Vitaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for the VITIS genus, the source of grapes.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Ampelopsis: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Members contain momordin and SITOSTEROLS.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Parthenocissus semicordata: Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall) Planch. 1811 (synonym: P.Cissus sicyoides: Cissus sicyoides, also known as Princess vine, Millionaire vine and Curtain Ivy, is evergreen perennial vine in the Vitaceae (Grapevine) family.Copigmentation: Copigmentation is a phenomenon where pigmentation due to anthocyanidins is reinforced by the presence of other colorless flavonoids known as cofactors or “copigments”. This occurs by the formation of a non-covalently-linked complex.Viticulture: Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard.
(1/12) Interactive effects of water stress and xylem-limited bacterial infection on the water relations of a host vine.
Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen that causes bacterial leaf scorch in its hosts, has a diverse and extensive host range among plant species worldwide. Previous work has shown that water stress enhances leaf scorch symptom severity and progression along the stem in Parthenocissus quinquefolia infected by X. fastidiosa. The objective here was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the interaction of water stress and infection by X. fastidiosa. Using the eastern deciduous forest vine, P. quinquefolia, infection and water availability were manipulated while measuring leaf water potentials (psi(L)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), whole shoot hydraulic conductance (K(h)), per cent xylem embolism, and xylem vessel dimensions. No significant differences in any of the physiological measurements were found between control and infected plants prior to drought. Drought treatment significantly reduced psi(L) and g(s) at all leaf positions throughout the day in late summer in both years of the study. In addition, infection significantly reduced psi(L) and g(s) in the most basal leaf positions in late summer in both years. Whole shoot hydraulic conductance was reduced by both low water and infection treatments. However, per cent embolized vessels and mean vessel diameter were affected by drought treatment only. These results imply that the major effect of infection by X. fastidiosa occurs due to reduced hydraulic conductance caused by clogging of the vessels, and not increased cavitation and embolism of xylem elements. The reduced K(h) caused by X. fastidiosa infection acts additively with the water limitation imposed by Drought stress. (+info)
(2/12) Host-to-parasite gene transfer in flowering plants: phylogenetic evidence from Malpighiales.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between sexually unrelated species has recently been documented for higher plants, but mechanistic explanations for HGTs have remained speculative. We show that a parasitic relationship may facilitate HGT between flowering plants. The endophytic parasites Rafflesiaceae are placed in the diverse order Malpighiales. Our multigene phylogenetic analyses of Malpighiales show that mitochondrial (matR) and nuclear loci (18S ribosomal DNA and PHYC) place Rafflesiaceae in Malpighiales, perhaps near Ochnaceae/Clusiaceae. Mitochondrial nad1B-C, however, groups them within Vitaceae, near their obligate host Tetrastigma. These discordant phylogenetic hypotheses strongly suggest that part of the mitochondrial genome in Rafflesiaceae was acquired via HGT from their hosts. (+info)
(3/12) Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids.
BACKGROUND: The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. RESULTS: The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum likelihood analyses place Cucumis as sister to the Myrtales and therefore do not support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. CONCLUSION: Phylogenies based on DNA sequences from complete chloroplast genome sequences provide strong support for the position of the Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids. Our phylogenetic analyses support recent assertions that inadequate taxon sampling and incorrect model specification for concatenated multi-gene data sets can mislead phylogenetic inferences when using whole chloroplast genomes for phylogeny reconstruction. (+info)
(4/12) Antimalarial activity of a new stilbene glycoside from Parthenocissus tricuspidata in mice.
(5/12) Low level of polymorphism in two putative NPR1 homologs in the Vitaceae family.
(6/12) Antiproliferative compounds of Cyphostemma greveana from a Madagascar dry forest.
(7/12) Evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions in six continents in the Ampelopsis clade of the grape family (Vitaceae).
(8/12) Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves.