Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Healthy Volunteers: Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hospital Volunteers: Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Psilocybine: The major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood DonorsRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Echo-Planar Imaging: A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Medical Missions, Official: Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Autoexperimentation: Intentionally using oneself as a research subject.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Cefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Motilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Chancroid: Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Haemophilus ducreyi: A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Rest: Freedom from activity.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.

*  Volunteer Opportunities | Hospital for Special Care

Volunteers can be placed with direct patient contact or provide clerical support in various departments. ... Each year volunteers contribute more than 22,000 hours to support the staff, patients and visitors. ... Volunteer Opportunities. Each year volunteers contribute more than 22,000 hours to support the staff, patients and visitors. ... Contact Volunteer Services at 860.827.4774 for more information.. Contact Volunteer Office. For Further Information, please ...
hfsc.org/community/volunteer-opportunities

*  Frischy on HubPages

I am a writer, mom and community volunteer. In the past I have, at various times, been a substitute teacher at a school for ... I am a writer, mom and community volunteer. In the past I have, at various times, been a substitute teacher at a school for ...
hubpages.com/@frischy

*  Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention | Tropical Health Matters

Rigorous selection of volunteers and supervisors was based on specific criteria. Develop communications activities took place ... The medication distribution strategy relied on a door to door campaign strategy with community volunteers. On the first day, ... the volunteers, trained by health workers, administer drugs to the children under surveillance of their mothers or guardians. ... There was mobilization of logistics for transportation of volunteers, drugs, and materials. Day to day monitoring took place ...
malariamatters.org/tag/seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention/

*  NCLEX Practice Test for Medical Surgical Nursing 2 - NCLEX Reviewers

She is retired and has had to give up her volunteer work because of her discomfort. She was told her diagnosis was ...
nclexreviewers.com/nclex-sample-questions/medical-surgical-nursing-nclex-sample-questions/nclex-practice-test-for-medical-surgical-nursing-2.html

*  International volunteerism webinar set for May 16

It should also prove useful for those with some volunteering experience looking for new ideas or just validation of what they ... The webinar is titled International Volunteer Dental Projects, What's It All About Anyway?. The webinar is designed for ... Topics will include the nature of volunteer activities, cross-cultural issues, comparison of service and teaching projects, how ... For more information about international volunteerism and to find a volunteer opportunity, visit the ADA Foundation's ...
ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2017-archive/may/international-volunteerism-webinar-set-for-may-16

*  Senior Programs - Cullman Regional Medical Center

Volunteer Services. Volunteers are a vital part of our mission at Cullman Regional, and we are pleased to offer many ... Over the years, volunteers have selflessly given thousands of hours. But there are never enough helping hands or smiling faces ... As a small token of appreciation, Cullman Regional provides some benefits to our volunteers, including cafeteria meals, Gift ...
https://cullmanregional.com/services/senior-programs/

*  Citizen Corps Program - NCTCOG.org

The mission of Citizen Corps is to harness the power of every individual through education, training, and volunteer service to ...
dfwinfo.com/ep/ccp/

*  A Study to Evaluate and Study Drug Levels in Blood Plasma When Giving High Doses of GSK189075 to Healthy Volunteers - Full Text...

Volunteers will not know which of the three doses they are receiving. In each period, volunteers will dose every morning for ... Each volunteer will take part in 3 dosing periods and will be given a different dose level at each period (either 2000mg, ... Volunteers will also be asked to provide information should they feel they are having a possible effect from the GSK189075. The ... A Study to Evaluate and Study Drug Levels in Blood Plasma When Giving High Doses of GSK189075 to Healthy Volunteers. This study ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00501930

*  A Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of UBI SynVac (HIV-1 MN Octameric V3 Peptide Vaccine) - Full Text View -...

Twelve volunteers are entered at one of three dose levels of SynVac. At each dose level, 10 volunteers receive vaccine and two ... At least eight volunteers at each dose level must be monitored for 1 week before subsequent volunteers are entered at the next ... Active tuberculosis (volunteers with a positive PPD and normal chest x-ray showing no evidence of TB and not requiring INH ... Active syphilis (volunteers are eligible if serology is documented to be a false positive or due to a remote (, 6 months) ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000775

*  2013 | Pemphigus Pemphigoid Foundation (IPPF) - Part 3

... volunteering is so successful at helping the volunteers themselves that current studies are now specifically looking at ... So, as you ease into the new year or just prepare for Fall, remember that volunteering gives you the opportunity to:. S hare ... And there are few organizations out there which could use that energy more than we can! Volunteering for you might be as simple ... Research on volunteerism shows volunteers enjoy better overall health, a sense of achievement, greater life satisfaction, ...
pemphigus.org/2013/page/3/

*  September | 2013 | ASAP » American Syringomyelia & Chiari Alliance Project

HELPING HAND VOLUNTEERS. Our Helping Hand volunteers help keep ASAP running smoothly! By giving their time, energy and/or ... SHINING STAR VOLUNTEERS. Awarded to those volunteers whose continuous efforts go above and beyond. You're a shining example of ... KEY VOLUNTEER AWARD. This award is given to the volunteer in recognition of exceptional service and contributions. These ... Given to those volunteers who are committed to furthering the goals of ASAP by donating their time and talents to keep ASAP ...
asap.org/index.php/2013/09/

*  A Phase I Multicenter Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Vaccinia-Derived HIV-1 Recombinant Envelope...

Volunteers may be offered an additional boost of the same preparation at 18 months. Per 07/28/92 amendment, 18 volunteers will ... Volunteers are monitored 1 month before proceeding to the second phase. In phase 2, four volunteers receive gp160 (50 mcg); two ... In phase 1, at each participating unit, four volunteers receive a dose of gp160 (12.5 mcg); two volunteers receive placebo. ... Volunteers in phase 2 who received four doses of 50 mcg gp160 receive an additional boost of 200 mcg gp160 at 18-19 months post ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000968?order=108

*  The SASA! Study: An Evaluation of a Community Intervention to Address Gender-based Violence and Reduce HIV/AIDS Risk in Uganda ...

The intervention team engages with four major groups of actors: community volunteers selected from the general public; ... IMPORTANT: Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more... ... Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. Read more... ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00790959?order=280

*  LLLI | Media Release: When an emergency strikes breastfeeding can save lives, part 2

La Leche League Leaders are trained community volunteers and experienced nursing mothers, who answer questions about ...
llli.org/release/emergency2.html

*  Consulting / Volunteers

Fill this form if you'd like to join a Consulting team, or volunteer for VES in our different events! ...
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSci9wmZdGyoGd8TTwDwBt07BZANhHycKgrdz087dBmTpRDy4Q/viewform?usp=send_form

*  Volunteers

What would the IRONMAN Austria-Kärnten be without almost 2.000 volunteers? You are the heart and soul of the race! ... Register now as a volunteer for 2018 and be part of one of the most beautiful races worldwide!. Be part of our Volunteers Team ... During the start and in the water the volunteers help to find the right way. When exiting the water after a long hard swim, a ... What would the IRONMAN Austria-Kärnten be without almost 2.000 volunteers? You are the heart and soul of the race!. ...
ironman.com/ja-jp/triathlon/events/emea/ironman/austria/volunteers.aspx

*  Volunteers - Wikipedia

Volunteers é o quinto álbum de estúdio da banda norte-americana de rock Jefferson Airplane lançado em 1969. Convidados incluem ... "Volunteers of America", um caminhão de lixo que acordou o cantor Marty Balin em uma manhã. "We Can Be Together" (Paul Kantner ... "Volunteers" (Marty Balin / Paul Kantner) - 2:08 Grace Slick - piano, órgão e vocal Paul Kantner - guitarra rítmica e vocal ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volunteers

*  Rummage Sale Volunteers

Do you have any 6-8' tables that could be dropped off on July 16th and picked up on July 22nd? If yes, please indicate how many. * ...
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSd85HNA_h3QrjoqqnchkEWsBc7FSihEKc6VlfGMMla7W_LaCw/viewform?usp=sf_link

*  Questions for Volunteers

Would you be willing to communicate with volunteers in your region? Hosting regionally specific conference calls? ... Would you be willing to be a National Volunteer for any of these areas: * ... Finding out what level of help our volunteers are able to give. ...
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1uMzY5R5u7Z0mTyM23Ymkt3eh54XdXqrwAQ9v_BkO0d8/viewform?edit_requested=true

*  VOLUNTEERS: Student Ministry

Thanks for coming and serving our students and families in our various activities. Please choose 1-4 options to serve below. If you'd like to sign up for more, please submit another response. THANKS ...
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSddVcfwVLn4P8xE98UNsMZRbRwCqRepWr8s3lK6ZToI-WoBwA/viewform

*  House of Volunteers

The core task is to supplement the already existing education curricula (of the National Board of Education in Bangladesh) by creating an interactive virtual lecture series (containing animations of various concepts, integrated video clips of various experiments, processes, lab videos, video shots from interactive software etc.) that will be in direct reference to the standardized textbooks. The input to the students will be multi fold as opposed to just having a teacher explaining text in a traditional sense. There will be a background voice explaining the textbook materials in a chronological manner (think of it as a audio lecture available in both Bengali and English). The audio will in in phase with various experiments, animations and assorted video shots from various interactive software to provide further stimuli to the students. The emphasis is clearly on the real life viewing of labs and the various experiments carried out in labs. Most of the lecture series will be compiled and edited ...
web.mit.edu/hov/www/proj_ischool.html

*  Hostage Volunteers - WSJ

... we have two GOP Members who voted against missile defense and who might volunteer their constituents--Connie Morella of ...
https://wsj.com/articles/SB922487338174205994

*  BarCamp Nairobi 2014 Volunteers

... The form 'BarCamp 2014 Volunteer Form' is no longer accepting responses.. Try contacting the ...
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Y-4btoxV6s669utHV8cNnLeW4jsfHfaPcUaKkP4zFJ4/closedform

*  Volunteers

If you would like a volunteer from your organization highlighted in the Daily Local News, contact Phyllis Rowan at prowan@ ... 670 volunteers participated in 2012 to collect more than 11 tons of trash. The Clean Up kicks off at 8 a.m., when volunteers ... Volunteers are also needed to answer phones and greet families in the inpatient unit. Volunteer s visitation is done in the ... The Clinic has volunteer opportunities in medical and nonmedical positions. Volunteers are asked to contribute at least four ...
dailylocal.com/article/20130315/LIFE01/130319706

*  Returned Volunteers of Maryland

Welcome to the Returned Volunteers of Maryland. The purpose of this group is to post and to send out information about upcoming ... events and activities that are sponsored by the Maryland Returned Volunteers group If you are a RPCV living in Maryland and ... former volunteer on Peace Corps Day - February 28.. Former volunteers who are interested in participating should contact. the ... Returned Volunteers of Maryland is a Restricted Group with 264 members.. *Returned Volunteers of Maryland ...
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/MarylandRPCVs/conversations/topics/119

Ken Anderlini: Ken Anderlini (September 11, 1962–2007) was an avant-garde Canadian filmmaker, educator and gay activist. Born in Langley, British Columbia, Canada on September 11, 1962, his family was in the dairy farming business.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Human subject research legislation in the United States: Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the United States was mostly unregulated until the 20th century, as it was throughout the world, until the establishment of various governmental and professional regulations and codes of ethics.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.BentazepamFirst pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.HyperintensityConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.List of puddings: This list includes both sweet and savoury puddings that conform to one of two definitions:Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Erythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).ATC code V07: ==V07A All other non-therapeutic products==DimefoxNonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Anorectal manometryGlobal Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Effervescent tablet: Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are designed to break in contact with water or another liquid, releasing carbon dioxide in the process.British Pharmacopeia 2003 Rapid breakdown often may cause the tablet to dissolve into a solution, and is also often followed by a froth.Bio Base EuropeDermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.ErythromycinRiding-like sittingSuperficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Sustained release dosage forms: Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. This can be achieved through a variety of formulations, including liposomes and drug-polymer conjugates (an example being hydrogels).Legal status of psilocybin mushrooms: The legal status of psilocybin mushrooms varies world-wide. Psilocybin and psilocin are listed as Schedule I drugs under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.MidazolamTadpole pupil: The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail.Suction blister: Suction blistering is a technique used in dermatology to treat chronic wounds, such as non-healing leg ulcers. When a wound is not healing properly, an autologous skin graft is the best option, to prevent rejection of the tissue.Cerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Aluminium hydroxide oxide: (additive)List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsMaalox: Maalox is a brand name antacid containing aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide to neutralize or reduce stomach acid.Man flu: Man flu is a pejoratively used phrase that refers to the idea that men, when they have a cold, exaggerate and claim they have the flu. Whilst a commonly used phrase in the UK and Ireland, it is referred to in other cultures and there is a continuing discussion over the scientific basis for the phrase.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]CapsugelTyphoid vaccineCholera vaccineVaccinationBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Flicker (screen): Flicker is a visible fading between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) based computer screens. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low refresh rate, allowing the brightness to drop for time intervals sufficiently long to be noticed by a human eye – see persistence of vision and flicker fusion threshold.Air displacement pipetteBanquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.World Blood Donor Day: Every year on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day (WBDD). The event, established in 2004, serves to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products, and to thank blood donors for their voluntary, life-saving gifts of blood.Indian Red Cross SocietyDaniel Tarantola: Daniel Tarantola was born in Ajaccio (Corsica), France, in 1942. Having obtained his medical degree from Paris University, Daniel began an international health career in 1971 in the context of emergency humanitarian medical missions to Biafra (Nigeria), and Peru.Secretagogue: A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin,secretagogue at eMedicine Dictionary which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells (increased gastric acid production by the stomach).Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Injection site reaction: Injection site reactions are allergic reactions that result in cutaneous necrosis that may occur at sites of medication injection, typically presenting in one of two forms, (1) those associated with intravenous infusion or (2) those related to intramuscular injection.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".

(1/353) Primary health care, community participation and community-financing: experiences of two middle hill villages in Nepal.

Although community involvement in health related activities is generally acknowledged by international and national health planners to be the key to the successful organization of primary health care, comparatively little is known about its potential and limitations. Drawing on the experiences of two middle hill villages in Nepal, this paper reports on research undertaken to compare and contrast the scope and extent of community participation in the delivery of primary health care in a community run and financed health post and a state run and financed health post. Unlike many other health posts in Nepal these facilities do provide effective curative services, and neither of them suffer from chronic shortage of drugs. However, community-financing did not appear to widen the scope and the extent of participation. Villagers in both communities relied on the health post for the treatment of less than one-third of symptoms, and despite the planners' intentions, community involvement outside participation in benefits was found to be very limited.  (+info)

(2/353) Durability of tobacco control activities in 11 north American communities: life after the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT).

Durability of tobacco control activities in the 11 intervention sites of the Community Intervention Trial for Heavy Smokers (COMMIT) was examined. Although continuation of COMMIT activities was not a major goal, all communities made plans to continue some tobacco control activity. Information was gathered at focus groups of former COMMIT volunteers and staff who were assembled in each community and asked to describe tobacco control activities in their communities during the past 12-16 months-the period after the termination of COMMIT funding. It was found that a tobacco coalition, board or other structure was still operating in nine of the 11 communities and 10 had some level of paid staff dedicated to smoking control. There was also substantial activity in three of the four channels that COMMIT used as an intervention framework: worksites, public education and cessation resources. Many communities were currently engaged in considerable smoking control activity aimed at youth, an area that was intentionally de-emphasized by COMMIT. Implications for the durability of health promotion programs by communities are discussed.  (+info)

(3/353) Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda.

Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team.  (+info)

(4/353) Fas and Fas-mediated effects on a human salivary cell line in vitro: a model for immune-mediated exocrine damage in Sjogren's syndrome.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration and loss of parenchymal tissue in salivary and lacrimal glands. The mechanisms for these histologic alterations are not known. Apoptotic cell death, induced by the ligation of Fas (APO-1/CD95) with Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) may be an explanation for the tissue damage seen in SS. Fas and FasL were detected in minor salivary glands from SS patients and healthy individuals using immunohistochemical methods. There was increased expression of both Fas and FasL in the patients. The ability of the Fas-FasL pathway to influence epithelial cell growth and survival was demonstrated in vitro using a human submandibular cell line. The presence of Fas receptor was demonstrated on the cells. Anti-Fas antibody triggered cell death. Cells were also grown in the presence of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma). IFN-gamma induced an upregulation of Fas receptor expression and pre-treatment of cells with IFN-gamma led to enhanced anti-Fas mediated cell death.  (+info)

(5/353) Experiences and attitudes of residents and students influence voluntary service with homeless populations.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of two programs at the University of Pittsburgh, one that requires and one that encourages volunteer activity. In the program that requires primary care interns to spend 15 hours in a homeless clinic, we measured volunteer service after the requirement was fulfilled. In the program that encourages and provides the structure for first- and second-year medical students to volunteer, we assessed correlates of volunteering. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: When primary care interns were required to spend time at homeless clinics, all (13/13) volunteered to work at the same clinic in subsequent years. Categorical interns without this requirement were less likely to volunteer (24/51; chi2 = 12.7, p >. 001). Medical students who volunteered were more likely to be first-year students, have previously volunteered in a similar setting, have positive attitudes toward caring for indigent patients, and have fewer factors that discouraged them from volunteering (p <. 01 for all) than students who did not volunteer. CONCLUSIONS: Volunteering with underserved communities during medical school and residency is influenced by previous experiences and, among medical students, year in school. Medical schools and residency programs have the opportunity to promote volunteerism and social responsibility through mentoring and curricular initiatives.  (+info)

(6/353) The prevalence and incidence of medical conditions in healthy pharmaceutical company employees who volunteer to participate in medical research.

AIMS: Although clinical research in healthy volunteers is commonly performed there have been few studies of the value of the medical screening of subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of medical conditions found during the medical screening of 'healthy' subjects employed in a pharmaceutical company who volunteered to participate in medical research. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of the medical notes of all the subjects who volunteered for membership of the Zeneca Clinical Pharmacology Unit's healthy volunteer panel over a 4 year period from 1990 to 1994. The prevalence of medical conditions found at presentation was determined. The incidence of medical conditions during the 4 year observation period was also ascertained. Medical screening included a full medical history and examination, clinical chemistry, haematology and urinalysis screens, pulmonary function tests, ECGs, 24 h ambulatory cardiac monitoring and a request for information from the volunteer's General Practitioner. RESULTS: Prevalence-1293 subjects volunteered to join the panel of which 156 subjects (12%) were not accepted at presentation including 141 (10. 9%) for medical reasons. The most medical common reasons were; previously diagnosed medical conditions (3.3%), cardiovascular abnormalities (1.9%), abnormal liver function tests (1.9%), anaemia (1.2%), hyperlipidaemia (1.1%), excess alcohol intake (0.6%) and thyroid disease (0.5%). Incidence-36 of the 1137 volunteers (0.8% per year) accepted onto the panel subsequently developed medical conditions of which the most common were; anaemia (0.29% per year), cardiovascular abnormalities (0.13% per year) and vasovagal syncope (0.13% per year). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of medical screening before healthy volunteers participate in clinical research.  (+info)

(7/353) Inherited susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect the way a person deals with carcinogenic challenges. This susceptibility (also referred to as mutagen sensitivity) has been found to be increased in patients with environmentally related cancers, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, and colon, and, in combination with carcinogenic exposure, this susceptibility can greatly influence cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the heritability of mutagen sensitivity. METHODS: Heritability was determined by use of a maximum likelihood method that employed the FISHER package of pedigree analysis. Bleomycin-induced breaks per cell values for 135 healthy volunteers without cancer were determined. These individuals were from 53 different pedigrees and included 25 monozygotic twin pairs (n = 50), 14 pairs of dizygotes (twin pairs and siblings, n = 28), and 14 families selected on the basis of a first-degree relative who was successfully treated for head and neck cancer and who had no sign of recurrence for at least 1 year. All data were analyzed simultaneously, and different models of familial resemblance were fitted to the data. All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: Our results showed no evidence for the influence of a shared family environment on bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks. Genetic influences, however, were statistically significant (P =. 036) and accounted for 75% of the total variance. CONCLUSIONS: The high heritability estimate of the susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks indicates a clear genetic basis. The findings of this study support the notion that a common genetic susceptibility to DNA damage--and thereby a susceptibility to cancer--may exist in the general population.  (+info)

(8/353) Cocaine stimulates the human cardiovascular system via a central mechanism of action.

BACKGROUND: Cocaine is thought to stimulate the cardiovascular system by blocking peripheral norepinephrine reuptake. This study was designed to test the novel hypotheses that cocaine also stimulates the human cardiovascular system by (1) increasing central sympathetic outflow, or (2) decreasing parasympathetic control of heart rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 14 healthy cocaine-naive humans, we measured blood pressure, heart rate, and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) with intraneural microelectrodes before, during, and for 90 minutes after intranasal cocaine (2 mg/kg, n=7) or lidocaine (2 mg/kg, n=7). Intranasal cocaine caused an initial but transient 3. 3-fold increase in skin SNA during the period of intranasal administration followed by a sustained 2.4-fold increase lasting for up to 90 minutes after cocaine. Unlike cocaine, intranasal lidocaine caused only a small transient increase in skin SNA due to local nasal irritation. The cocaine-induced increase in SNA was accompanied by decreased skin blood flow, increased skin vascular resistance, and increased heart rate. In 11 additional subjects, we showed that the cocaine-induced increase in heart rate was eliminated by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade (propranolol) but unaffected by muscarinic receptor blockade (atropine), indicating sympathetic mediation. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide direct microneurographic evidence in humans that intranasal cocaine stimulates central sympathetic outflow. This central sympathetic activation appears to be targeted not only to the cutaneous circulation promoting peripheral vasoconstriction but also to the heart promoting tachycardia.  (+info)


volunteerism


  • For more information about international volunteerism and to find a volunteer opportunity, visit the ADA Foundation's international volunteer website, internationalvolunteer.ADA.org . (ada.org)
  • Research on volunteerism shows volunteers enjoy better overall health, a sense of achievement, greater life satisfaction, larger social networks, and higher self-esteem (Barlow, 2005). (pemphigus.org)

responsibilities


  • Most of volunteer responsibilities are limited to clerical duties: sending faxes, making copies, light filing, answering phones etc. (volunteermatch.org)

opportunities


  • Topics will include the nature of volunteer activities, cross-cultural issues, comparison of service and teaching projects, how to get started either at home or abroad and where to find volunteer opportunities. (ada.org)
  • Volunteers are a vital part of our mission at Cullman Regional, and we are pleased to offer many opportunities to serve around the hospital. (cullmanregional.com)

criteria


  • Rigorous selection of volunteers and supervisors was based on specific criteria. (malariamatters.org)

community


  • The medication distribution strategy relied on a door to door campaign strategy with community volunteers. (malariamatters.org)
  • These volunteers are also the ambassadors to our community. (volunteermatch.org)
  • As a volunteer you can feel a sense of accomplishment, and most importantly contribute to the community. (volunteermatch.org)
  • I have not volunteered before at Sutter, so I can only say that I have heard only good things regarding their service to the community and I would like to help them to continue to be a positive influence. (volunteermatch.org)
  • The community volunteers are a key component of the intensive intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • involving community leaders, resource persons and institutional leaders) without the community volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)

hospital team


  • Our volunteers work in a variety of areas ot provide an added dimension of attention and are an invaluable part of the hospital team. (volunteermatch.org)
  • As a Staten Island University Hospital Volunteer you would be a vital member of our Hospital Team. (volunteermatch.org)

health


  • On the first day, the volunteers, trained by health workers, administer drugs to the children under surveillance of their mothers or guardians. (malariamatters.org)

vital


  • These volunteers play a vital role in helping ASAP open new doors! (asap.org)

thousands of hours


  • Since 1952, volunteers have contributed thousands of hours of service to the patients, their families, and to the staff of Driscoll Children's Hospital. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Over the years, volunteers have selflessly given thousands of hours. (cullmanregional.com)

study


  • Talk with a trusted healthcare professional before volunteering for a study. (clinicaltrials.gov)

knowledge


  • We are grateful to all our volunteers who take part in the growth of ASAP, giving their knowledge, their skills and their time. (asap.org)

hours


  • You may pick your own hours and day(s) to volunteer and there are several assignments to choose from as well as the locations (North or South). (volunteermatch.org)

service


  • Dear Staten Islander: We are recruiting volunteers to help us assist with basic non-medical customer service and essential communications. (volunteermatch.org)
  • This award is given to the volunteer in recognition of exceptional service and contributions. (asap.org)

Department


  • Would you recommend Driscoll Children's Hospital - Volunteer Department? (volunteermatch.org)

given


  • Given to those volunteers who are committed to furthering the goals of ASAP by donating their time and talents to keep ASAP moving forward. (asap.org)

help


  • Our Helping Hand volunteers help keep ASAP running smoothly! (asap.org)

free


  • As a small token of appreciation, Cullman Regional provides some benefits to our volunteers, including cafeteria meals, Gift Shop discounts, free annual TB test, free flu shots and participation in hospital-wide programs, picnics and events. (cullmanregional.com)