Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Vesiculovirus matrix proteins: The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known as VSIV or VSV. The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene expression and the induction of cell rounding.Sigma viruses: Sigma viruses are a clade of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae that naturally infect dipterans, and have recently been proposed to represent a new genus of rhabdoviruses.Longdon B and Walker PJ (2011) Sigma virus genus proposal for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.
(1/449) Re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the western United States is associated with distinct viral genetic lineages.
Phylogenetic analysis of partial phosphoprotein and glycoprotein gene sequences showed that a single genetic lineage of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype New Jersey (NJ) caused the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in the western United States. While distinct from VSV-NJ strains causing previous outbreaks in the western United States and those circulating in feral swine in the southeastern United States, this lineage was closely related to viral lineages circulating in the Mexican states of Guerrero, Veracruz, and Oaxaca in 1996, 1989, and 1984 respectively. In 1997 and 1998, VSV serotype Indiana 1 (IN1) re-emerged in the western United States after 30 years. Viruses causing these outbreaks grouped within a single genetic lineage distinct from VSV-IN1 isolates causing outbreaks in the western United States in 1929 and 1956 but closely related to a strain circulating in the state of Colima in central Mexico in 1997. Our data showed that sporadic VS outbreaks in the western United States are caused by genetically distinct viral lineages closer to those circulating in enzootic areas of central and southern Mexico than to those causing previous outbreaks in the United States. The genetic evidence and temporal distribution of outbreaks are not consistent with a pattern of long-term maintenance of VSV in the western United States. (+info)
(2/449) N-terminal region of P protein of Chandipura virus is responsible for phosphorylation-mediated homodimerization.
The phosphoprotein P of Chandipura (CHP) virus, an Indian isolate of rhabdovirus, was found to support transcription upon phosphorylation by casein kinase II (CKII). A phosphorylation-induced change in the protein conformation was found to occur at the N-terminal region of the protein. Biochemical studies for further characterization of this phosphorylation-based conformational alteration demonstrated that phosphorylation leads to the transition from an 'open' to 'closed' structure of the protein. The phosphate group introduced by CKII was found to be resistant to phosphatases. This phosphorylation-based structural alteration changes the accessible hydrophobic surface area of the protein and also the available digestion sites of different proteases. The phosphorylated form of P protein was found to be a dimer by His-tag dilution assay. Using the same approach it was found that the N-terminal 46 amino acids are responsible for P-P dimerization, only after phosphorylation. (+info)
(3/449) Glycoprotein exchange vectors based on vesicular stomatitis virus allow effective boosting and generation of neutralizing antibodies to a primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Live recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) expressing foreign antigens are highly effective vaccine vectors. However, these vectors induce high-titer neutralizing antibody directed at the single VSV glycoprotein (G), and this antibody alone can prevent reinfection and boosting with the same vector. To determine if efficient boosting could be achieved by changing the G protein of the vector, we have developed two new recombinant VSV vectors based on the VSV Indiana serotype but with the G protein gene replaced with G genes from two other VSV serotypes, New Jersey and Chandipura. These G protein exchange vectors grew to titers equivalent to wild-type VSV and induced similar neutralizing titers to themselves but no cross-neutralizing antibodies to the other two serotypes. The effectiveness of these recombinant VSV vectors was illustrated in experiments in which sequential boosting of mice with the three vectors, all encoding the same primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein, gave a fourfold increase in antibody titer to an oligomeric HIV envelope compared with the response in animals receiving the same vector three times. In addition, only the animals boosted with the exchange vectors produced antibodies neutralizing the autologous HIV primary isolate. These VSV envelope exchange vectors have potential as vaccines in immunizations when boosting of immune responses may be essential. (+info)
(4/449) Development of an immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of equine and swine IgM antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus.
An immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of primary infection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in equine and swine sera. The test was based on the use of biotinylated sheep antibodies against equine or swine IgM molecules bound to a streptavidin-coated ELISA plate. The captured IgM antibodies were detected by application of antigens prepared from the New Jersey and the Indiana VSV serotypes (VSV-NJ and VSV-IN, respectively) and mouse polyclonal antibodies against VSV-NJ and VSV-IN. The MC-ELISA was compared to a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) and the standard microtiter serum neutralization (MTSN) assay by testing serum samples from horses and pigs experimentally infected with VSV-NJ or VSV-IN. The MC-ELISA detected specific homologous IgM antibodies from equine and swine sera as early as 5 and 4 days postinfection (DPI), respectively, and as late as 35 DPI. The MTSN test also detected antibodies as early as 5 DPI and as late as 160 DPI. In a similar fashion, the C-ELISA detected antibodies from 6 to 7 DPI and as late as 160 DPI. These results demonstrated that the MC-ELISA is a useful test for serodiagnosis of primary VSV infection in horses and pigs. (+info)
(5/449) Multiple vesiculoviral matrix proteins inhibit both nuclear export and import.
The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits both nuclear import and export. Here, we demonstrate that this inhibitory property is conserved between the M proteins from two other vesiculoviruses, chandipura virus and spring viremia carp virus. All three M proteins completely block nuclear transport of spliced mRNA, small nuclear RNAs, and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and slow the nuclear transport of many other cargoes. In all cases where transport was merely slowed by the M proteins, the chandipura virus M protein had the strongest inhibitory activity. When expressed in transfected HeLa cells, active M proteins displayed prominent association with the nuclear rim. Moreover, mutation of a conserved methionine abolished both the inhibitory activity and efficient targeting of the M proteins to the nuclear rim. We propose that all of the vesiculoviral M proteins associate with the same nuclear target, which is likely to be a component of the nuclear pore complex. (+info)
(6/449) Pathogenesis of experimental vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) infection in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).
The pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection has not been investigated previously in native New World rodents that may have a role in the epidemiology of the disease. In the present study, 45 juvenile and 80 adult deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were inoculated intranasally with VSV New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) and examined sequentially over a 7-day period. Virus was detected by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in all tissues containing histologic lesions. Viral antigen and mRNA were observed initially in olfactory epithelium neurons, followed by olfactory bulbs and more caudal olfactory pathways in the brain. Virus also was detected throughout the ventricular system in the brain and central canal of the spinal cord. These results support both viral retrograde transneuronal transport and viral spread within the ventricular system. Other tissues containing viral antigen included airway epithelium and macrophages in the lungs, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages in cervical lymph nodes. In a second experiment, 15 adult, 20 juvenile, and 16 nestling deer mice were inoculated intradermally with VSV-NJ. Adults were refractory to infection by this route; however, nestlings and juveniles developed disseminated central nervous system infections. Viral antigen also was detected in cardiac myocytes and lymph node macrophages in these animals. Viremia was detected by virus isolation in 35/72 (49%) intranasally inoculated juvenile and adult mice and in 17/36 (47%) intradermally inoculated nestlings and juveniles from day 1 to day 3 postinoculation. The documentation of viremia in these animals suggests that they may have a role in the epidemiology of vector-borne vesicular stomatitis. (+info)
(7/449) Comparison of the serum neutralization test and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana.
A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana (VSV-IN) was compared with the serum neutralization test (SNT) using 1,106 serum samples obtained from dairy cattle on sentinel study farms in the Poas region of Costa Rica. Kappa coefficients between the C-ELISA and the SNT were 0.8871 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8587-0.9155) and 0.6912 (95% CI: 0.6246-0.7577) for the VSV-NJ and VSV-IN tests, respectively. These results indicate good to excellent agreement between the 2 tests under these conditions. (+info)
(8/449) Matrix protein mutations contribute to inefficient induction of apoptosis leading to persistent infection of human neural cells by vesicular stomatitis virus.
In a model system to study factors involved in the establishment of a persistent viral infection that may lead to neurodegenerative diseases, Indiana and New Jersey variants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with different capacities to infect and persist in human neural cells were studied. Indiana matrix (M) protein mutants and the wild-type New Jersey strain persisted in the human neural cell line H4 for at least 120 days. The Indiana wild-type virus (HR) and a non-M mutant (TP6), both unable to persist, induced apoptosis more strongly than all the other variants tested, as indicated by higher levels of DNA fragmentation and caspase-3-like activity. Transfection of H4 cells with mRNA coding for the VSV M protein confirmed the importance of this protein in the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-fmk maintained cell survival to about 80%, whereas inhibition of caspase-8, caspase-9, or both only partially protected the cells against death, consistent with the fact that anti-apoptotic molecules from the Bcl-2 family also protect cells from death only partially. These results suggest that VSV activates many pathways of cell death and that an inefficient induction of caspase-3-related apoptosis participates in the establishment of a persistent infection of human neural cells by less virulent VSV variants. (+info)