Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.United StatesMentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Famous PersonsCaliforniaAccidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.ConnecticutRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.WisconsinRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.AlaskaDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.San FranciscoHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.New York CityMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).GermanyDepression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.SwedenSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.KansasTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.MarylandQuadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)DenmarkWashingtonAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sports for Persons with Disabilities: Activities or games played by PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES, usually requiring physical effort or skill. The activities or games may be specifically created or based on existing sports, with or without modifications, to meet the needs of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.FloridaPatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.TennesseeJapanFinlandIndiaHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Philosophy, MedicalHomes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.GeorgiaTexasGrief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)ColoradoNorwayEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.New JerseyLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

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Decree promulgating the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired ... Its main objective is to establish a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of persons who are blind, ...

*  Visionary Newsletter - August 2014

On August 6, the Visually Impaired Persons (VIP) of Charlotte County Center held an open house ribbon cutting ceremony at their ... Dan is also visually impaired and shared some of the struggles and successes he had. Thomas then realized that he was not alone ... With sound guidance, counseling and additional DBS services, he had progressed from a shy and insecure person into a confident ... DBS joins with Division of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Agency for Persons with Disabilities to recognize outstanding ...

*  Roundtable on the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or...

Roundtable on the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or ...

*  OCC Names Dean for Health Sciences - latimes

Interior Design Important to Visually Impaired Persons. January 1, 1989. *Whittier 'Mystery House' Transformed Into Showcase of ...

*  Adults with Visual Impairments Report on their Sex Education Experiences

Pava, W. S. (1988). Visually impaired persons' vulnerability to sexual and physical assault. Journal of Visual Impairment & ... values person-first language, and understands that people may self-identify as blind and/or visually impaired for a variety of ... "visually impaired") as well as perspectives on children's abilities and potentials. In this review we have chosen to reflect ... The guiding question for the study was: What do students who are visually impaired, blind, or have low vision need to know to ...

*  Patent US7641108 - Device and method to assist user in conducting a transaction with a machine - Google Patents

Because the visually impaired person is not as able to control the amount of scene overlap that exists between the individual ... 2, 2004 and entitled "Portable Reading Machines For Visually Impaired Persons.". BACKGROUND. Reading machines use optical ... This device gives users such as blind or visually impaired persons additional autonomy. ... to be edited by a visually impaired person and sent on to a sighted individual with the original formatting intact. ...

*  Alt tech appendix - HTML accessibility task force Wiki

A visually impaired person wants to directly access that headline and description. ... He would like to have that text description available for his visually impaired friends to access directly. ... a utility that enables volunteers to make Web pages accessible to the visually impaired. It might help image gallery sites ...

*  Constitution and Bylaws (current versions) American Council of the Blind | American Council of the Blind

... compromised access to the environment and compromised access to information by persons who are blind or visually impaired. The ... dissemination and advocacy resource regarding employment-related issues on behalf of blind and visually impaired persons. Such ... the American Council of the Blind will strive to improve the well-being of all blind and visually impaired people. A. Through a ... and other similar activities regarding the rights and responsibilities of people who are blind or visually impaired. The ...

*  Who should benefit from a WIPO Treaty for Reading Disabled Persons? | Knowledge Ecology International

In the United Kingdom, the Visually Impaired Persons, Act 2002:. A visually impaired person is defined broadly, as a person. (a ... a) For the purposes of this Treaty, a 'visually impaired' person is:. 1. a person who is blind; or. 2. a person who has a ... "person with a print disability" means:. (a) a person without sight; or. (b) a person whose sight is severely impaired; or. (c) ... Persons with Perceptual Disabilities. 32. (1) It is not an infringement of copyright for a person, at the request of a person ...

*  EUR-Lex - 32004R0261 - EN - EUR-Lex

3. In respect of blind and visually impaired persons, the provisions of this Article shall be applied using appropriate ... i) 'person with reduced mobility' means any person whose mobility is reduced when using transport because of any physical ... Persons with reduced mobility or special needs. 1. Operating air carriers shall give priority to carrying persons with reduced ... 19) Operating air carriers should meet the special needs of persons with reduced mobility and any persons accompanying them. ...

*  Jump to top of the page

Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired ... goal of O&M instruction is for visually impaired persons to be ... Airlines may not require a person who is blind or visually impaired to sit in a particular row and seat, i.e., bulkhead row. If ... the O&M teacher has the opportunity to educate the general public regarding the capabilities of visually impaired persons. ... If in a group of ten or more traveling together for a group rate, must indicate they are blind and/or visually impaired, at the ...

*  Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: The L V Prasad Eye Institute experience

Vision rehabilitation services are provided after the visually impaired person is examined at the secondary center. VCs do not ... Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India. Indian J ... showed that there are 285 million visually impaired (VI) of whom 39 million are blind.[2] Estimates for India were 62 million ... showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study ...

*  An iPhone feature most people never find is doing something amazing for the visually impaired

"For the vast majority of apps, a visually impaired person can do basically anything other users can," Weinstein said, referring ... sighted users but can be especially challenging for the visually impaired. Now Weinstein says there's nothing visually impaired ... visually impaired users can do everything on Apple devices that a sighted person can do. That may not sound like a big deal on ... An iPhone feature most people never find is doing something amazing for the visually impaired You wouldn't expect Luis Perez to ...

*  Resources for Parents and Teachers of Blind and Visually Impaired Children | American Council of the Blind

Manufactures educational aids for blind and visually impaired persons, has an educational research program and sells books in ... Toys, Games, Books and Software for Blind and Visually Impaired Children. Organizations. ACB Families. c/o American Council of ... Toys, Games, Books and Software for Blind and Visually Impaired Children. A Gentle Wind. Box 3103. Albany, NY 12203. Toll Free ... Resources for Parents and Teachers of Blind and Visually Impaired Children. The following organizations provide information, ...

*  A technology thrust with a difference - Livemint

Kalucha's team also created a robotic arm that can be attached to the board so that the visually impaired person does not have ... That information is sent via Bluetooth to a glove also fitted with sensors worn by the visually impaired person, which then ... with her team designed an air hockey game for the visually impaired, which was successfully demonstrated at The Happy Home and ... a device which converts the breath of a disabled person into speech via Morse code by putting a microphone under the nose and ...

*  Little Rock Special Family Online Resources Guide | Little Rock Family

It's mission is to enhance the personal and economic independence of blind and severely visually impaired persons of all ages. ... BLIND OR VISUALLY IMPAIRED. Arkansas Children's Hospital Eye Clinic. 1 Children's Way, Little Rock. 364-4000 The center offers ... The school offers educational programs and resources to students who are blind or visually impaired from birth through age 21. ... World Services for the Blind seeks to empower adults who are blind or visually impaired to achieve sustainable independence ...

*  Low vision pioneer Natalie Carter Barraga has died - American Foundation for the Blind

... service to visually impaired persons from the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. ... now known as the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired), where her daughter was enrolled. In 1963, she joined the ... She was the editor of the journal Education of the Visually Handicapped from 1968 to 1972, and she served two terms on the ... Barraga with the Migel Medal for Outstanding Service to Blind Persons, the highest honor in the blindness field. And, in 1997, ...

*  Car rally organised in Mumbai for visually impaired people | The Siasat Daily

"This is a big motivation for a visually impaired person, who spends an entire day with a normal person and a normal person also ... And the people should understand the abilities of visually impaired people and the point of view can be changed towards the ... Mumbai : As many as ninety eight visually impaired people participated in a blind car rally organised in Mumbai on Sunday. ... Car rally organised in Mumbai for visually impaired people. January 24, 2016, 4:42 PM IST ...

*  DMOZ - Health: Senses: Vision: Organizations

... or people who are visually impaired. If this does not describe your site, please submit it to the appropriate category. ... Not for profit organisation providing services, facilities, and information to visually impaired persons. Contact and location ... Provides national and regional talking newspapers and magazines in alternative formats for the blind, visually impaired and the ... or people who are visually impaired. If this does not describe your site, please submit it to the appropriate category. ...

*  PPT - THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED PowerPoint Presentation - ID:564105

THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED. By: Aikera. Introduction. Not too many people know much about the culture of blindness. It is hard for ... A visually impaired person usually will date only someone that is known by someone who is close to them. If a person who is ... Software For the Visually Impaired -Hardware/ software for the visually impaired. hard/software may be of use to the visually ... Those who are visually impaired face some difficult challenges and it is not easy for them when it comes to locating objects, ...

Multiple disabilitiesHomeless dumping: Homeless dumping is the practice of hospital employees or emergency services releasing homeless patients on the streets instead of placing them into the custody of family, a warming center or homeless shelter or retaining them in a hospital where they may require expensive medical care. Many homeless people who have mental health problems can no longer find a place in a psychiatric hospital since the trend towards mental health deinstitutionalization from the 1960s onwards.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Frailty syndrome: Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome that embodies an elevated risk of catastrophic declines in health and function among older adults. Frailty is a condition associated with ageing, and it has been recognized for centuries.Katherine Gillespie Sells: Katherine 'Kath' Gillespie Sells is a psychotherapist, writer, disability rights campaigner and LGBT rights campaigner from the United Kingdom. She founded REGARD, a national, volunteer run organisation of disabled lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and transgender people.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Cancer screeningMental disorderNetherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Dysphoria: Dysphoria (from (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation.Nicholas II of WerleSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Plymouth Congregational Church (New Haven, Connecticut)Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Wisconsin Senate, District 4: The 4th District of the Wisconsin Senate is located in Southern Wisconsin, and is composed of parts of Milwaukee County.District MapTuberculosis managementInternational Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.VaccinationPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Al-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Home of the future: The home of the future, similar to the office of the future, is a concept that has been popular to explore since the early 20th century, or perhaps earlier. There have been many exhibits, such as at World's Fairs and theme parks, purporting to show how future homes will look and work, as well as standalone model "homes of the future" sponsored by builders, developers, or technology companies.Assistive technology service provider: Assistive technology service providers help individuals with disabilities acquire and use appropriate Assistive Technology (AT) to help them participate in activities of daily living, employment and education.List of nature centers in Alaska: This is a list of nature centers and environmental education centers in the state of Alaska.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Jack London's San Francisco Stories: Jack London's San Francisco Stories is an anthology of Jack London short stories set in the San Francisco Bay Area. The book was edited by Matthew Asprey.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Wholesome Wave: Wholesome Wave is a U.S.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.

(1/229) Patients' perception of visual impairment in glaucoma: a pilot study.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a paucity of useful information on the level of visual disability suffered by glaucoma patients. The aims of this study were to determine and rank the frequency of self reported visual disability in daily tasks performed by glaucoma patients; to examine the interrelation between disabilities using factor analysis; to study the relation between perceived visual difficulty and a measure of the severity of visual field loss; to develop a glaucoma specific subgroup of questions; and examine the validity and reliability of this subgroup of questions. METHODS: 63 glaucoma patients completed a questionnaire containing 62 questions covering 10 broad aspects of daily life activities using a five point answer scale. Patients were classified into three groups as having mild, moderate, and severe field loss on the basis of the perimetric results. The relation between a measure of the severity of visual field loss and subjective visual disability in the three groups was examined. RESULTS: Using factor analysis, the most frequently reported problems were grouped into the following four categories: outdoor mobility, glare and lighting conditions and activities demanding functional peripheral vision, household tasks, and personal care. These four factors accounted for 72% of the variability in the patients' questionnaire responses. With increasing severity of binocular visual field loss there was an increase in the number of self reported visual problems. A loss of confidence in performing some routine daily tasks tended to precede self reported specific visual disabilities. The factor "glare and lighting and activities demanding functional peripheral vision" was found to have a significant relation with a measure of visual field loss and was used to create a glaucoma specific subset of questions. Cronbach's alpha showed a high degree of reliability and internal consistency (alpha =0.96) in this glaucoma specific subset of questions. Furthermore, the validity of this new subset of questions was shown to be significant (r=0.037, p<0.05) for the correlation between a measure of the severity of binocular visual field loss and the mean score of the variables used in the glaucoma specific subgroup of questions. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome measures and quality of life issues need to be addressed in glaucoma. This pilot study identified common problems encountered by patients which at the present time are not assessed in routine glaucoma care. It also identified a subgroup of questions that seems to be specific for glaucoma. Further research is required if a significant impact on the quality of life of glaucoma patients is to be achieved.  (+info)

(2/229) Chronic cortical visual impairment in children: aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological deficits.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate prevalence, aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological and ophthalmological problems in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI). METHODS: The records of 7200 outpatients seen in the paediatric ophthalmology practice over the past 15 years were reviewed in order to compile data concerning CVI. In addition, the authors devised and applied a system for grading visual recovery in order to assess prognosis. RESULTS: CVI occurred in 2.4% of all patients examined. The four most common causes of CVI were perinatal hypoxia (22%), cerebral vascular accident (14%), meningitis (12%), and acquired hypoxia (10%). Most children with CVI had associated neurological abnormalities. The most common were seizures (53%), cerebral palsy (26%) hemiparesis (12%), and hypotonia (5%). Associated ophthalmological problems were esotropia (19%), exotropia (18%), optic nerve atrophy (16%), ocular motor apraxia (15%), nystagmus (11%), and retinal disease (3%). On average, CVI patients improved by two levels as measured by the authors' scale. CONCLUSION: The majority of children with CVI showed at least some recovery. In this group of children, CVI is often accompanied by additional ophthalmological problems and is nearly always associated with other, serious neurological abnormalities.  (+info)

(3/229) Ophthalmic and visual profile of guide dog owners in Scotland.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Out of an estimated 90,000 visually impaired people in Scotland, 509 make use of a guide dog. Initial research in Northern Ireland suggests that the ophthalmic profile of guide dog owners (GDOs) is highly specific. The aim of this study was to compare the ophthalmic and visual characteristics of Scottish GDOs with other groups of visually impaired people. METHODS: A random sample of GDOs from central and northern Scotland (n = 82) underwent a detailed assessment of residual vision (distance and near acuity, visual fields, contrast, and glare sensitivity). Comparative data were obtained from two populations of visually impaired non-GDOs-one group attending hospital ophthalmic and low vision clinics (n = 50) the other social services rehabilitation clients (n = 35). All participants completed a questionnaire to elicit ophthalmic history, age, and registration details. RESULTS: GDOs were found to be significantly younger and more profoundly visually impaired than non-GDOs. The main causes of visual impairment were retinitis pigmentosa (23%), optic atrophy (15%), and retinopathy of prematurity (7%). Ninety nine per cent of GDOs were registered blind and had been visually impaired for an average of 39 years. Only 31% were totally blind. CONCLUSION: GDOs represent a unique minority of the visually impaired population. Epidemiological registration trends would suggest that the numbers of young profoundly visually impaired people are unlikely to increase relative to their elderly counterparts. This has implications on the future demand for guide dog ownership.  (+info)

(4/229) Visual acuity measurements in a national sample of British elderly people.

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that visual function has an important role in the quality of life in later years, very few studies have measured visual acuity in population based nationwide samples of British elderly people. Such measurements were carried out in the context of the national diet and nutrition survey of people aged 65 years or over (NDNS). METHODS: NDNS participants, who were living in 80 different randomly selected postcode areas of mainland Britain, were visited at their home by a nurse who measured visual acuity at 3 metres, using the Glasgow acuity card (GAC) method. In addition, a brief questionnaire related to ocular health was administered. RESULTS: Visual acuity was measured in 1362 NDNS participants who were not classified as mentally impaired. Visual impairment (using the WHO low vision criteria) was measured in 195 (14.3%) subjects. Prevalence of visual impairment increased significantly with age (65-74 years 3.1%; 75-84 years 11.6%; 85+ years 35.5%, p<0.001 for trend). Impaired vision was more common in subjects living in a nursing home (odds ratio adjusted for age 2.59 (95% CI 2.23 to 2. 96)) and in women (odds ratio adjusted for age 1.55 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.89)). 132 (9.7%) subjects had previously undergone cataract surgery and another 157 (11.5%) had been told that they currently had cataract. Vision improved 0.2 log units or more (at least one Snellen line) with the aid of a pinhole occluder in 289 subjects (21. 2%). CONCLUSION: Results of this nationwide, community based study confirm that problems with poor distance visual acuity exist in a substantial part of the elderly community, particularly in women and people living in nursing homes.  (+info)

(5/229) Helping blind and partially sighted people to read: the effectiveness of low vision aids.

AIMS: To substantiate the claim that low vision aids reduce the degree of disability associated with visual impairment. METHODS: An observational study of vision, ocular pathology, age, sex, and reading ability in new referrals to a low vision clinic. Reading ability was assessed both with the patients' own spectacles and with an appropriate low vision aid. RESULTS: The reading performance and biographical characteristics of new referrals to a low vision clinic were recorded. Data were collected for 168 people over a 6 month period. Upon arrival at the clinic the mean functional visual acuity equated to 6/36 and 77% of patients were unable to read newsprint (N8). After a low vision assessment and provision of a suitable low vision aid 88% of new patients were able to read N8 or smaller text. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of visual impairment observed in new referrals to a low vision clinic is sufficient to prevent the majority from performing many daily tasks. Low vision aids are an effective means of providing visual rehabilitation, helping almost nine out of 10 patients with impaired vision to read.  (+info)

(6/229) The association of multiple visual impairments with self-reported visual disability: SEE project.

PURPOSE: This report examines the relationship between psychophysical measures of visual impairment and self-reported difficulty with everyday visual tasks in a population-based sample of individuals 65 years of age and older. METHODS: Community-dwelling residents (n = 2520) of Salisbury, MD, between the ages of 65 and 84 were recruited for the study. Visual acuity under normal and low luminance, contrast and glare sensitivity, stereoacuity, and visual fields were measured. Subjective physical disability was assessed with the Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS). RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses adjusted for demographic factors, cognitive status, depression, and number of comorbid medical conditions, each of the vision tests except low luminance acuity was independently associated with lower ADVS scores. The analyses indicate that a factor of 2 reduction in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity, comparable with that observed in mild to moderate lens opacity, was associated with a three- to fivefold odds of reporting difficulty with daily tasks. Although age alone was a significant risk factor for disability, it was not associated with overall ADVS score, once visual impairment and other chronic medical conditions were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Visual acuity, contrast and glare sensitivity, stereoacuity, and visual fields are significant independent risk factors for self-reported visual disability in an older population. Visual impairment defined by acuity alone is not the only dimension of the association with subjective disability. Additional vision measures are required to understand the impact of vision loss on everyday life.  (+info)

(7/229) Assessment of the impact of vision impairment.

PURPOSE: To describe the psychometric characteristics of the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) Profile and evaluate its validity and reliability over time and between different forms of administration. METHODS: The IVI is a 32-item questionnaire developed to measure the impact of vision impairment on restriction of participation in daily activities in five domains of functioning. Each item is rated on a six-level scale from "no difficulty" to "can't do because of vision." The IVI was administered by trained interviewers to 115 people with impaired vision (visual acuity less than 6/12 or visual field deficit) who attended the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, a vision rehabilitation agency, or a self-help group for people with impaired vision. Data were also collected on demographic characteristics of participants, cause of vision impairment, and distance and near vision. General health status was assessed with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) of the Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales. A subset of participants completed the IVI twice, either 1 to 2 weeks apart or by different forms of administration (different interviewers or self). RESULTS: Internal consistency of total and domain average IVI scores was high (alpha = 0.80-0.96) and sequential elimination of items did not affect consistency. Total and domain average IVI scores correlated moderately with both near and distance vision (r = 0.21-0.31) but did not correlate with physical or general health or comorbidity. Total and domain average IVI scores correlated most closely with global measures of restriction of participation (r = 0.44-0.82). Principal-components analysis confirmed that all IVI items contribute to one underlying theme and tended to confirm two of the five domains: emotional reaction to vision loss and mobility. The first three components explained 43%, 8%, and 6% of the variation in the data. Guttman split-half reliability coefficients between different forms of administration and over time ranged from 0.73 to 0.94 for domain and total IVI scores. Mean absolute difference for domain and total scores between administrations was less than 1 step for all domains and the total score. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support that the IVI has sufficient internal and construct validity to measure the effect of vision impairment on restriction of participation in daily activities. The IVI demonstrates acceptable reliability over a short period and yields consistent results between interviewers. The IVI can also be self-administered with assurance that the results will be comparable to those that would have been obtained by a trained interviewer. Therefore, the psychometric characteristics of the IVI support its use in assessment of the vision rehabilitation needs of people with impaired vision. Its stability over time indicates that it has potential to evaluate outcomes of intervention.  (+info)

(8/229) Low vision services for vision rehabilitation in the United Kingdom.

AIM: Little is known about the distribution and methods of delivery of low vision services across the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and location of low vision services within the UK. METHODS: Survey by means of a 29 point postal questionnaire, followed when necessary by a five point telephone questionnaire. All known potential providers of low vision services (n = 2539) including hospitals (n = 277), optician/optometry practices (n = 1683), social services (n = 177), voluntary groups (n = 190), specialist teachers (n = 205), and universities (n = 6) were surveyed. For each service provider, the type, magnitude, and geographical location were determined. The distribution of services across the United Kingdom and the ratio of providers to population density of people with a visual impairment were mapped using the Geographic Information System (GIS). RESULTS: Data were obtained on 1945 (77%) service providers: 1679 (66%) responded to the postal questionnaire and 266 (11%) to the telephone questionnaire. Of all respondents, 59% (n = 1135) offer some form of help to people with a visual disability, of which 26% (n = 497) only sell magnifiers and 33% (n = 638) provide low vision services. It is estimated that in total just under 155,000 low vision consultations are offered annually, the bulk of which are provided by hospital eye departments. The distribution was geographically uneven and there appears to be scarcity in some areas. CONCLUSION: When compared to the probable number of people with a visual impairment in the UK there are apparent inadequacies in service provision in terms of distribution, magnitude, and coordination. The results highlight a need to review current services.  (+info)

Blind and Visually Impaire

  • Manufactures educational aids for blind and visually impaired persons, has an educational research program and sells books in braille, large print, disk and cassette. (acb.org)


  • Recording legend Stevie Wonder today congratulated international negotiators who concluded a new treaty easing access to books for the blind, and urged national lawmakers to swiftly ratify the accord and unlock its benefits for hundreds of millions of people around the world who are blind, visually impaired and print-disabled. (wipo.int)
  • Some 600 delegates from among the 186 members of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) joined in the debate leading to the adoption of the treaty in the Kingdom or Morocco, which hosted the Diplomatic Conference to Conclude a Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities . (wipo.int)
  • While the signing of this treaty is a historic and important step, I am respectfully and urgently asking all governments and states to prioritize ratification of this treaty so that it will become the law of the land in your respective countries and states," he told the closing ceremony of the WIPO diplomatic conference for visually impaired persons, which met from June 17 to 28, 2013. (wipo.int)
  • To the 300 million who are visually disabled, this new treaty is a major step toward access to the basics: such as works in formats such as braille, large print text and audio books. (wipo.int)
  • He said the treaty "provides a framework for addressing that problem which is simple, workable and effective," and thereby responds to the expectations of the blind and visually impaired. (wipo.int)
  • Ms. Diamond said the lives of blind and visually impaired "will only be changed when this treaty is implemented. (wipo.int)
  • The World Intellectual Property Organization -WIPO in Morocco (2013) had opened debate to facilitate Access to publish Work for visually impaired persons (VIP) and persons with print disabilities through the Marrakesh Treaty 2013. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • The treaty seeks to alleviate the book famine which excludes million of visually impaired persons from access to the bulk of the world's published works. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • The treaty re-emphasizes the principles stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). (infochangepakistan.net)
  • and sections 14, 54 and 57 may also help us adopt this treaty to make a huge difference in the lives of millions of blinds and print disabled persons. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • This treaty focuses and accesses information by the visually impaired or blind persons for the purpose of education or research. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • Who should benefit from a WIPO Treaty for Reading Disabled Persons? (keionline.org)


  • Currently, no legislation exists which safeguards the right of persons with disabilities or provides them access to resources which can motivate them to be involved in the society and can enhance their freedom to seek, receive and impart information. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • Should it only be people who are blind and visually impaired, as some propose, or should it be more inclusive with regard to other disabilities? (keionline.org)
  • The amendment allows authorized entities to reproduce or distribute copies or phonorecords of previously published nondramatic literary works in specialized formats exclusively for use by blind or other persons with disabilities. (keionline.org)
  • The purpose of the present Convention is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity. (keionline.org)
  • Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. (keionline.org)


  • Unfortunately, beating and cheating of the blind continued despite estimated 0.9% of visually impaired people in Pakistan that need special care and attention both by the government and the society. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • According to the World Blind Union, among millions of books produced every year in the world, only up to 7% are of use of 285 million blind and visually impaired people in the world. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • The American Council of the Blind strives to increase the independence, security, equality of opportunity, and quality of life, for all blind and visually-impaired people. (acb.org)
  • In addition to the purposes stated in the Articles of Incorporation, the American Council of the Blind will strive to improve the well-being of all blind and visually impaired people. (acb.org)


  • It also provides for the exchange of these accessible format works across borders by organizations that serve the blind, visually impaired or print disabled. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • Beneficiaries, according to Article 3, include anyone who is print disabled - including anyone who has difficulty reading printed material because they are blind or visually impaired, or because of another physical disability that doesn't allow them to read. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • Its main objective is to establish a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of persons who are blind, visually impaired, or otherwise print disabled. (wipo.int)


  • The visually impaired and blind persons in Pakistan shall nonetheless benefit from having an access to such formatted copies and this shall in return help in the development of the country. (infochangepakistan.net)
  • He would like to have that text description available for his visually impaired friends to access directly. (w3.org)
  • A visually impaired person wants to directly access that headline and description. (w3.org)


  • Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 ] Recent estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) showed that there are 285 million visually impaired (VI) of whom 39 million are blind. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)


  • The following organizations provide information, products and/or services to parents or teachers of blind and visually impaired children. (acb.org)
  • Provides support and information for parents of blind and visually impaired children, holds an annual conference and publishes a newsletter. (acb.org)
  • An organization which renders support and assistance to professionals in all phases of education and rehabilitation of blind and visually impaired children and adults. (acb.org)


  • The Hadley School for the Blind offers over tuition-free distance education courses to blind and visually impaired students. (acb.org)


  • The concept behind VoiceOver is pretty simple: Make it so visually impaired users can do everything on Apple devices that a sighted person can do. (businessinsider.com)


  • With sound guidance, counseling and additional DBS services, he had progressed from a shy and insecure person into a confident, positive, job seeking young man. (myflorida.com)


  • I gave the person introducing me my resume, which included all the courses I'd ever taken -- she thought I had PRESENTED all those courses, and I had to interrupt the introduction to correct her and say this was my first presentation! (tsbvi.edu)


  • blind, visually impaired, the deaf and sufferers from speech impediments, and besides persons who on account of a handicap are unable to read printed text. (keionline.org)
  • Sixteen-year-old Arsh Shah Dilbagi , a Class XII student of DAV Public School in Panipat, created TALK, a device which converts the breath of a disabled person into speech via Morse code by putting a microphone under the nose and mouth, and then sniffing it to convert it into breath. (livemint.com)


  • One might not forget the incident of beating and misleading by the Punjab police in Lahore of a crowd of visually impaired protesters who wanted to meet the Governor to present their demands. (infochangepakistan.net)


  • Any person or organization of the blind is eligible to become a member of the American Council of the Blind upon complying with the provisions hereinafter contained. (acb.org)
  • provided that the person was a member prior to the record date of the conference and convention, which shall be thirty (30) days prior to the opening meeting. (acb.org)