adenoma) is a cutaneous condition characterized by an aggressive malignancy involving the digit between the nailbed and the distal interphalangeal joint spaces.Bob ChampionInflammatory myofibroblastic tumourGlandular and epithelial neoplasm: Glandular and epithelial neoplasm is a grouping of tumors arising from the glands and epithelium.Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the lung: Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the lung (MCACL) is a very rare malignant mucus-producing neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled growth of transformed epithelial cells originating in lung tissue.Thyroid adenomaOsteolipochondroma: Osteolipochondroma (osteo, bone, lipos, fat, + chondros, cartilage, oma, tumor) is a cartilaginous tumor containing fatty and bony tissue.Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act: The Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act of 2001 (P.L.Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms: Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms is a group of tumors.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Hidradenocarcinoma: Hidradenocarcinoma (also known as malignant hidradenoma, malignant acrospiroma, clear cell eccrine carcinoma, or primary mucoepidermoid cutaneous carcinoma) is a malignant adnexal tumor of the sweat gland. It is the malignant variant of the benign hidradenoma.World Lymphoma Awareness Day: World Lymphoma Awareness Day (WLAD) is held on September 15 every year and is a day dedicated to raising awareness of lymphoma, an increasingly common form of cancer. It is a global initiative hosted by the Lymphoma Coalition (LC), a non-profit network organisation of 63 lymphoma patient groups from 44 countries around the world.Bone tumorCancer/testis antigen family 45, member a5Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma
(1/364) Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed by tumor cells in invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.
Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is a human matrix metalloproteinase specifically expressed by invading tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck. Here, we have further elucidated the role of MMP-13 in tumor invasion by examining its expression in invasive malignant tumors of the female genital tract. Using in situ hybridization, expression of MMP-13 mRNA was detected in 9 of 12 vulvar SCCs, primarily in tumor cells, but not in intact vulvar epithelium, in cervical SCCs (n = 12), or in endometrial (n = 11) or ovarian adenocarcinomas (n = 8). MMP-13 expression was especially abundant in vulvar carcinomas showing metastasis to lymph nodes and was associated with expression of membrane type 1 MMP by tumor cells and gelatinase-A (MMP-2) by stromal cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MMP-13 mRNAs were detected in 9 of 11 cell lines established from vulvar carcinomas and in 4 of 6 cell lines from cervical carcinomas, whereas endometrial (n = 10) and ovarian (n = 9) carcinoma cell lines were negative for MMP-13 mRNA. No correlation was detected between MMP-13 expression and p53 gene mutations in vulvar SCC cell lines. However, MMP-13 expression was detected in 5 of 6 vulvar and cervical SCC cell lines harboring HPV 16 or 68 DNA. These results show that MMP-13 is specifically expressed by malignantly transformed squamous epithelial cells, including vulvar SCC cells, and appears to serve as a marker for their invasive capacity. (+info)
(2/364) Impact of a national audit project on gynaecologists in Scotland.
The objectives of the study were (a) to determine consultant gynaecologists' awareness of and views on a national audit project (the gynaecology audit project in Scotland) and (b) to measure changes in their reported practice in relation to 12 specific elements of care related to three audit topics (induced abortion, endometriosis, and vulvar carcinoma) for which recommendations for change had been made within the project. The study comprised a postal questionnaire survey of all 128 consultant gynaecologists in NHS practice in Scotland. The response rate was 90%. Of the respondents, 96% (109/113) recalled receiving feedback material from the audit project team and around 75% (range 66/89 to 84/105) had retained feedback reports for future reference. For the two more common clinical topics (induced abortion and endometriosis), over two thirds of the respondents indicated that they had been prompted to reconsider or change aspects of practice. Significant changes in reported practice, in line with project recommendations, were found for seven of the 12 specific elements of care examined. Thus, gynaecologists in Scotland showed a high level of awareness of and positive views towards a national audit project. Significant changes in reported practice, in accordance with circulated recommendations, were measurable in relation to several elements of clinical care. (+info)
(3/364) Vulvodynia and vulvar vestibulitis: challenges in diagnosis and management.
Vulvodynia is a problem most family physicians can expect to encounter. It is a syndrome of unexplained vulvar pain, frequently accompanied by physical disabilities, limitation of daily activities, sexual dysfunction and psychologic distress. The patient's vulvar pain usually has an acute onset and, in most cases, becomes a chronic problem lasting months to years. The pain is often described as burning or stinging, or a feeling of rawness or irritation. Vulvodynia may have multiple causes, with several subsets, including cyclic vulvovaginitis, vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, essential (dysesthetic) vulvodynia and vulvar dermatoses. Evaluation should include a thorough history and physical examination as well as cultures for bacteria and fungus, KOH microscopic examination and biopsy of any suspicious areas. Proper treatment mandates that the correct type of vulvodynia be identified. Depending on the specific diagnosis, treatment may include fluconazole, calcium citrate, tricyclic antidepressants, topical corticosteroids, physical therapy with biofeedback, surgery or laser therapy. Since vulvodynia is often a chronic condition, regular medical follow-up and referral to a support group are helpful for most patients. (+info)
(4/364) Epithelioid leiomyoma of the vulva.
Smooth muscle tumors are uncommon lesions of the vulva and represent a variety of histologic types. When encountered, surgical treatment is guided by the malignant potential of the tumors. This article presents the case of a 45-year-old woman who underwent conservative excision of a 10-cm vulvar lesion consistent with benign epithelioid leiomyoma. This unusual case provides an opportunity to review the clinical and pathologic features of this uncommon variant of leiomyoma and to describe the recently suggested pathologic criteria for determining the malignant potential of smooth muscle tumors arising in the vulva. Knowledge of these criteria can guide the clinician in selecting the appropriate management. (+info)
(5/364) CYP2D6 genotype and the incidence of anal and vulvar cancer.
The risks of anal and vulvar cancer are strongly related to cigarette smoking. Smokers are exposed to a substantial quantity of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK is present in the mucus of the female genital tract. The enzyme debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activates NNK and is present in foreskin kerotinocytes and cervical epithelial cells. A polymorphism for the gene CYP2D6 exists, and persons who possess alleles that are associated with reduced levels of CYP2D6 activity might be expected to be at a relatively lower risk of cancers arising from NNK exposure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to examine the association of CYP2D6 genotype and the incidence of anal and vulvar cancer among cigarette smokers in western Washington State. We tested for 14 alleles (*1-*12, *14, and *17) among cases (25 men and 43 women with anal cancer, 64 women with vulvar cancer) and controls (30 men and 110 women). Contrary to the hypothesis, cases were not less likely than controls to have one (43.9 versus 40.7%) or two (6.8 versus 4.3%) inactivating alleles (*3, *4, *5, *6, *7, *8, *11, or *12). There was a suggestion that, if anything, the combined anal and vulvar cancer risk increased (rather than decreased) with an increasing number of CYP2D6 inactivation alleles: odds ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-2.0 with one inactivating allele; odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.6-5.4 with two inactivating alleles. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that cigarette smokers who carry the CYP2D6 alleles that result in a low activity phenotype have a decreased risk of anogenital cancer. (+info)
(6/364) Allelic loss in human papillomavirus-positive and -negative vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.
Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a biologically and morphologically diverse disease, consisting of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative tumors that differ in their morphological phenotypes and associated vulvar mucosal disorders. This study analyzed the frequencies of allelic loss (loss of heterozygosity (LOH)) in HPV-positive and -negative VSCCs to identify potential targets for the study of preinvasive diseases, to determine whether HPV status influenced patterns of LOH, and to determine whether these patterns differed from HPV-positive tumors of another genital site, cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCC). DNA extracted from microdissected archival sections of two index tumors, one each HPV negative and positive, was analyzed for LOH at 65 chromosomal loci. Loci scoring positive with either sample were included in an analysis of 14 additional cases that were also typed for HPV. Frequencies of LOH at loci were computed in a panel of HPV-positive and -negative VSCCs. Twenty-nine loci demonstrated LOH on the initial screen and were used to screen the remaining 14 tumors. High frequencies of LOH were identified, some of which were similar to a prior karyotypic study (3p, 5q, 8p, 10q, 15q, 18q, and 22q) and others of which had not previously been described in VSCC (1q, 2q, 8q, 10p, 11p, 11q, 17p, and 21q). With the exception of 5q and 10p, there were no significant associations between frequency of LOH and HPV status in VSCC. LOH at 3p and 11q were frequent in both VSCC and CSCC; however, allelic losses at several sites, including 5q, 8q, 17p, 21q, and 22q, were much more common in VSCC. VSCCs exhibit a broad range of allelic losses irrespective of HPV status, with high frequencies of LOH on certain chromosomal arms. This suggests that despite their differences in pathogenesis, both HPV-positive and -negative VSCCs share similarities in type and range of genetic losses during their evolution. Whether the different frequencies of LOH observed between VSCC and CSCC are real or reflect differences in stage and/or tumor size remains to be determined by further comparisons. The role of these altered genetic loci in the genesis of preinvasive vulvar mucosal lesions merits additional study. (+info)
(7/364) In squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, overexpression of p53 is a late event and neither p53 nor mdm2 expression is a useful marker to predict lymph node metastases.
To offer more tailored treatment to individual patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, more accurate prediction of lymph node metastases is required. As p53 and mdm2 are genes known to be involved in the development of other tumours, we studied expression of p53 and mdm2 in carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and their clinical relevance. Archival material of 141 T1 and T2 vulvar tumours were used. Of the 141 primary tumours, the corresponding 39 lymph node metastases (LNM) were studied, and in 90 cases the pre-existent epithelia adjacent to the tumour (EAT) and in 14 cases vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia adjacent to the tumour (VIN) was also investigated. Detection of p53 and mdm2 protein was immunohistochemically performed. Scoring categories were: negative (1); weakly positive (2); moderately to markedly positive (3); and markedly positive (4). Overexpression of p53 was seen in 56% of the LNM, 39% of the primary tumours, 21% of the VIN lesions and 0% in the group of EAT. No relation was found between overexpression of p53 in the primary tumour and LNM. Expression of mdm2 was seen in 14% of the primary tumours, of which four cases were marked positive. In the group of LNM no mdm2-positive staining was observed. In the group of EAT, 25% was mdm2-positive, of which six cases were marked positive. In the group of VIN, 36% showed moderate (score 3) mdm2 expression. No relation was found between expression of mdm2 and LNM. In squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of p53 is a late event in carcinogenesis. Marked expression of mdm2 is rarely seen in vulvar carcinomas, indicating that aberrant p53 cannot induce mdm2 expression. LNM cannot be predicted by detection of these proteins. (+info)
(8/364) Glutathione S-transferase M1 genotypes and the risk of vulvar cancer: a population-based case-control study.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) facilitate the excretion of a variety of potential carcinogens. Some 50-60% of Caucasians are homozygous for the null allele of GSTM1, a gene responsible for the presence of one of these enzymes. The authors examined whether women with the GSTM1 null genotype are at altered risk of vulvar cancer. They obtained peripheral blood specimens from 18- to 79-year-old residents of King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties of western Washington who were diagnosed with vulvar cancer between April 1991 and June 1994. Blood specimens were also obtained from controls identified via random digit telephone dialing of western Washington households. The authors determined the GSTM1 genotype of 137 cases (120 in situ and 17 invasive cases) and 248 controls. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was 46.7% among cases and 57.3% among controls. The age-adjusted odds ratio associated with the GSTM1 null genotype was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 1.0). Among current smokers of cigarettes, the age-adjusted odds ratio associated with the GSTM1 null genotype was 0.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.9), differing little between heavy and light smokers. Our data suggest that women with the GSTM1 null genotype are not at increased risk of vulvar cancer. (+info)